4° medio globlal english
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Libro de inglés de 4° medios Chile

Libro de inglés de 4° medios Chile

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    4° medio globlal english 4° medio globlal english Presentation Transcript

    • TEXTO DEL ESTUDIANTE Jolanta Polk Reyes EDICIÓN ESPECIAL PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIÓN AÑO 2011
    • TEXTO DEL ESTUDIANTE Jolanta Polk Reyes Inglés
    • 2 Welcome to Global English 4º Medio. This book will be your guide, and hopefully your friend for the next school year. Enjoy it! There are two lessons in each unit, one based on a reading text, and one based on a listening text. They are divided into: BEFORE YOU READ / LISTEN WHILE YOU READ / LISTEN AFTER YOU READ / LISTEN The AFTER YOU READ section includes an APPLICATION TASK to help you to develop your writing skills and the AFTER YOU LISTEN section includes an APPLICATION TASK to help you to develop your speaking skills. Each unit has an additional part called JUST FOR FUN, which includes a specific CHILEAN CONNECTION. They are for you to enjoy and learn new things independently. GET TO KNOW YOUR BOOK Listening andspeakingactivities are recorded. Li sten to the CD with your teacher. Examine your book and answer these questions. 1. How many units are there? 2. What is there at the beginning of each unit? 3. How are the units divided? What sections can you find? 4. What are the titles of the units? 5. What can you find at the end of the book?
    • This section provides additional information on the main topic of the lesson or on some of the activities. Did you know that... 3 Examine the icons below. What do they mean? What kind of activity do they represent? READING The tasks will help you to develop strategies to improve your understanding of written texts. The tasks will help you to develop strategies to improve your understanding of spoken messages. American v/s British English This section will help you to notice differences between these two varieties of English. This is an additional tool to make learning more accessible and contents easier to understand. Learning tip LISTENING Suggested web resources to gather information on various topics or prepare for a presentation. They provide a good opportunity for independent work. This section will help you to get involved in your evaluation, guiding you to discover your strengths and weaknesses, and making you reflect on your involvement in the development of values. These attractive and entertaining activities will motivate you to study and put into practice what you are learning. These tests at the end of the units will help you to discover what you have learnt well and what you need to reinforce. Learning abilities You will be informed of which abilities you will develop through the different activities in each section of the lesson. Language Note Thissectionwillhelpyoutounderstand importantEnglishstructures. MINITEST Each lesson has a short evaluation activity that will allow you to analyse your performance. : Words whose meaning may be essential for your understanding of a text, but were not included among the key words have been highlighted in blue. The meaning for that particular context is given at the bottom of the page, in the form of a glossary. Highlighted words You can access the hypertext and do attractive interactive complementary activities. You can access the hypertext anywhere, anytime, and do the activities as many times as you want, at your own pace. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 4 PLAN OF THE BOOK UNIT 1 READING Love in Writing (love letters)...................10 - 11 WRITING Write a love letter...................13 LISTENING From the Heart (song)......................................15 SPEAKING Share love stories....................17 GRAMMAR The modal verb might ...........12 Intensifiers...............................16 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE........................22 UNIT 2 READING A Book and a Film (extracts from a book and from amagazine;aposter).......30 - 31 WRITING Write a film review.................33 LISTENING Dark Fantasy (interview)...............................35 SPEAKING Prepare and present an interview evaluating other performances..........................37 GRAMMAR -ing forms................................32 Gerunds...................................36 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE........................42 UNIT 3 READING Planet Saving Technology (brochure)...............................50 WRITING Write a brochure ....................53 LISTENING The Technology of Living Things (interview).................55 SPEAKING Discuss a scientific issue .........57 GRAMMAR The Subjunctive .............60 / 62 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE........................62
    • 5 UNIT 4 READING Urban Rhythms (magazine article)..........70 - 71 WRITING Write an article on a music or a painting style...................75 LISTENING Mobile Art (conversation).........................77 SPEAKING Discuss an art form ................81 GRAMMAR The Past Perfect..............72 / 79 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE........................86 UNIT 5 READING The Magic of DNA (article)...........................94 - 95 WRITING Write a scientific article ..........99 LISTENING Asking the Right Questions (conversation) ......................101 SPEAKING Discuss a scientific topic ......105 GRAMMAR Reporting verbs.......................97 Indirect questions.................103 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE .....................110 UNIT 6 READING Business Letters (business letters).......118 - 119 WRITING Write a business letter .........123 LISTENING Describing Jobs (conversations).....................125 SPEAKING Gather information about occupations...........................129 GRAMMAR Reporting verbs ....................121 Indirect questions.................127 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE .....................134
    • UNIT 1 6 In this unit you will learn to: READING: validate predictions through skimming / classify specific information. LISTENING: identify the tone of messages / identify stressed words / discriminate between correct and incorrect information. ORAL PRODUCTION: express personal attitudes / participate in guided dialogues / ask and answer questions. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: complete paragraphs / write a love letter. FUNCTIONS: express condition, interest, possibility, requests and suggestions. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: the modal verb might / intensifiers. VOCABULARY: words related to love and feelings. You will pay special attention to these values The importance of expressing our feelings. The acceptance of and respect for different opinions. You will use the following text types: READING: love letters. LISTENING: a news story / a song. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 7 LOVE HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? Look at the pictures and answer these questions in your group, expressing your personal opinions. Use expressions such as: I think that … In my opinion … I believe that … It seems to me that … From my point of view … According to me… 2 pts. a. What are the people feeling? b. Why are they feeling like that? 1 In pairs ask each other five questions about the things you like, dislike, are fond of, hate and really love. Compare your opinions. 5 pts. Example: What kind of food do you really love? Classify the feelings in the box under the correct picture. 12 pts. Your score: 0 - 6: You should look up the words that you don’t know in the dictionary and share your answers with a classmate. 7 - 13: You know enough about feelings, but you could try to improve by sharing answers with your classmates. 14 - 19: Well done!You are ready to start and enjoy this unit; you could help the classmates who look confused. Negative:angry,annoyed,hateful,miserable,sad. Positive:cheerful,delighted,happy,joyful,loving,satisfied,wonderful. 3 2 · angry · annoyed · · delighted · happy · hateful · joyful · loving · miserable · sad · satisfied · wonderful cheerful :adj/happy,andshowingitbythewaythatyoubehave.Cheerful HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 8 UNIT 1 LOVE IN WRITING READING Lesson 1 How would you finish a personal letter or a love letter? Choose the best options. a. Best wishes, Norma e. Love you and XXXX b. For ever yours, Fred f. Thinking of you c. Kind regards from Patrick g. Yours sincerely, Dr. B. Adams d. Lots of love, Julia h. Yours truly, Benjamin Jones 3 Did you know that... a quotation is a repetition or copy of the words of another person, usually showing the origin of the source? The sentences in Exercise 1 are all quotations. What do you notice about all of them? BEFORE YOU READ Talk about these quotations in your group. Which one(s) do you most agree / disagree with? Why? a. “In dreams and in love there are no impossibilities.” Janos Arnay b. “Take away love, and our earth is a tomb.” Robert Browning c. “Love is two souls with a single thought and two hearts that beat as one.” John Keats d. “Love is the discovery of ourselves in others.” Alexander Smith e. “To love is to suffer, and to avoid suffering one must love.” Woody Allen How do people usually express their romantic feelings? Exchange opinions in your group. Use the alternatives provided and your own ideas. a. Being jealous of other people. b. Dedicating love songs on the radio. c. Giving gifts: flowers, chocolates, rings, etc. d. Going out to candle-lit dinners and dancing to romantic music. e. Holding hands. f. Making a blog dedicated to the loved one. g. Not letting the loved one spend time with other people. h. Sending love notes and using romantic words. 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1. Toexpressopinions. 2. Tomatchinformationand visuals. 3. Toexpresspersonalattitudes. 4. Tofindmeaningofwords/to makepredictions. Learning abilities
    • 9LOVE Study the words in this web and identify the ones you know. Check the meaning of the other words in a dictionary. Which of them would you expect to find in a love letter? 4 WHILE YOU READ Read the letters on pages 10 and 11 and check your predictions in Exercise 4. Which expressions from Exercise 3 were used to finish the letters? Read the letters again and write which of them (I, II, III, or IV) has these characteristics. a. __________ is romantic and optimistic. b. __________ has historical value. c. __________ talks about hidden feelings. d. __________ is written by a Chilean teenager to his foreign friend. e. __________ uses sophisticated words. These chunks (a. – d.) have been removed from the four love letters. Put them back in the correct places (i. – iv.). a. I’d like you to love me but if not, do you think we might at least be friends? b. in perfume, in harmonious sound: all of these mean you to me, all of these I see and admire. c. And at other times, you might be doing more important things but you choose to sit with me. d. We might go to the Lake District and cruise the lakes, camp on the beach and watch the stars in the evening Here is a summary of one of the letters. Which letter (I – IV) does it correspond to? The writer doesn’t know how to express his / her feelings, he / she cannot find the right words, but he / she knows he / she is in love. He / She hopes that if the other person doesn’t love him / her, he / she will want to be his / her friend. 9 8 7 6 5 Love Adjectives Eager Glad Kind Romantic Sensitive Beauty Date Heart Novel Jealousy Admire Feel Miss Share Nouns Verbs Cuddle :verb/toholdsb/sthcloseinyourarmstoshowloveoraffection.Cuddle 5. Tovalidatepredictions. 6. Tofindspecificinformation. 7. Toidentifythetoneof messages. 8. Tolocatespecificinformation. 9. Tomatchinformation. Learning abilities
    • 10 UNIT 1 I love you! Tammy Carter My beloved Tammy, I love you! Just writing the words puts a smile on my face. I love you because you are kind, tender and thoughtful, and because you are my best friend. I know that sometimes you might want to do other things but you prefer to be close to me. (i.) ________________________________________________________________________________ in front of the fire and cuddle as we watch TV. I love being near you and walking with you on a rainy day. And there are times you might want to have steak in a fancy restaurant, but you decide to hold hands with me over a hamburger and chips. I love you because you listen to me as I share with you my small triumphs or the problems of the day. I love you because in difficult times you hear me out – there’re times when you might not agree with me, but you listen and try to understand. And I love you for what you are. For ever yours, Tim humble I II Dear Chris, I &am &writing &this &letter &to &let &you &know&that I’m &really &fond &of &you. Unfortunately,&you &just &don’t &know &it. Sometimes I &would&like &to &shout &it &to &the &winds &but I’m &scared.Who &knows &what &your &answer &might &be? My &lips &are &closed, &my &heart &is &silent &and&the &words I &want &to &say &just won’&t &come&out. I &want &to &open &up and &tell you &how I&feel, &but I guess I’m &too &scared &because I’m&afraid &you &might &reject &me. What &do I &expect? I’m &not &sure. (&ii.)____________________ ______________________ ______________________ Thinking &of &you, Jenny :adj/showingyoudonotthinkthatyouareasimportantasotherpeople.Humble
    • 11LOVE Adapted from: My Beloved Toto, letters from Juliette Drouet to Victor Hugo, published by State University of New York Press, Albany. Equipo Editorial. Beloved Victor, If I were clever I might describe how you, afamous writer, unite in yourself the beauties ofform and song! I might tell you that you are the greatestmarvel of all ages, and I would only be speakingthe simple truth. I love you, my Victor; I cannot repeat it toooften; I can never express it as much as I feel it. I recognise you in all the beauty that surroundsme in form, in colour, (iii.) ______________________________________________________ – and you are all! You are not only the solar spectrum with theseven luminous colours, but the sun itself thatilluminates, warms and revives! This is what youare, and I am the woman that adores you. Juliette III IV My &dearest Susan, How &long &has &it &been &since I &last &saw &you? I &will &tell &you: &it’s &been &one &month &three &days &and 8 &long, &long &hours &since &we &last &walked &by &the Calle Calle River &holding &hands &and &looking &at &the &reflection &of &the &moon &on &the &water. And &then &we &took &the &little &boat &to &the Huapi Island &where &we &thought &that &if &we &tried &hard &enough &we &might &stop &time &for &ever &and &never &return &to &reality. But &you &had &to &go &and &now I &miss &you &very &much, &counting &the &days &till I &see &you &again. And &when &you &do &come &back, what &will &we &do &together? (&iv.) ________________ American v/s British English recognize recognise/ recognize HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ________. Or &we might &climb &volcanoes &and &cross &cold &mountain &rivers. But whatever we &do, &we &will &do &it &together - &you &and I. Might I &ask &you &to &come &back &really &soon? I &hate &being &without &you, I &miss &you &and &think of &you &all &the &time. Your &forever &romantic Carlos
    • 12 UNIT 1 Language Note 1. What do these sentences from the letters you read have in common? a. I’m afraid you might reject me. b. If we tried hard enough we might stop time for ever. c. Might I ask you to come back really soon? d. We might go to the Lake District and cruise the lakes. 2. Which sentence expresses the following? a. A condition. b. A possibility. c. A request. d. A suggestion. 3. Study these other examples. a. She might be in another class. b. Might I go with you? c. If I had time I might help you. d. When you are in London you might visit the London Eye. The modal verb might can be used to express all four options, but it is most commonly used to express possibility and condition. 4. There are nine more sentences with might in the letters. Copy them into your notebook and identify what they express: a condition, a possibility, a request or a suggestion. The modal verb might AFTER YOU READ Classify the adjectives in the box as positive or negative. Use some of them to describe letters III and IV, sharing and comparing answers in your group. 10 Match the sentences in column A in the chart with what they express in column B. Answer these questions using what you learnt in the Language Note and your own ideas. a. What might you do at the weekend if you don’t have any homework? b. Where might you buy roses in the middle of winter? c. If someone asked you to be his / her pen friend, what might your answer be? a suggestion 12 B She might miss the train if she comes late. A Excuse me, might you speak a little louder please? We might stay at home and watch a film if you want. If the plants don’t get enough water they might die. The teacher said it was optional - we might read it if we want to. a condition a possibility a request 11 American v/s British English pen pal pen friend :adj/givingpleasure.Enjoyable · abusive · boring · confusing · dramatic · embarrassing · · fascinating · funny · gentle · honest · insensitive · interesting · ironic · joyful · kind · loving · mad · nasty · optimistic · passionate · pessimistic · pleasant · romantic · sad · sensitive · silly enjoyable 10. Toclassifywords. 11. Toconsolidateagrammar point. 12. Toreinforceagrammarpoint. 13. Toevaluatelearning. 14. Tomatchinformation./To imitateaspokenmodel. 15. Towriteatext. 16. Torelatecontenttopersonal experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • a. Read letters III and IV again and answer these questions in your group. i. What do the letters tell you about the people who wrote them? ii. What does the vocabulary the writers use tell you about their background, education, the times they live or lived in? iii. Have you ever written a love letter or note? Why? iv. What was the result? b. In your group, write down a few ideas that can help you with your task: to write a love letter! i. A list of words that you can normally find in a love letter ii. Different beginnings and endings. c. Work individually now and choose the style of a love letter that best suits you – optimistic, sophisticated, sad, etc. d. Write a love letter (maximum 90 words) to a real or imaginary person using the ideas you wrote down, the format and the vocabulary in the letters you read. e. Apart from your own words you can also use quotations from Exercise 1 or others you can find on the Internet. f. Check your spelling and grammar. g. Exchange letters with somebody in your group. h. Follow the points suggested to evaluate your letter. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING15 13LOVE 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to5GOOD JOB! 6 to8EXCELLENT! • I discussed the purpose of letter writing in my group. • I followed the indicated steps. • I used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. • My letter follows a coherent sequence. • I checked my writing for grammar errors and spelling mistakes. MINITEST Write one sentence for each situation. 8 pts. a. Your foreign friend is visiting your area and asks you to suggest a place to visit. b. You want to borrow your sister’s / brother’s brand new T-shirt. c. You want to ask your mother if she knows where your favourite jeans are. d. Your cousin wants to know what food to buy for his / her birthday party. 13 Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about quotations? Where / When can we use them? b. Which do you prefer, writing or speaking when love is the main issue? c. How would you help a friend who is suffering because of love? d. In the case of a married couple having serious problems, do you think separation is a solution? 16 Match the questions (a. – c.) and answers (d. – f.) to form dialogues. Check with the recording and then role play them in front of the class. a. If you organise a party, who might you invite? b. So, what do you think we might cook tonight? c. Where might we find Philip? d. How about some fish and chips? e. I’m not sure - you might try his home address or his office. f. In my opinion, we should ask everybody in the class. 1014 American v/s British English French fries chips HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 14 UNIT 1 FROM THE HEART LISTENING Lesson 2 BEFORE YOU LISTEN Look at the cartoon and match the bubbles (a. – c.) with the corresponding picture (1 – 3). 1 Did you know that... accent is connected with the way we pronounce words? That is why people from the same country speaking the same language may have a different accent, depending on where they live. Stress is related to which part of a word or a sentence we emphasise. It means that we do not say all the syllables or words with the same force, but say some more loudly than the others. American v/s British English subway underground, tube 321 We might be a little late, but it’s so wonderful to be together! I hope she’s not too angry! These flowers might help! Terribly late as usual! I might as well go home. ba c Listen and read these pairs of dialogues. Which one in each pair do you think is more intense? Why? a. i. Adam: I love you. Theresa: I love you too. ii. Adam: I love you so much. Theresa: I love you very much too! b. i. George: I’m fond of dancing and singing. Lilly: I love dancing too. ii. George: I am quite fond of dancing and singing. Lilly: I absolutely love dancing! You are going to listen to a news story called“Underground love”. What do you think it might be about? Choose one alternative. a. Prohibited love b. Love between a miner and his girlfriend c. Love on the subway 3 112 1. Tomatchinformationand visuals. 2. Toidentifytoneofmessage. 3. Tomakepredictions. Learning abilities
    • 15LOVE WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the news story and check your prediction in Exercise 3. Listen to the news story again and mark the specially stressed words in these sentences. a. We have a real life romantic story. b. He developed the very popular Web site. c. He described her really well. d. What better illustration of this unusual love affair? Listen to the news story again. Which statements are true (T), which are false (F) and which are not mentioned (NM)? a. ______ Patrick Moberg is 28 years old. b. ______ Camille, his mystery girl, is a journalist in New York. c. ______ To find his dream girl Patrick developed a blog. d. ______ He did not approach Camille on the train because he was shy. Listen to the song in the programme and choose the correct alternative. a. My life’s so / . b. She / at me on the subway. c. And I don’t think I might / her again. d. But it’s time to face the / . e. I will / be with you. Listen to the song once more and choose the best description. a. Angry and pessimistic. b. Cheerful and romantic. c. Sad and romantic. AFTER YOU LISTEN Re-write these sentences using might.9 8 126 alwaysnever 12 12 12 12 truthend seemeet smiledlooked excitingbrilliant 7 5 4 Patrick and Camille _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ might marry. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Example: It is posible that Patrick and Camille will marry. a. I suggest you invite Patrick and Camille to visit Neruda’s house. b. Maybe Patrick will take Camille to the cinema. c. It is possible that Patrick and Camille will travel to Paris. 4. Tovalidatepredictions. 5. Toidentifystressedword. 6. Todiscrimínatebetween correctandincorrect information. 7. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 8. Toidentifytoneofmessage. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • Language Note 1. Read these sentences from the news story. a. We totally clicked. b. They actually had so much to talk about. c. I am quite sure. d. I was terribly nervous. 2. Compare them with these sentences: a. We clicked. b. They actually had much to talk about. c. I am sure. d. I was nervous. 3. Study the sentences in Point 1. What do the underlined words do? a. They make the meaning more intense. b. They make the meaning more general. c. They make the meaning more understandable. The answer is a. The underlined words are intensifiers; they enhance the words that follow them. 4. Read some more examples. a. My dad told me an incredibly sad love story. b. It is surprisingly hot. c. You are absolutely right. 5. Listen to the first stanza of the song again and copy three more sentences that contain intensifiers. Intensifiers 16 UNIT 1 Complete these dialogues using different intensifiers. a. A: You’re late again! I’ve been waiting for half an hour. B: ______________________________________ sorry. b. A: How did your mother feel when you showed her the test? B: ______________________________________ upset. c. A: I can help you to study for the physics test. B: ______________________________________ much. d. A: What do you think of the new television programme? B: ___________________________________ interesting. 11 The words below appeared in the listening text. Use them to write four sentences. The pictures on the left can help you. a. ____________________________________________________________. b. ____________________________________________________________. c. ____________________________________________________________. d. ____________________________________________________________. crowded headline sketch subway 10 1 2 3 4 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • You are going to share love stories with your classmates. a. Work in groups of four or five students and answer these questions about the love story you heard in the recording. i. What are your opinions of the two protagonists? ii. How would you behave in a similar situation? iii. Would you be embarrassed to go on national TV or radio to find the person you love? b. Work individually and write down a few lines about a love story you know. It can be about your parents, yourself or someone you know. Use these questions as guidelines. i. What are the names of the protagonists? ii. When / Where did the story take place? iii. What is special about this love story? iv. How did it end? c. Use the ideas you wrote and tell the story to the rest of the group. d. Answer the group’s questions providing extra information. e. Choose the most romantic or the most unusual story, and appoint a story-teller in your group. Help him / her to practise telling the story. f. Exchange stories with another group. g. Use these ideas to evaluate your performance. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK – SPEAKING14 • I participated in the discussion respecting my classmates’opinions. • I wrote my ideas and used them to present my story. • We corrected each other’s pronunciation. • We used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. 17LOVE 0 to1REVISE AGAIN 2 to4GOOD JOB! 5 to6EXCELLENT! Listen to the recording and check your answers in Exercise 11. Practise and then role play the dialogues for your classmates. MINITEST Choose six places in this story to use the intensifiers in the box. 6 pts. This happened a month ago. The day was hot and I wanted a drink. I looked around and saw a little kiosk with soft drinks and ice-cream but it was crowded, I decided to look somewhere else. Then a boy standing right in front of the kiosk waved to me. He was cute! He had a bottle of orange crush in his hand and he was offering it to me. I was impressed. Now, a month later, we are dating! I still think he is fabulous. 1312 · absolutely · quite · really · terribly · so · very 13 Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What do you think of making a blog dedicated to the person you love? b. What would be the perfect words to say to someone that you are deeply in love with? c. Would you show respect or make fun if you received an anonymous love letter? 15 9. Toreinforceagrammarpoint. 10. Toconsolidatevocabulary. 11. Toconsolidateagrammar point. 12. Toimitateaspokenmodel. 13. Toevaluatelearning. 14. Tocreateanewtext. 15. Toreflectonthecontentsof thelessonandrelatethemto personalexperiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • Dear Gloria, Thanks so much for offering to look after my pets while I’m in Brazil. There are three of them: Spike, the dog , Winnie, the cat and Bella, the parrot . Each of them is (a.) a character and needs special attention. Please see the indications below for their care. Spike is (b.) of eating socks so please make sure that there are none lying around. Winnie (c.) hates the darkness so make sure that you leave the lights on when you leave. Bella (d.) loves fresh seeds and water so give her a fresh portion every morning. Spike and Winnie are (e.) good friends that they are always taken for a walk together. And finally, because Bella is (f.) small, make sure that the windows are always closed so she cannot get out. Once again thank you for offering to help. See you after I’m back from my holiday. Love Helen fond 18 UNIT 1 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Helen is asking her friend Gloria to look after her pets while she is away on holiday. Fill in the gaps in her note with the intensifiers in the box. · absolutely · quite · really · such · terribly · very 1 :adj/ofdoingsth,findingsthpleasantorenjoyable,especiallysthyouhavelikedorenjoyedforalongtime.Fond HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 19LOVE Now that Helen has left her pets in goods hands, she is planning her holiday activities. Look at the page from her diary and see what activities she might do. Write the sentences in your notebook. 2 Monday Arrival, unpack, phone Gloria Tuesday Visit Christ the Redeemer or Sugarloaf Wednesay Go to Ipanema or Copacabana beach Thursday Visit the botanical gardens or the national park Friday Take a bus to Florianopolis or to Buzios Saturday A boat ride or hang gliding Sunday Flight back and arrival home 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 a. Well, I worked awfully hard this summer, and I absolutely must have it. b. Mum is going to get quite with you for spending so much. c. It’s really fantastic, don’t you think? d. And it’s outrageously expensive too! mad 1 2 3 4 :adj/veryangry.Mad Read the sentences below (a. – d.) and put them in the right order, following the cartoon (1 – 4). Practise and role play the dialogue with a partner. 3 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • JUST FOR FUN 20 UNIT 1 321 654 87 Who are these famous love couples? Match the names (a. – h.) with the pictures (1 – 8). a. Adam & Eve e. Homer & Marge Simpson b. Barbie & Ken f. John Smith & Pocahontas c. Bella Swan & Edward Cullen g. Pablo Neruda & Matilde Urrutia d. Frida Khalo & Diego Rivera h. Romeo & Juliet 1 Which person in the couples in the pictures (1 – 8) could have said these statements? a. “I am scared to tell you who I am. My name, dear boy, is hateful to myself, because it’s an enemy to you.” b. “I love you without knowing how, or when, or from where, I love you simply, without problems or pride: I love you in this way because I don’t know any other way of loving”. c. “Is that what you dream about…being a monster?”“Not exactly, mostly I dream about being with you forever.” d. “Just a little bite of the apple to show me how much you love me!” e. “Remember, my love - as far as anyone in Springfield knows, we’re a nice normal family.” 2
    • Commandment 1: ___________ accept change and support growth in yourself and your partner. Commandment 2: ___________ call your partner 20 times a day or follow him / her to all his / her activities. Commandment 3: ___________ give 100% of yourself. Commandment 4: ___________ listen to your partner. Commandment 5: ___________ nag and bother your partner with your problems all the time. Commandment 6: ___________ often remind your loved one how much you care about him / her. Commandment 7: ___________ remember important dates and anniversaries. Commandment 8: ___________ remember that you partner is a separate individual with his / her own likes and dislikes. Commandment 9: ___________ share love, problems, work, and play. Commandment 10: ___________ treat your partner with jealously and suspicion. Ten Commandments of Love Adapted from: www.romancestuck.com CHILEAN CONNECTION Teresa Wilms Montt was born in Viña del Mar in 1893. As a young woman, Montt was sent to a convent as punishment for falling in love with a man while being married. There, she wrote her first literary work, “Diario Intimo”, where she talked about her life, her love and her passion for a different, more liberal life. In 1916, helped by the Chilean poet Vicente Huidobro, she escaped from the convent and moved first to Buenos Aires and then to Paris. She died in 1921, when she was only 28. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many talented Chilean women writers were censured by a society that mistrusted women who engaged in intellectual pursuits. In most cases, their works were lost forever after their deaths, and their names were omitted from literary annals. Today, Teresa Wilms’ works can be found in old book stores. Her life and romantic love and her willingness to sacrifice everything for it became the subject of a Chilean film called “Teresa”. Directed by Tatiana Gaviola and starring Francisca Lewin, the film made Teresa Wilms national news again. Adapted from: Teresa Wilms Montt: A forgotten legend. Original Research Article, Women's Studies International Forum, Volume 13, Issue 3, 1990, Pages 195 - 199 by Marjorie Agosin. Complete these 10 Commandments of Love with You should or You shouldn’t.3 21LOVE
    • 22 UNIT 1 THREE LOVE LETTERSREADING TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Dear Krissy, I sit here in sorrow, wishing I could hold you. I’ve realised that I’ve tried to replace you over and over since I made (ii.) ______ ___________, but no one can make me laugh and smile like you do. You are the only one that ever made me so happy; no one could ever take your place. I feel as if my soul has stolen my heart and left me to cry myself to sleep each and every night with guilt in my heart of how I hurt you. I guess you just don’t realise what you have until it’s gone; I was so stupid to leave you! I know sorry is just a word, but for what it’s worth I am very, very sorry and I ask you to please forgive me! Love forever Brian II Adapted from: http://www.poemslovers.com/love_letters/thank_you/letters/173.html http://www.poemslovers.com/love_letters/i_am_sorry/letters/177.html http://www.poemslovers.com/love_letters/confessions_of_love/letters/36.html Read the three letters. What type of letter is each one? 3 pts. a. A letter of apology. b. A love confession. c. A thank you letter. Read the letters again and find the answers to these questions. 6 pts. a. Why does Jessica cry sometimes? b. Why does Brian cry at night? c. Does Marco love Simona? These chunks (a. – c.) have been removed from the letters. Put them back in the correct places (i. – iii.). 3 pts. a. the foolish decision to leave you b. really good friends, and I don’t want to ruin c. you make me feel like I can touch the sky 3 2 1 Dear Brad, I &know we’ve &been &busy &lately with &school, &tests and what not. I wanted &to &send you &this &letter &to &let you &know &that I’m &thinking of you and &love you very much. I’m very &lucky &to &have &such a wonderful &boyfriend and I wanted &to &say &thank you &for changing my &life. You make my &life complete and (&i.) ________________________________ ___ a million &times. You make me &laugh and &sometimes &so &hard I cry. For all of &that, I want &to &say &thank you. I can’t wait &until our work &schedules change &and we can &spend more &time &together. Love always, Jessica I Dear Marco, We can never &be &together. Why? Because we are &just &friends, (&iii.) ____________________ _____________________ &that. You &said &that &being with me was very &special &for you and &that you &really &respect our &friendship. I &love you and &if you have not &seen &that &by now &then you are &blind. You make my &life worth &living. Maybe &this &letter &is all I need &to &put you &behind me - I doubt &it, &though. You will &be &in my &heart &forever, Marco, &even &if &it &is &just as &friends. Simona III
    • 23LOVE LOVE REUNITEDLISTENING LANGUAGE Listen to the recording.What kind of programme is it? 1 pt. a. A news programme b. A game programme. c. An interview. What is the general topic of the recording? 1 pt. a. How a missing letter brought two lovers back together. b. The reason two foreigners decided to marry in London. c. Why two lovers stopped loving each other. Listen again and identify the word you hear. 10 pts. a. Steve Smith and Carmen Ruiz-Perez, both now / , fell in love / years ago. b. Their relationship / after she moved to / . c. Smith sent a letter to her / home in / . d. When he / the phone she knew it was the / decision. e. Within / seconds of setting eyes on each other they were / . 14 14 14 parents’ mother’s kissingembracing 4030 picked upanswered SpainFrance SpainFrance 1716 wrongright startedended 4442 4 5 6 Match the sentences in column A in the chart with what they express in column B. 5 pts. Use a different intensifier to fill in the blanks in each of these sentences (a. - d.) according to the pictures (1 – 4). 4 pts. a. Philip’s baby daughter Flo is ______ cute! b. That dessert looks ______ delicious. Yummy! c. Pablo and Gonzalo are ______ good friends. d. Thank you. These flowers are ______ beautiful. 8 A suggestion A possibility A request A B What time might it be? I’m not sure. It might be around 5 p.m She might miss the plane if she does not hurry. Where might we go at the weekend? Whatever you prefer - you might have salad or pasta. Might I take this chair if you are not using it? A condition 7 1 3 2 4
    • 24 UNIT 1 SPEAKING A new classmate, Jerome is asking for suggestions. Answer his questions using sentences with might. Role play your dialogue in front of your classmates. 10 pts. Jerome:So where do you think I could have my lunch? You: ________________________________. Jerome:Which of our classmates should I talk to if I need help? You: ________________________________. Jerome:And what can you suggest for after school activities? You: ________________________________. Jerome:Who do you think I should call if I want more information? You: ________________________________. Jerome:What do I have to do to join a club or the library? You: ________________________________. 9 Complete this letter expressing your feelings (maximum 90 words). Pay attention to vocabulary, spelling and grammar, and don’t forget to use appropriate intensifiers. 10 pts. Dear ________________, It’s been ten long months since we were last together. This time ________________________ ________________________________________ _______________________________________. I know we can ___________________________ ____________________, but it’s not the same as ________________________________________ _______________________________________. When you come back _____________________ ________________________ and we will never ________________________________________ _______________________________________. Please, _________________________________ _______________________________________. All my love, ______________________. 10 WRITING HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 25LOVE YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 12 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 6 to 9 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered some of the questions correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just a few of the questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 12 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 6 to 9 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I identified some of the general and specific information. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced just a few bits of the general and specific information. Speaking You are expected to be able to complete and participate in a guided dialogue. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent Good pronunciation and no hesitation. 5 to 7 Good Good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 3 to 4 Not too bad Some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Writing You are expected to complete a letter using alternatives and your own ideas to start and finish. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I included all the right alternatives and my own ideas. 5 to 7 Good I included two of the right alternatives and my own ideas. 3 to 4 Not too bad I included one of the right alternatives and one of my own ideas. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I included none of the right alternatives and none of my own ideas. Language You are expected to apply and identify two language items. Your score 7 to 9 Excellent I understood and applied the language items in all cases. 4 to 6 Good I understood and applied the language items in most cases. 2 to 3 Not too bad I understood and applied the language items in some cases. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I deduced and applied the language items in very few cases. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I grasped the main ideas of the texts. I used different strategies to help me to understand. I made myself understood even if I made some mistakes. I interacted with other students to do the exercises. I expressed my point of view appropriately. SELF - EVALUATION
    • UNIT 2 26 In this unit you will learn to: READING: identify type of text / find general and supporting information. LISTENING: find the meaning of key words / transfer relevant information to a visual organiser / identify speaker. ORAL PRODUCTION: ask and answer questions / role play a dialogue following a model. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: complete paragraphs / write a film review. FUNCTIONS: express possibility, certainty and doubt / express opinions / ask and answer questions. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: -ing forms: gerunds and present participles. VOCABULARY: words related to books and films. You will pay special attention to these values The importance of expressing our personal opinions about films and books. The acceptance of and respect for different opinions. You will use the following text types: READING: extracts from a book and a magazine / a poster. LISTENING: an interview. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 27 HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? Which of the following films are based on books? Use the expressions in the box to introduce your answers. 6 pts. · I am sure · I believe · I am not quite sure · I am quite certain · I am not certain · _____ certainly is… · I think 1 What are the similarities and differences between books and films? Classify the statements below (a. – i.) in a Venn diagram. 9 pts. a. They are reasonably priced. b. They entertain us. c. We can enjoy them at home. d. We can enjoy them on a beach. e. We can enjoy them on a plane. f. We can enjoy them when we are in a group. g. We need a long time to finish them. h. We need a printed text. i. We need special equipment to enjoy them. Match the words in the box with the definitions below (a. – f.). 6 pts. a. A fictional work of prose that is shorter in length than a novel. b. A love affair or a story about one. c. A piece of writing performed by actors in a theatre or on television or radio. d. A series of moving pictures recorded with sound, that tells a story, and is shown on television or at the cinema. e. A story long enough to fill a complete book, in which the characters and events are usually imaginary. f. The written text of a play, film, broadcast, talk, etc. Your score: 0 - 6: You should look up the words that you don’t know in the dictionary and share information with a classmate. 7 - 13:You know enough about literature and films, but you could try to improve by sharing answers with your classmates. 14 - 21:You are ready to start and enjoy this unit; perhaps you could help the classmates who look confused. 1.2,3,4and6.2.Books:d.,g.,andh.Films:a.,f.,andi.Both:b.,c.ande.3.a.Shortstory.b.Romance.c.Play.d.Film.e.Novel.f.Script. · film · novel · play · romance · script · short story 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 LITERATURE AND FILMS Books Both Films HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 28 UNIT 2 A BOOK AND A FILM READING Lesson 1 BEFORE YOU READ Match the names of the authors in the box with their books in the pictures (1–6). · Isabel Allende · Roberto Bolaño · María Luisa Bombal · José Donoso · Baldomero Lillo · Pablo Neruda 1 American v/s British English movie film 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have a look at the texts you are going to read on pages 30 – 31. Which one is a film review, which one a poster and which one a part of a book? Justify your choices. The words in the box are from the texts you are going to read. Match them with their definitions (a. – h.) and then check with a dictionary. a. Sadness that you feel and show because somebody has died. b. The form or structure of a person or animal’s body. c. The way in which somebody holds and moves their head and body. d. To denote, to indicate, to show. e. To do something to reduce or prevent the bad effects of something. f. To keep a permanent account of facts or events by writing them down. g. To succeed in dealing with or controlling a problem. h. Very unpleasant or evil. What kind of information about a film do you think you can find in a film poster? a. Information about the actors. d. Who the director is. b. The the film was made. e. Where the film was shot. c. How much the cinema ticket costs. f. Who wrote the screenplay. date 2 · bespeak · carriage · counteract · despicable · frame · mourning · overcome · record (v.) 3 4 :noun/aparticulardayofthemonth,sometimesinaparticularyear,giveninnumbersandwords.Date 1. To match information and visuals. 2. To identify type of text. 3. To identify meaning of key words. 4. To make predictions. Learning abilities
    • a. Place ______________________ Event map 29LITERATURE AND FILMS WHILE YOU READ Read the poster and check your predictions in Exercise 4. Indicate in which text you can find the required information (a. – f.). Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Read Text II again. What’s the film critic’s opinion of items a. - g.? Choose from the options in the box. a. Isabel Allende. e. The first story in the film. b. The acting. f. The film adaptation. c. The book“The House of the Spirits”. g. The second story in the film. d. The first half of the film. Read the film review and the plot description that appears in the poster. Tick the correct statements. a. The review expresses the writer’s personal opinion. b. The plot description is a summary of the film. c. The plot description provides lots of details. d. The review compares the original book with the film. e. The plot description is more convincing. f. The review discusses both the characters and the actors who play them. Read the plot of “The House of the Spirits” that appears in texts II and III again and complete this event map. 9 5 8 · Excellent · Fabulous · Fairly good · Great · Less convincing · More interesting · One of the best 7 6 I II III a. A detailed description of Barrabas b. Information about Clara, one of the protagonists c. The author of the book e. The genre of the movie f. Where filming took place d. The film cast 5. Tovalidatepredictions. 6. Tofindgeneralandsupporting information. 7. Tomatchinformation. 8. Tointerpretinformation./To discriminatebetweencorrect andincorrectinformation. 9. Tosynthesiseinformationand transferittoagraphic organiser. Learning abilities b. Time ______________________ c. Characters _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ d. Brief summary of story. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ e. End _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ :noun/allthepeoplewhoactinaplayorfilm.Cast HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 30 UNIT 2 Chapter one Rosa the Beautiful Barrabás came to us by sea, the child Clara wrote in her delicate calligraphy. She was already in the habit of writing down important matters, and afterwards, when she was mute, recording trivialities became very important. She never suspected that fifty years later I would use her notebooks to reclaim the past and overcome terrors of my own. Barrabás arrived on a Holy Thursday. He was in a despicable cage, dirty with his own excrement and urine, and had the lost look of a defenceless prisoner; but the regal carriage of his head and the size of his frame bespoke the legendary giant he would become. It was a bland, autumnal day that gave no hint of the events that the child would record, which took place during the noon mass in the parish of San Sebastian, with her whole family in attendance. As a sign of mourning, the statues of the saints were covered in purple robes that the pious ladies of the congregation unpacked and dusted off once a year from a cupboard in the sacristy. Beneath these funereal sheets the celestial retinue resembled nothing so much as a roomful of furniture awaiting movers, an impression that the candles, the incense, and the soft moans of the organ were powerless to counteract. Adapted from: “The House of the Spirits,” Isabel Allende, Chapter 1, official translation by Cedric Belfrage I
    • Director: Billie August Screenplay: Based on Isabel Allende’s book, written by Billie August Release Date: 1 April 1994 (USA) Genre: Drama / romance Cast: Jeremy Irons, Glenn Close, Meryl Streep,Wynona Ryder,Antonio Banderas Awards: 11 awards including Best , Best Design, Best Production, Best Editing, Best Screenplay. Plot: Chile, 20th century. Marrying Clara makes EstebanTrueba a happy man. He works hard and gets the money to buy a hacienda and become a local patriarch. Esteban becomes very conservative and is feared by his workers. When his daughter Blanca grows up, she falls in love with a young revolutionary, Pedro, who urges the workers to fight for a better life. Esteban tries to stop the love affair between Pedro and his daughter, but loving Pedro means too much to Blanca, who must choose between her family and her love. Love wins and she stays with Pedro. Costume The movie is an adaptation of the book with the same title by Isabel Allende, one of the best South American authors (she was called Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s heir). The movie features Jeremy Irons and Glenn Close (in their good days) Meryl Streep (who does not have bad days,movie- wise, ),Wynona Ryder and Antonio Banderas, and presents the story of a family, as it stretches over four generations, with the good, the bad, the funny, and at times, the surreal. It is, in my opinion, a fairly good movie, made after a fabulous book. Filming took place in Denmark and Portugal and the European setting takes away from the sweeping Latin American landscapes, the majestic Andes and the general atmosphere. The movie can be divided into two stories – the first and more interesting, the study of Esteban’s rise at least to power and of his cruelty and hypocrisy; the second and less interesting (and less convincing), the romantic story of two lovers set against the background of the revolution. The first half of the movie is excellent. Jeremy Irons, despite appearing to be talking through an ill-fitting set of dentures, gives a performance of cruel power and tyranny that dominates the entire movie. It is a beautifully written and acted piece of characterisation. Unfortunately, the second half of the movie almost entirely mitigates the character. If you want to see a good movie, with great acting and an enjoyable, yet very “serious” story, watch the movie. If you want to fully understand the story, and understand why certain things happen the way they do, read the book first. 31LITERATURE AND FILMS Taken from: “The House of the Spirits,” Isabel Allende, chapter 1, official translation by Cedric Belfrage. Equipo Editorial. Adapted from: www.flixter.com II III :adv/notlessthan. :noun/theclotheswornbyactorsinaplayorfilm.Atleast Costume HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 32 UNIT 2 AFTER YOU READ Use your notes in Exercise 9 to complete this conversation about the plot of “The House of the Spirits”. A: Where does the action take place? B: ____________________________________________________________. A: When do the events happen? B: ____________________________________________________________. A: Who are the main characters? B: ____________________________________________________________. A: What happens? B: ________________________ marries ________________________ and ________________________, but ________________________________. Blanca, ________________________ who _________________________. A: What happens then? B: ____________________________________________________________. Listen to the recording, compare with the conversation you completed in Exercise 10 and then repeat it. Then change the answers to talk about a film you have seen. Practise and role play the new conversation with a partner. 1611 10 Examine the sentences below. Identify the gerunds and the present participles. a. Frank was swimming in the pool when I saw him. b. Denise likes dancing and singing. c. They were dancing and singing in the rain. d. Cooking with my mum is lots of fun. 12 Language Note 1. Compare the pairs of sentences below paying special attention to the words in bold. What similarities and differences do you notice? Which word is a noun and which one is a verb? a. Filming took place in Denmark and Portugal. They are filming a new movie. b. Marrying Clara makes Esteban Trueba a happy man. We first see Esteban Trueba when he is marrying Clara. 2. All the words end in -ing, but the words in the first sentence of each pair are acting as nouns and we call them gerunds. The words in the second sentence of each pair are acting as verbs, and we call them present participles. When gerunds are used as nouns, they can be used in the same way that any other noun can be used: subjects, objects, objects to prepositions, etc. 3. Go back to the texts and find more examples of both gerunds and present participles. -ing forms 10. Toaskandanswerquestions. 11. Toimitateaspokenmodel. 12. Toconsolidateagrammar point. 13. Toevaluatelearning. 14. Towriteatext. 15. Toreflectonthecontentsof thelessonandrelatethemto personalexperiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • You are going to write a group review of a film you have all seen recently. a. Agree on a brief summary of the film. You can use the event map in Exercise 9 to help you. Make notes. b. Describe what each of you thought of the film, giving reasons and examples. Make notes. These questions can help you. – Did you think that it was interesting / boring / thought-provoking? – Did it have lasting images and ideas that you particularly liked? c. Divide the film into relevant parts: acting, directing, setting, costumes, music, etc.; express your opinion and make notes. – Was the setting successful / the atmosphere appropriate? – Was the cast good and adequate for the film? – What was the sound track like? d. Brainstorm and write down a list of adjectives and expressions you can use in the review: Example: amazing scenery / excessive violence / good atmosphere / hair-raising suspense / hilarious / phenomenal/ plenty of details / spectacular visual effects / unexpected plot twists. e. A person from the group must be the group scribe. Develop a draft of your review (95 words) including the following parts. – Title of the review – make it catchy! – Paragraph 1: summary and your general view. – Paragraph 2: positive things about the film. What did you like? Why? – Paragraph 3: negative things about the film. What didn’t you like? Why? – Paragraph 4: final comments. f. Read your review and check for spelling and grammar mistakes. g. Use these points to evaluate your group work. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING14 33LITERATURE AND FILMS MINITEST Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verbs in the box, a gerund or a participle. 8 pts. It is 7:00pm and Bill (a.) _________________ at the dinner table in front of the TV. (b.) _________________ and (c.) _________________ TV are the two things he really loves. His mother (d.) _________________ his sister with her homework. The girl doesn’t really like (e.) _________________ homework. Bill’s mother loves (f.) _________________ new things so she (g.) _________________ herself. Bill’s father opens the front door. (h.)“_________________ home at night is the best thing in the world!”, he says. 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to6GOOD JOB! 7to 8EXCELLENT! · arrive · do · enjoy · help · learn · read · sit · watch 13 • We discussed our personal views of the film. • We prepared a draft of our review. • We used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. • Our review follows a coherent sequence. • We checked and corrected grammar and spelling mistakes. • We listened to and respected each other’s opinions. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about Isabel Allende’s first famous novel? Can you express your opinion about it or other books you have read or films you have seen? b. How important is the opinion of your family when you choose a boyfriend / girlfriend? c. What would you do if you were in Blanca’s situation? 15
    • 34 UNIT 2 DARK FANTASY LISTENING Lesson 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 BEFORE YOU LISTEN What do all the films in the pictures have in common? Choose from the alternatives given. a. The subject is fantasy. d. They are films for young people. b. They are / were all bestsellers. e. They have historical characters. c. They are all based on books. f. They were written by British writers. 1 Answer these questions about the films in your group. a. What is the plot of each of them? b. Who are the main characters and actors? Listen and repeat these words associated with film making. Which ones sound similar in Spanish? What do they mean? Find the meaning of the rest in the dictionary. 173 2 actor adaptation animation cameraman cast costume director extra location producer screenplay sequel soundtrack stunt Classify the words in Exercise 3 under the correct heading. Which words and expressions from Exercises 3 and 4 would you expect to find in an interview with the author of books about vampires on which two films have been based? People in films Film-making process 5 4 1. Toconnectpicturesand content. 2. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 3. Toidentifycognates./Torelate writtenandspokenversionof words./Topractise pronunciation./Tofind meaningofwords. 4. Toclassifyinformation. 5. Tomakepredictions. Learning abilities
    • 35LITERATURE AND FILMS WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the interview and check your predictions in Exercise 5. Listen again and choose the best option. a. The author began writing after / . b. “Twilight” and “NewMoon” sold / . c. Bella, the protagonist is popular with readers because she is / . d. The location of the vampire saga is / . Listen again and write down who said these statements, the Interviewer or the Author. a. ____________: I had a dream about a human girl meeting a vampire. b. ____________: Readers loved it immediately. c. ____________: Both“Twilight”and“New Moon”were filmed. d. ____________: The film and its soundtrack became really popular with young people. e. ____________: Both need dedication. Listen again and answer these questions. a. How many children does this author have? b. What is the name of the third book in this saga? c. How long did the author take to write the first book of the saga? d. What is the first name of the director of “Twilight”? AFTER YOU LISTEN Think about the text you listened to and decide which statements are true about an interview. a. An interview is a conversation between two people - the interviewer and the interviewee. b. An interview consists of a series of questions and answers. c. An interview is conducted in order to make the interviewee feel uncomfortable and angry. d. The purpose of an interview is to obtain information from the interviewee. In pairs, choose two films you have both seen recently and compare the aspects suggested (a. – f.). Use the expressions in the box. a. Characters c. Location e. Subject b. Length of the film d. Sound track f. Type of film watching a horror filmhaving a dream 189 · as good / bad as · better / worse · rather different · more / less / terribly / incredibly amusing / boring / interesting / popular 11 18 18 18 10 a normal girla hero WashingtonForks 13 million copies1.3 million copies 8 7 6 Stephenie Meyer, author of Twilight. 6. Tovalidatepredictions. 7. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 8. Toidentifyspeakers. 9. Tofindspecificinformation. Learning abilities 10. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 11. Toconsolidatevocabulary/To expresspersonalopinions. 12. Toconsolidateagrammar point. 13. Tomatchinformationand visuals. 14. Toroleplaydialogues imitatingaspokenmodel. 15. Toevaluatelearning. 16. Toroleplayaninterview. 17. Toreflectonthecontentsof thelessonandrelatethemto personalexperiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 36 UNIT 2 Complete these sentences with information from the interview and a gerund. Can you identify the function of the gerund? a. ___________________________ was quite a surprise for the interviewer. b. After ___________________ about a human girl___________________ a vampire, Stephanie started _____________________________________. c. Stephanie didn’t expect such success because _____________________ she had planned to do. d. Stephanie thinks that ________________________ could ruin her books. e. Next year, Stephanie will dedicate more time to ____________________. Match the questions in column A (a. – d.)with the answers in column B (i. – iv.). Then match the dialogues with the pictures on the left (1 – 4). Listen and practise the dialogues in Exercise 13 with a partner. Role play them in front of the class. 19 A B i. I’m absolutely certain I’m right.The answer is“Of Love and Shadows”. a. Are you sure it’s the right size for me? ii. I’m not sure, but I think it’s the first street on the right. b. Is this your final answer? iii. Lovely!Your girlfriend’ll love these roses. c. Can I have three of those flowers, please? iv. Well, actually, it looks a bit too big for you. d. Excuse me, where is Dalton Street? 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 American v/s British English movie theater cinema Language Note 1. Read these sentences from the interview paying special attention to the words in bold. a. Wearing fashionable clothes is not important. b. I love raising kids and I love writing books. c. I will dedicate more time to writing vampire stories. 2. Study these examples and those in Point 1 and try to identify the function of the gerund. a. Driving a car is quite difficult. b. Kenny loves driving his father’s car. c. Mrs. Adams is really tired of driving. 3. As gerunds function as nouns, they can take the role of subjects, objects and objects of a preposition in a sentence. In both sentences a. the gerund is the subject of the sentence; in sentences b. it is the object of a sentence and in sentences c. it is the object of a preposition (in this case to, but it could also be after, before, between, from, of, etc.). Gerunds HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • You and a partner are going to prepare and present an interview. a. Each of you must choose a topic, one of these ideas or one of your own: a favourite type of film / a favourite writer / a person in your family / a place to go on holiday / your likes and dislikes / your future plans. b. Prepare a list of questions you want to ask your partner. Consider these aspects. – Questions should start with what, when, where, who, why, which. – Avoid questions that require a yes / no answer. – Be as neutral as possible and don’t offer your opinions or ideas in the questions. – Avoid wording that might influence answers, like:“So why don’t you like Isabel Allende’s books?” – Don’t ask questions that you know might be embarrassing to the . c. The first interviewer should ask all his / her questions and then you must change roles. – Ask the questions one at a time and wait for the answer. – Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head, comments, polite noises, etc. d. Change roles. e. Discuss both interviews. How did you feel as an interviewer and as an interviewee? Which role was more comfortable? f. Use these points to evaluate your performance. Say Yes or No. interviewee APPLICATIONTASK - SPEAKING16 • We followed the suggestions offered in the instructions. • We wrote our questions and used them in the interview. • We corrected each other’s grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. • We used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. • We were respectful of each other’s ideas. 37LITERATURE AND FILMS MINITEST Use gerunds to complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. 8 pts. a. My father repairs all kinds of things. My father is good at ___________________________________________. b. I’m sorry I didn’t arrive on time. I’m sorry for ______________________________________________ late. c. Fruits and vegetables are good for our health. __________________________________________ is good for our health. d. My sister usually does her homework and then watches TV. My sister usually watches TV after ________________________________. 15 Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What’s your opinion of films based on novels? Can you give more examples? b. Would you change the way you are in order to be with someone you love? c. What would you do if the boy or girl that you love belonged to an urban tribe that you really dislike? d. Would you marry a physically disadvantaged person?Why?Why not? 17 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to5GOOD JOB! 6to 8EXCELLENT! American v/s British English vacation holiday :noun/thepersonwhoanswersthequestionsinaninterview.Interviewee
    • Living in Privet Drive with his uncle and aunt is very hard for young Harry. His parents died in a car crash when he was still a baby, and he is being brought up by Vernon and Petunia Dursley. For some unknown reason, Harry is living in the closet under the stairs, and the Dursleys treat him more like a slave than like a family member. His cousin Dudley’s favourite activity is bothering (*1) Harry all the time. On his eleventh birthday, upon receiving a mysterious letter from a certain Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, Harry finally discovers the truth about his origins. His parents were a wizard and a witch. They were killed protecting him from the evil wizard Voldemort. Harry still has a lightning- shaped scar on his forehead from that event. Since he survived the attack as a baby, and also somehow deprived (*2) Voldemort of his powers, he became famous in the world of wizardry. The Dursleys, strong disbelievers in magic, never told Harry anything about his true self. Harry is surprised but happy and his training as a wizard begins. At Hogwarts, Harry makes friends with teachers and two other youngsters, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. The three of them accidentally find out that the potions master, Severus Snape, is plotting to steal something that a three-headed dog is guarding jealously (*3) . The three youngsters’ quest for the truth (*4) leads them across many obstacles: everyday school life, a bewitched Quidditch match (Quidditch is a popular wizard sport), Fluffy, the three- headed monster dog and many other problems to overcome to get to the guarded object. Luckily for young Harry and his friends the situation is cleared up and Voldemort is defeated once again. Adapted from: www.imdb.com/title/tt024152/plotsummary 38 UNIT 2 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Read the plot below. Do you know the name of the film?1 Glossary: (*1) molestar (*2) quitar, arrebatar (*3) celosamente (*4) búsqueda de la verdad HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 39LITERATURE AND FILMS Find all the gerunds and present participles in the story. List them separately in your notebook, copying the complete sentences. Read the plot again and use the diagram below to summarise it. Write the summary in your notebook. The pictures in Exercise 2 can help you. 4 3 Which gerund would you use to complete the instructions for these traffic signs? 5 a. Pedestrian ____________. b. Animal ____________. c. _____________ prohibited. d. No U- ____________. e. No ____________. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Read the plot carefully again and put these pictures in order.2 American v/s British English summarize summarise Event map a. Where did the action happen? b. When did it happen? c. Who participated? d. What happened? e. How did it end? HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • JUST FOR FUN WRITING TIPS a. Never use no double negatives. b. Reserve the apostrophe for it’s proper use and omit it where its not needed. c. Verbs has to agree with their subjects. d. No sentence fragments. e. Proofread carefully to see if you any words out. f. Avoid commas, that are, not necessary. g. When you reread your work, you will find out when you reread your work that a great deal of repetition in your work can be avoided by rereading and editing your work. h. Do not overuse exclamation marks!!!! (In fact, avoid them whenever possible!!!!). i. And do not start a sentence with a conjunction. j. Don’t use contractions, as they’re not necessary. k. Avoid modernisms that sound fishy. l. Never, ever use repetitive redundancies. m. Always avoid awkward or affected alliteration. n. “Avoid overuse of ‘quotation’ marks.” o. Awayz check you’re spelling. (Your spellchecker would only pick up one of the three errors here.) p. Every sentence a verb. Adapted from: http://www.abctales.com/forum/2007/01/24/worth-a-read—-funny-writing-tips 40 UNIT 2 Can you detect the contradictions in these writing tips? Can you correct them?1
    • Il Postino is a 1994 film directed by Michael Radford. It tells a fictional story of Chilean poet Pablo Neruda and a simple postman - Mario Ruoppolo - who learns to love poetry. The young postman delivers mail to only one customer, Neruda, exiled to Italy because of his views. In the meantime, Mario meets a beautiful young lady, Beatrice, in the village’s only cafe. With the help of Neruda, Mario is able to better communicate his love to her through the use of metaphors. Mario and Beatrice are later married, and at the same time Neruda and his wife are allowed to return to Chile. Some months later, Mario makes a nostalgic recording of island sounds for Neruda, including the heartbeat of his unborn son. Several years later, Neruda comes back to the island and finds Beatrice and her son in the same old cafe. She tells him that Mario had been killed just before the birth of the child, at a rally in Naples. He had been selected to read his poetry, dedicated to Neruda, for the crowd, but police stormed the place before he could reach the stage. Beatrice gives Neruda the recording of island sounds, which also includes the sounds of Mario’s death at the rally. The of the film was adapted from the novel Ardiente Paciencia by Antonio Skármeta. Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Il_Postino screenplay 41LITERATURE AND FILMS Enjoy these cartoons and comment them in your group.2 CHILEAN CONNECTION a b So you say on your application that you are fluent in two languages. English and…? Text messaging. One of the people who applied for the position of journalist at our newspaper wants to know why he didn’t get the job. :noun/thewordsthatarewrittenforafilm,togetherwithinstructionsforhowitistobeacted andfilmed. Screenplay
    • 42 UNIT 2 UNUSUAL VAMPIRESREADING By Lea S. “Twilight”– based on the first book in the best-selling series by Stephanie Meyer – is a faithful adaptation that will captivate fans and new audiences. The film follows the story of Bella Swan (Kristen Stewart), a normal girl who moves into a secret supernatural world when she falls in love with her mysterious classmate, Edward Cullen (Robert Pattinson), who just happens to be a vampire. This is not a typical vampire tale; if you are looking for clichéd stereotypes with fangs, coffins, and stakes through the heart (*1) , this is not the film for you. Director Catherine Hardwicke and screenwriter Melissa Rosenberg stay true to Meyer’s vision and show a story of the ultimate forbidden love (*2) . Hardwicke once again proves her knack for portraying raw teenage experiences, as she did in “Thirteen” and “Lords of Dogtown.” She directs a young cast of phenomenal talent. Kristen Stewart gives a fresh, honest take on Bella. Her simple interpretation allows viewers to live vicariously through Bella and experience what she does. Pattinson conveys Edward’s inner troubles really well; his complex perception of the character creates a believable Edward. The film also has an outstanding supporting cast. Billy Burke as Bella’s father, Ashley Greene as Alice Cullen, and Michael Welch as Mike Newton offer excellent interpretations. The film itself is visually dynamic; it is shot in crisp blue tones and the costumes are pallid, not the traditional vampire attire. Filmed in Portland, Oregon, the film features stunning views and beautiful landscapes. Using extreme close-ups and unusual angles, the camera work gives the film an intimate, realistic feel. The music ties in to the story perfectly; consisting of moody rock songs, the soundtrack fits the tone. The book and the film are equally satisfying but in different ways, and neither is better. While you can imagine the detailed story unfolding in your head when reading the book, the film creates a sweet condensed version for the big screen. Both allow you to lose yourself in this passionate, unorthodox romance. Adapted from: http://www.teenink.com/Movies/article/65635/Twilight TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Glossary: (*1) colmillos, ataúdes y estacas (*2) amor prohibido
    • 43LITERATURE AND FILMS Read this film review. What is the writer’s general view of the film? 1 pt. a. Positive. b. Negative. c. Neutral. Read the review again and match the names in column A with the roles in column B. 6 pts. Read the review once more and answer these questions. 3 pts. a. Is the film a typical vampire story? Why/why not? b. Where was the film shot? c. What is the reviewer’s opinion of the music of the film? 3 A Bella Swan Billy Burke Catherine Hardwicke Melissa Rosenberg Robert Pattinson Stephanie Meyer Author /Writer Film director Main female character Main male actor Screenwriter Supporting actor B 2 1 Identify the gerunds and the present participles in these sentences. 5 pts. a. He was playing football when I saw him yesterday. b. There is only one great passion in his life: writing books. c. Thank you for giving me such a beautiful gift. d. What is she doing here? e. I hate doing the same thing twice. 5 LANGUAGE Listen to the recording and choose the best option. 5 pts. a. The young man in the conversation is a film director / a librarian. b. Some readers like to add a little adventure / romance as well c. The teenager’s favourite type of book is fantasy / romantic fiction. d. The teenager saw a film based on her favourite book lastmonth/lastweek. e. It was fun watching the rest of the actors / people. Who said these sentences, the British teenager (BT) or the Russian young man (RYM)? 5 pts. a. _____: Teens in my country normally like books with a little bit of mystery. b. _____: I’ve read all the books and remember even the smallest details. c. _____: What did you think of the film? d. _____: Was there anything about the film that you didn’t like? e. _____: There were also things that I missed. 20 20 7 6 OPINIONS FROM MOSCOWLISTENING Complete these sentences with a gerund and your own ideas. 5 pts. a. I’m not interested in ____________________ ____________________________________. b. ________________________________ is the best form of exercise. c. ________________________________ is not very good for your health. d. I really enjoy __________________________ _______________________ in my free time. e. The teacher talked about the importance of ____________________________________. 4
    • 44 UNIT 2 SPEAKING WRITING Use the expressions in the box to fill in the spaces in the conversation below. Practise and role play it with a partner. 8 pts. 8 · I am sure · that’s right · I am not really sure · I am quite certain · I am not certain if · certainly are · I think ·You are right Choose a film you have seen or a book you have read recently and write a short review (max. 90 words). Remember to include the plot, your opinion about the director and the cast and a few words about the soundtrack. 10 pts. 9 Juliet: __________ I’ve seen that James Bond film before. Brenda: __________ you’re wrong. You’ve seen “Casino Royale”, but not“Quantum of Solace”. Juliet: __________ about“Casino Royale”but __________ if I saw the other film too. Brenda: The two films __________ quite similar. Juliet: Now that I remember“Quantum of Solace”was filmed in Latin America, wasn’t it? Brenda: Argentina, I think. Juliet: No, __________ it was a different country. Let me think…Chile! Yes, __________ it was Chile. Brenda: __________. They filmed it somewhere in the desert, didn’t they? HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 45LITERATURE AND FILMS YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 9 to 10 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 6 to 8 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 4 to 5 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered some of the questions correctly. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just a few of the questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 9 to 10 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 6 to 8 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 4 to 5 Not too bad I identified some of the general and specific information. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I deduced just a few bits of the general and specific information. Speaking You are expected to be able to complete and participate in a guided dialogue. Your score 6 to 8 Excellent Good pronunciation and no hesitation. 4 to 5 Good Good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 2 to 3 Not too bad Some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Writing You are expected to write a short film review. Your score 9 to 10 Excellent I wrote a review including all the required details. 6 to 8 Good I wrote a review with most of the required details. 4 to 5 Not too bad I wrote a review with some of the required details. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I wrote a review with very few of the required details. Language You are expected to identify and apply two language points. Your score 9 to 10 Excellent I understood and applied the language points in all cases. 6 to 8 Good I understood and applied the language points in most cases. 4 to 5 Not too bad I understood and applied the language points in some cases. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I deduced and applied the language points in very few cases. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I reflected on the issues of love, family opinions and diversity raised by the texts. I used different techniques to help me to understand. I made myself understood even if I made some mistakes. I interacted with other students to do the exercises. I expressed my points of view appropriately. SELF - EVALUATION
    • UNIT 3 46 In this unit you will learn to: READING: find and classify information / deduce the meaning of new words. LISTENING: identify information provided prior to listening / discriminate between correct and incorrect information. ORAL PRODUCTION: imitate model dialogues / complete conversations with provided information. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: prepare a brochure / summarise information. FUNCTIONS: introduce yourself and others. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: the Subjunctive with different verbs. VOCABULARY: words from the areas of technology and scientific inventions. You will pay special attention to these values The importance of“green”technology and the conservation of our environment. You will use the following text types: READING: a brochure. LISTENING: an interview. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 47 HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? Match the speech bubbles (a. – d.) with the people in the pictures (1 – 4). 4 pts.1 Which of the following were invented in the 20th century? Mark with a tick (√). 7 pts. a. ____ The aeroplane. e. ____ The microwave oven. b. ____ The diesel engine. f. ____ The telephone. c. ____ The Global Positioning System. g. ____ The typewriter. d. ____ The karaoke machine. h. ____ Velcro tape. Match the sources of energy in the box with their pictures (1 – 4). 4 pts. · Geothermal · Nuclear · Solar ·Wind 3 2 TECHNOLOGY Your score: 0 – 5: Look up the words in a dictionary or ask your teacher to help you. 6 – 10: Your knowledge of technology is good, but you could improve your vocabulary looking up some words. 11 – 15: Great job.You are ready to start the lesson. 1.a.-4.b.–3.c.–2.d.–1.2.a.,c.,d.,e.,h.3.Geothermal–2.Nuclear–3.Solar–4.Wind–1. a 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Hi everybody! My name's Ursula and I'm a computer engineer b I'd like you to meet Laura, who is an astronomer. c Let me introduce Dr. Glen Jackson. He is a chemist. d Meet Giovanni; he is an agronomist. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 48 UNIT 3 PLANET SAVING TECHNOLOGY READING Lesson 1 BEFORE YOU READ Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What is the most important technological invention of all time? b. What technological invention in your house could you not live without? c. How does technology affect our lives and our planet? Classify the words in the box under the corresponding category. Which words in Exercise 2 look or sound similar in Spanish? Which words from Exercise 2 would you expect to find in a text about “green”technology? WHILE YOU READ Read the text on pages 50 and 51 and check your predictions in Exercise 4. What kind of text is it? Choose one option. a. A newspaper article. b. A brochure. c. A web page. This text has some scientific words such as photovoltaic and phyto- remediation. Read the text again and find at least 5 other scientific terms. Can you deduce their meaning? Check the meaning of the other words in a dictionary. Read the text again and choose one heading (a. – d.) for each part of the text (I. - III.). There is one heading you do not need to use. a. Fresh from Salty Water c. Making the Sun Work for us b. Harnessing the Power of the Wind d. Natural Disposal of Toxic Waste Discipline / Field People who work in it 8 7 6 5 4 3 · astronomer · astronomy · chemist · chemistry · design · designer · ecologist · ecology · engineer · engineering · geneticist · genetics · physicist · physics · research · researcher · science · scientist 2 11. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Toclassifykeywords. 3. Toidentifycognates. 4. Topredictcontentfrom cognatesandfamiliarwords. Learning abilities 5. Tovalidatepredictions. 6. Toidentifytypeoftext. 7. Toinfermeaningofwords/ expressions. 8. Tomatchinformation. 9. Totransferrelevant informationtoavisual organiser. 10. Toidentifytextualreferences. 11. Tofind,supportandclassify specificinformation. Learning abilities
    • 12. Toparticipateinaguidedoral dialogue. 13. Toapplynewvocabularyand structures. 14. Topractiseastructure. 15. Toevaluatelearning. 16. Tocreateanewtext. 17. Toreflectonthecontentofthe lessonandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities “Green”inventions Solar cells ______________, ______________, ______________. Conventional inventions Calculator ______________, ______________, ______________. 49TECHNOLOGY Read the text again. Find and classify at least 3 more inventions of each type. These words are highlighted in the text. What do they refer to? a. it (I, paragraph 1, line 6) It refers to _________________. b. they (I, paragraph 3, line 4) It refers to _________________. c. we (II, paragraph 2, line 5) It refers to _________________. d. it (II, paragraph 4, line 3) It refers to _________________. e. it (III, paragraph 2, line 1) It refers to _________________. f. they (III, paragraph 4, line 2) It refers to _________________. Read the text once more and list at least one advantage and one disadvantage for each invention. AFTER YOU READ Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of certain inventions. Choose the answers from the options below. Check with the recording. Then listen, practise with a partner and role play the dialogue. a. I prefer food cooked and heated on conventional cookers. b. I think it has improved our communications. c. It is really very dangerous for humans and animals. d. To use it you need a place with a lot of sunshine. e. Yes, but we must be careful with our environment. Jordan: What do you think is the biggest disadvantage of nuclear energy? Alice: _______________________________________________________. Jordan: And what do you think is the problem with solar energy? Alice: _______________________________________________________. Jordan: Do you think that the invention of the Internet has improved our lives? Alice: _______________________________________________________. Jordan: And what’s the advantage of heating up food in microwaves? Alice: _______________________________________________________. Jordan: Should we use more geothermal energy in Chile? Alice: _______________________________________________________. 10 2212 9 Advantage DisadvantageInvention I. II. III. 11 Did you know that... a brochure is a pamphlet or booklet, especially one containing summarised or introductory information or advertising? HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the earth; it can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. In fact, as far back as the 1830s, British astronomer John Herschel proposed that a solar thermal collector box be used to cook food during an expedition to Africa. Today, energy specialists suggest that the energy of the sun can have other uses, for example converting it into thermal energy to heat water for use in homes, buildings, or swimming pools, and to heat spaces such as the inside of greenhouses, homes, and other buildings. Solar energy can be converted into electricity in two ways: • Photovoltaic devices (PV devices) or solar cells change sunlight directly into electricity. PV systems are often used in remote locations that are not connected to the electric grid. They are also used to watches, calculators, and lighted road signs. • Solar power plants indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermal collectors is used to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power generators. Even though the rays of the sun are readily available, there are still some disadvantages: the amount of sunlight that arrives on the earth’s surface is not constant and depends on location, time of day, time of year, and weather conditions. Today electrical engineers recommend that we install solar panels in areas with stable solar conditions such as deserts and sunny areas. power PLANET SAVING TECHNOLOGY I Technology is important in our lives and in times when the earth is getting warmer, the ozone layer more depleted and natural resources very scarce, it is important to promote technology that will make the world greener. Some well-known“green”technology includes wind turbines, recycled plastic and bio- fuels. Here are three more examples. 50 UNIT 3 :verb/tosupplyamachineorvehiclewiththeenergythatmakesitwork.Power
    • Humans cannot drink saline water, but saline water can be made into freshwater; this process is called desalination. As long as we have lots of salty water, we can make plenty of freshwater supplies. As the world population continues to grow, shortages of fresh water will occur more often, and not only in certain locations. In some areas, salt water (from the ocean, for instance) is already being turned into freshwater for drinking. Chemists advise that we set up more desalination plants in areas where there is water . Desalination / Distillation is one of mankind’s earliest forms of water treatment, and it is still a popular solution throughout the world today. In ancient times, many civilisations used this process on their ships to convert sea water into drinking water. In nature, distillation is a basic process responsible for the hydrologic cycle.The sun causes water to evaporate from surface sources such as lakes, oceans, and streams.The water vapour eventually comes in contact with cooler air, where it re-condenses to form or rain.This process can be imitated artificially, and more rapidly than in nature, using alternative sources of heating and cooling. Provided that we have salty water available, we can distil or desalinate it. However, the main disadvantage is that it is still an expensive process. shortage dew Ecologists urge that we plant forests to help us breathe better, and scientists insist that we plant forests to clean up toxic waste.That is the idea behind phyto-remediation, technology that uses vegetation to absorb dangerous waste from industrial plants and other polluters. The technique has been around for years, but it has not been very effective. However, there is a new twist that promises to make toxic dumping grounds green in more ways than one. Researchers atYork University in Britain have identified bacteria living in the roots of certain trees that produce an enzyme that eats up residue from RDX, a chemical compound used by the military and industry.The scientists are working on ways to genetically engineer the enzyme to increase the tree’s ability to absorb toxic waste. Meanwhile, a team of geneticists from the University of Georgia has transplanted a gene from bacteria that helps neutralise mercury contamination into a common flower - the result is a bio-remediation system that smells nice too! Even though these technologies are really interesting, there is a little problem: they are still not available on a large scale. II III 51TECHNOLOGY Adapted from: Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes, Second Edition,Hardcover, Aldo V. da Rosa :noun/asituationwhenthereisnotenoughofthepeopleorthingsthatareneeded. :noun/theverysmalldropsofwaterthatformontheground,etc.duringthenight.Dew Shortage HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 1 2 3 4 52 UNIT 3 Go back to the text and find sentences that mean the same as these. a. Although solar energy is quite common, there are still some problems. b. It was, in reality, a British scientist who used solar energy for the first time. c. If we have plenty of salty water, we can turn it into fresh water. 13 Match these sentences (a. – d.) with the pictures below (1 – 4). Rewrite them in your notebook using the Subjunctive. Example: “Eat more vegetables,”he urged. He urged that we eat more vegetables. a. “Why don’t we all go to the beach,”Sonia suggested. b. “How about going to the cinema?”I proposed. c. “Brush your teeth after each meal,”dentists advise. d. “Take off your shoes before entering the temple,”the sign requests. 14 Language Note 1. Read these sentences from the text paying special attention to the parts in bold. a. British astronomer John Herschel proposed that a solar thermal collector box be used to cook food. b. Ecologists urge that we plant forests. c. Chemists advise that we set up more desalination plants. 2. What do you notice about all these sentences? Choose two correct options. a. They are all in the past tense. b. They all use the structure verb + that + infinitive without to. c. They all express a recommendation, importance or urgency. The correct answers are b. and c. The structure is called the Subjunctive mood. The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs: 3. Go back to the text and find two more examples of the Subjunctive. · advise · ask · command · demand · desire · insist · propose · recommend · request · suggest · urge The Subjunctive with that We use certain connectors to link parts of sentences and to make short sentences into longer ones. Some of them are: Even though, even if. They mean although. We also use even if to indicate something theoretical or hypothetical. Example: Even though he is Chilean, he can speak English very well. In fact means in reality. Example: Sandra is not very friendly. In fact, she is not nice at all. As long as, provided that indicate a condition and mean the same as if. Example: I will help you as long as you ask me politely. Learning tip HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 53TECHNOLOGY MINITEST Use a verb from the box in the Subjunctive and your own ideas to complete the sentences below. 6 pts. a. The teacher suggested _______________________________________ as a good example of Spanish literature. b. The doctor recommended ______________________________________. c. I demand ___________________________. The computer is not working! d. She insisted __________________________________________________. e. I propose _______________________ and once there we can rent a car. f. The President urges ___________________________________________. 1 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to4GOOD JOB! 5 to6EXCELLENT! · drink · fly · read · return · take · vote 15 You are going to write a brochure in your group. a. Go back to the brochure on page 50 and look at its format. What are its parts? What’s its length? b. Choose one of the topics below (i. – iv.), thinking about an area you feel comfortable with and where you know you can find sufficient information. i. What should we do about global warming and climate change? ii. The most important inventors and inventions of all time. iii. The importance of computers and the World Wide Web. iv. Another topic of your choice. c. Determine the purpose of the brochure your group will design by answering these questions. i. What do I want to achieve? ii. What message do I want to get across? iii. Who is my target audience? iv. What is the purpose of my brochure? For example, if you choose global warming, is your message to offer a warning or simply to inform? d. Plan the layout of your brochure carefully. Remember first impressions are lasting. Add graphs, charts, pictures, etc. e. Keep your sentences short and to the point. Give only necessary information - most people do not want to read long texts. Use the Subjunctive you have learnt in this lesson. f. Use headings to draw attention to sections in your brochure. These headings should stand out - a bigger font, a different colour or bold print. g. Proof read your brochure and make sure there are no grammar or spelling mistakes. h. Ask your teacher to help you evaluate your brochure. Follow these points and say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING16 • We analysed the topics and the message of the brochure. • We agreed on the design of the brochure. • We divided our brochure in sections. • We included appropriate information. • We used expressions and structures learnt in the lesson. • We checked and corrected errors and punctuation. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about“green”technology? b. How can it affect us and our planet? c. Has your opinion about the best invention of all time changed? Why? Why not? d. What is your personal contribution to protecting the future of our planet? 17
    • 54 UNIT 3 THE TECHNOLOGY OF LIVING THINGS LISTENING Lesson 2 BEFORE YOU LISTEN Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What do you think the word biotechnology means? b. What is DNA? Does every living organism have it? c. What kind of instruments can you find in a science laboratory? Match the pictures (1 – 4) with the bubbles (a. – d.).2 1 To which of these words can you attach the prefix bio? What do the newly formed words mean? Listen and repeat these words. Check their meaning in a dictionary. Mark with a tick (√) the areas of life in which you think biotechnology can be used. a. ____ Agriculture d. ____ Health b. ____ Education e. ____ Financial services c. ____ Energy f. ____ Mining 3 5 · boost · breathe out · crop · drought · increase (v.) · ore · rise · spoil · wrinkly · yeast 234 Did you know that... a prefix is a part of a word that is attached to the word at the beginning to either give it a new meaning or to modify it? Examples: uninteresting, dishonest, impatient, mispronounce, etc. a 1 2 3 4 b c d Susan, I'd like you to meet my friend Bill. I don't think we've met before. I'm Jenny Jones. Mum, this is Judy - my new girlfriend. Ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce Professor Browning. cake chemistry dentist fuel logical mass physics technology 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Tomatchinformationand picturesthatrepresentit. 3. Toinferthemeaningofkey words. 4. Tofindthemeaningofkey wordsandidentifytheir pronunciation. 5. Topredictcontentfromthe context. Learning abilities
    • 55TECHNOLOGY WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the programme and check your predictions in Exercise 5. Listen again. Which of the introductions in Exercise 2 are used in the programme? Listen again and choose the best option. a. Where does the word biotechnology come from? i. From three Latin words. ii. From three Greek words. b. For how long has biotechnology been around? i. For more than four thousand years. ii. For more than fourteen thousand years. c. What is the effect of yeast on bread? i. It makes it rest. ii. It makes it rise. d. What were fruits such as apples like before biotechnology? i. Extremely sour. ii. Extremely soft. e. What do Lactic bacteria do to milk? i. They keep it from spilling. ii. They keep it from spoiling. Listen once more and answer these questions. a. What is the meaning of the word biotechnology? b. How can biotechnology be used in medicine? c. Why is it important that we plant drought resistant plants? d. Why is it imperative that scientists are careful when doing their experiments? AFTER YOU LISTEN What is the main conclusion you can draw from the text? a. Humans haven’t noticed the presence of biotechnology in their lives. b. Biotechnology is essential to improve food quality. c. It’s very important that scientists take care when doing their experiments. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with these words from the listening text. a. Humans ___________ such as rice, wheat and potatoes. b. Lemonade is a ___________ of water, sugar and lemon juice. c. Most copper ___________ is mined from large open pit mines. d. My favourite food is a ___________ cheese and ham sandwich. e. There is still no ___________ for cancer and the common cold. 10 9 rely on crops · cure · mixture · ore · toasted 11 24 248 247 246 American v/s British English corn maize :verb/toneedorbedependentonsth./sb.Relyon 6. Tovalidatepredictions. 7. Tofindspecificinformation. 8. Tofindspecificsupporting information. 9. Tofindgeneralandsupporting information. Learning abilities 10. Todrawconclusions. 11. Toconsolidatevocabulary. 12. Toconsolidateagrammar point. 13. Toimitateaspokenmodel. 14. Toconsolidategrammarand vocabulary. 15. Toevaluatelearning. 16. Toconsolidatevocabulary throughagame. 17. Todiscussanissue. 18. Toreflectonthecontentofthe lessonandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 56 UNIT 3 Match the two parts of the sentences. Write the complete sentences in your notebook. Work with a partner and try to put these sentences in order to form a conversation. The first sentence of the conversation is in red. Compare with the recording. Listen, practise in groups of five and then role play the conversation for the class. Clive: Hello, Gina. Gina: Hello, Clive. Gina: Hi, everybody. Gina: Nice to meet you, Naomi. Gina: Not too bad, and you? Gina: Tony, aren’t you going to introduce me? Naomi: Nice to meet you too. Steve: How are you doing? Tony: And the girl on your left is Naomi. Tony: Finally, the guy sitting next to Naomi is Steve. Tony: Hi, Gina. Tony: Sorry! Well, first, the guy on your right is Clive. 2513 i. youpayattentiontothetrafficsigns.a. Christmas is approaching so it’s a good idea that ii. you practise every day.b. Your test is next week so it’s vital that iii.you begin studying now.c. Our planet is in danger! It’s urgent that iv. we all try to save it. v. we start buying gifts. vi.you take some extra vitamins. d. As you are an athlete it’s recommended that e. When you drive a car it’s imperative that f. To be a good musician it’s important that 12 Language Note 1. Read these examples from the listening text, paying special attention to the parts in bold. a. It’s essential that we add a living organism. b. It is urgent that we plant crops resistant to droughts. c. It is imperative that scientists take care when doing their experiments. 2. What do the examples have in common? Choose two correct options. a. They are all in the future tense. b. They all use the structure to be + adjective + that + infinitive without to. c. They all express a sense of urgency and importance. The answers are b. and c. and they are another use of the Subjunctive mood in English. Other adjectives that we use in the same way are: The Subjunctive is also used with the expressions it is a bad / good idea that … 3. Write sentences about the uses of biotechnology mentioned in the listening text using these adjectives and the Subjunctive. · best · crucial · desirable · essential · imperative · important · recommended · urgent · vital (that) The Subjunctive (continued) HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 57TECHNOLOGY Use the linking expressions in the Learning Tip on page 52 to join these sentences into one. a. He is not an expert. He knows a lot about biotechnology. b. It is safe to do experiments. We follow specific safety measures. c. We still need other sources of energy. We reduce the use of fossil fuels. MINITEST Finish the sentences using the Subjunctive. 8 pts. a. It is urgent _______________. c. It is a bad idea ______________. b. It is a good idea ___________. d. It is recommended ___________. Play Tic-Tac-Toe with a partner using the subjects below (a. – d.). Use the Internet or the library if necessary. a. Game 1 - inventors c. Game 3 - strange inventions b. Game 2 - biotechnology d. Game 4 - useful inventions 16 1 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to5GOOD JOB! 6 to8EXCELLENT! 15 14 You are going to discuss an issue in your group. a. Choose one person to take notes. b. Read what Dr. O’Hanlon said about safety in biotechnology: “It’s imperative that scientists take care when doing their experiments in safe laboratory environments”. c. Discuss why it is important that we take care when doing experiments in a laboratory. Talk about possible dangers and their consequences. d. List the equipment that helps to prevent accidents in a lab ( , fire extinguishers, etc.) e. Talk about actions that should not be done in any laboratory. Use the subjunctive. Example: It’s a bad idea that students eat or drink in the laboratory while doing experiments. f. List actions that should be done in the laboratory. Example: It’s essential that we pay attention to the risks. g. Ask the note-taker to read his / her notes aloud; add, check, correct and then choose a person to be the presenter of the group’s conclusions. h. Join another group and compare conclusions. i. Ask your teacher to listen to the presentations and correct errors and pronunciation. j. Use these points to evaluate your performance. Say Yes or No. goggles APPLICATIONTASK - SPEAKING17 • We followed the suggestions offered in the instructions. • We wrote our ideas to use them for the presentation. • We corrected each other’s grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. • We used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What does a biotechnologist do? What subjects must you study if you want to become one? b. Can you name at least four areas in which biotechnology is important? c. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology in connection with food? d. If you could choose the sex or any other physical characteristics of your child, would you do it? Why? Why not? 18 :noun/apairofglassesthatfitcloselytothefacetoprotecttheeyesfromthewind,dust,etc.Goggles HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 58 UNIT 3 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Match the situations (a. – d.) with the introductions (i. – iv.). Then, add two more situations with their corresponding introductions. 2 Form pairs of sentences with similar meaning. Then match them with the pictures.1 It's a good idea that we cycle more. a I think it would be good if we used our cars less and our bikes more. b It's important that we take care when handling dangerous substances. c It's recommended that you switch off the lights when you are not using them. d When working with dangerous chemical materials we should be really careful. e You should turn off the lights when you leave the room. f 1 2 3 IntroductionSituation i. Children, let me introduce a new student. She’s BellaYoung and she is from a school in Oregon. ii. Good evening, ladies and gentlemen; this is your captain speaking. iii. Good morning, Miss Jenkins.You requested an electrician. I’m Danny Lamb from Blue Electric. iv. Hello? Can I speak to Irene Carter? My name is Helen Bingham and I’m calling from BritishTelecom. v. ____________________________________________________________ vi. ____________________________________________________________ a. On the phone b. On a home visit c. On a flight d. At school e. __________ f. __________ HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 59TECHNOLOGY Read the letter below and put this information (a. - d.) back in the correct places (i. - iv.). a. I propose that we use the magic roundabout on other continents such as South America and Asia. b. It is important that I first tell you why I invented it. c. “It is a good idea that they use their carousels to pump water from the holes”. d. That is why I thought it is vital that we help Africans to access water easily and cheaply. 3 Which of the three pictures (1 – 3) corresponds to the magic roundabout? Why? Explain your choice.4 1 2 3 28 March, 2010 Cape Town, South Africa Dear Suomi, Thank you very much for your letter where you are asking about my invention, the magic roundabout. It is quite simple and it is based on one of children’s all-time favourites, the carousel. How do I start to explain it? (i.)_____________________________. The fact is that parts of Africa are some of the driest areas of the world so water for drinking and irrigation is really scarce. (ii.)_________________________________ In many rural areas of developing countries the only access to water is from bore holes. These holes are usually operated by hand pumps and it is really very hard work! My idea was to make the work much easier. Every day children play on roundabouts and they love it. So I thought: (iii.)_____________________________ This is one time when parents do not mind their children “wasting time” playing, especially when it saves them - usually the mothers – spending hours walking long distances to the nearest water hole or well to collect only what they can carry, perhaps 25 litres, every day. Now many nations such as Uganda, Mozambique and Zambia are using my invention and about 650 have been installed in South Africa. (iv.)______________ In fact, the system could go all over the world. I hope that I have answered your question. It is essential that in times when our planet is in danger, we take care of our resources. Yours Trevor Field Adapted from: The Times, 17 April, 2005 by Christina Lamb. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • Read the descriptions of the products (a. – g.) and match them with the pictures (1 – 7). a. When it is sunny it keeps the sun off your head. When it is raining it keeps the rain off your face. It is easy to use and folds up neatly when you are not wearing it. b. It is temporary and you can remove it any time you want. You can tear off a long piece and put it around your entire arm, or a small piece for your leg, shoulder or... well, anywhere. c. Any time you want, you can soothe your tired muscles and rub away your tensions. Easy to use, it runs on long-life batteries. d. Tired of the mess a real tree can make on your carpet? Here is the answer! Thanks to the magic of digital technology, your TV screen will display a life-like beautiful tree – so fresh you can practically smell it. e. Hey kids, what time is it?! That used to be an easy question to answer. But why make everything easy? Have some fun with this wonderful invention. f. What can be simpler than preparing a glass of chocolate? Well, now it is even easier. Just push the button and the Moo Moo Mixer will do the work for you. g. Want to feel over the Moon? You can now. Just order a pair of Moon Boots and you will really believe you are walking on the surface of our only satellite. No need to travel into space! Adapted from: www.sillygifts.com 2 JUST FOR FUN 60 UNIT 3 Look at the pictures. Do you think that the products they advertise are real?1 4321 765
    • 61TECHNOLOGY CHILEAN CONNECTION Complete these sentences with your opinion of the products. a. I think _________________________________ is the most useless. b. I think _________________________________ can be quite useful. c. I would buy ____________________________________ for myself. d. I would buy __________________________ for my friend _______. In pairs, choose one of the products and design a publicity campaign for it. Consider the following aspects: a. Where to advertise it (TV, radio, newspapers, billboards). b. Who would be your target audience. c. What would be the slogan you would use. Example: Essential – no teen can do without it! d. Where you would sell it (department stores, supermarkets, by catalogue, etc.). 4 3 Use the Internet or books from the library to find out the meaning of the three names of the bacteria mentioned in the text. Everyone knows that copper is the most important Chilean export and that the country’s economy largely depends on it. In recent times, the technology to get pure copper from copper ore has changed substantially. The new process, called bioleaching, is based on biotechnology. Millions of years before the human species appeared on this planet there already existed organisms capable of extracting metal from rock. These are a group of bacteria known as chemoautotrophs (live entities that harvest energy through simple chemical reactions between inorganic compounds such as iron, copper and sulphur). These micro organisms are truly living fossils and are extremely successful as a form of life, as they are found in almost all the Earth’s crust, including places with extreme conditions where no other type of organism can survive. The eyes of the biggest Chilean copper producer, the state-owned Codelco, are on three tiny bacteria identified by their indigenous names: Wenelén, Licanantay and Yagán. The bacteria feed on nutrients in the mineral, separating the sterile material from the metal, which is then collected in a solution. Bioleaching is much cleaner and more environment-friendly than the traditional method which uses a powerful poison called cyanide to extract the metal from the ore. Besides, bioleaching produces less air pollution and little damage to geological formations, since the bacteria occur there naturally. Adapted from: http://www.codelco.cl/english/desarrollo/reporte/2007/mira_mineriafuturo_texto.htm And R. Badilla, September 2005, PowerPoint presentation “Biotechnology for Mining”, by Codelco and Bio-sigma. live :adj/living,notdead.Live
    • 62 UNIT 3 __________READING TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Special ships that create clouds by spraying seawater into the air could be the most cost effective way of tackling climate change, new research has found. The technique, known as marine cloud whitening, would create clouds above the Pacific Ocean that would have a cooling effect by reflecting sunlight away from Earth. A wind-powered fleet of nearly 2,000 ships would criss-cross the sea, sucking up sea water and spraying it upwards through tall funnels. ‘When you spray saltwater into the air, you create nuclei that clouds condense around, creating bigger and whiter clouds, this way bouncing more sunlight back into space,’said DavidYoung, a scientist in charge of the study. The study found that cloud whitening could effectively wipe out the effects of climate change this century with a cost of not more than £5.3 billion.This is a fraction of the £150 billion that leading nations are considering spending on the reduction of CO2 emissions each year. It is also more than 25 times cheaper than the £140 billion cost of developing the alternative of stratospheric aerial insertion.This scheme would mimic the cooling effect of volcanoes by creating a hazy layer of particles like , which would and absorb sunlight, creating a cooling effect for at least a year. The final suggestion considered was a plan to launch tiny sunshades into space to shield Earth from some of the Sun’s rays. However, this was discounted due to its astronomical cost of £236 trillion. The authors also compared the overall cost of the schemes with the cost / benefits that reducing temperatures would have.These would include the human costs on health, impact on different industries such as agriculture and tourism and the effect of flooding. They found every £1 spent on stratospheric aerosols would £15 of benefits; however every £1 spent on cloud whitening would bring £2,000 of benefits. They added that developing non- fossil fuel energy sources will take a very long time. Although hybrid and electric vehicles are available in Britain, they are still a niche market despite government incentives to‘go green’. reap scatter soot Taken from: Daily Mail, 7 August, 2009. :noun/blackpowderthatisproducedwhenwood,coal,etc.isburnt. :verb/tothrowordropthingsindifferentdirectionssothattheycoveranareaofground. :verb/toobtainsth.,especiallysth.good,asadirectresultofsth.thatyouhavedone.Reap Scatter Soot
    • 63TECHNOLOGY Read the text and choose one of these titles for it. 1 pt. a. Cheap Measures To Eliminate Global Warming b. Global Warming – The Latent Danger c. Green Ships Fight Global Warming Read the text again and match the numbers in column A with what they correspond to in column B. 4 pts. Read the text again. Are these statements true or false? 4 pts. a. The cost of cloud whitening is lower than any other way of fighting global warming. b. The cloud whitening project would be developed over the Atlantic Ocean. c. An alternative way to combat global warming is to use giant umbrellas. d. There are no hybrid or electrical vehicles in Britain. Read the text once more. What are the two main advantages of using marine cloud whitening? 2 pts. a. ____________________________________. b. ____________________________________. 4 B 3 2 15 2,000 5.3 billion 150 billion The total cost of cloud whitening. The number of ships to be used in the project. The cost governments are considering spending on the reduction of CO2 emissions. Benefits for each pound spent on stratospheric aerosols. A 1 Listen again and tick (√) the inventions that are mentioned. 2 pts. a. ___ Cutting edge computer programming. b. ___ Genetic manipulation of skin cancer cells. c. ___ Laser technology for medical use. d. ___ Tiny scissors for laboratory use Listen to the interviews again and circle what you hear. 4 pts. a. They are opened and closed with laser rays / light. b. We use them to hold and even to cut / divide molecules, genes and other tiny objects. c. I saw it in a magazine / on TV the other day. d. Doctors rub a small / tiny amount of special cream into the skin. Listen to the interviews once more and complete these sentences. 3 pts. a. A nanometre is ________________________. b. Invention 1, the ________________, is useful because ______________________________. c. Invention 2, the ________________, is useful because ______________________________. 6 26 7 26 8 26 CUTTING EDGE TECHNOLOGYLISTENING Listen to two short interviews. Where does each one take place? Choose from the options provided. 2 pts. Interview I: _______ Interview II: _______ a. In a coffee shop. c. In the street. b. In a laboratory. d. In a university classroom. 5 26
    • 64 UNIT 3 Rewrite these sentences using the provided openings. 4 pts. a. “Drink lots of water and have three light meals a day,”the doctor suggested. The doctor suggested __________________. b. “Submit the paper on Monday at the latest,” the teacher insisted. The teacher insisted ____________________. c. “We should sell the tickets at 3 pounds each,” Marie proposed. Marie proposed ________________________. d. “We must take the necessary steps to reduce global warming now!”the scientist recommended. The scientist recommended _____________. Use one of the linking words in the box to complete the sentences. 3 pts. a. He didn’t study for the test. ______________, I was surprised that he passed it at all. b. I will help you with the dishes ____________ you dry and put them away. c. ______________ she looks oriental she was born and brought up in Toronto. Finish these sentences using your own ideas. 3 pts. a. It’s essential __________________________. b. It’s vital ______________________________. c. It’s urgent ____________________________. 11 10 · as long as · even though · in fact 9 Match the introductions (a. – d.) with the pictures (1 – 4). Then practise them with a partner and role play them in front of another pair. 10 pts. a. Claire: Tom, I’d like you to meet my parents, John and Susan. Tom: Nice to meet you. b. Gareth: Hi everybody, my name’s Gareth Fitzgerald and I’m from Ireland. Friends: Hello, Gareth. c. Ben: Mrs. Gibbs, may I introduce my boss, Mr. Palmer? Mrs. Gibbs: How do you do, Mr. Palmer? d. Diana: Jenny, meet John, my husband. Jenny: Delighted to meet you, John. 12 Go back to the brochure on page 62 and summarise it in about 100 words. Include a short description of the three inventions and the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Use the Subjunctive wherever possible. 10 pts. 13 LANGUAGELANGUAGE WRITING SPEAKING 1 2 3 4 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 65TECHNOLOGY YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 9 to 11 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 5 to 8 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 2 to 4 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered some questions correctly. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just one or two questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 9 to 11 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 5 to 8 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 2 to 4 Not too bad I identified some general and specific information correctly. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I deduced a few bits of the general and specific Information. Language You are expected to apply the subjunctive and three connectors. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I applied all the items in all cases. 5 to 7 Good I applied most of the items in most cases. 2 to 4 Not too bad I applied some of the items in some cases. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I applied the items only in one or two cases. Speaking You are expected to role play dialogues of introduction. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent Good pronunciation and intonation, and no hesitation. 5 to 7 Good Acceptable pronunciation and intonation, and minimum hesitation. 3 to 4 Not too bad Some pronunciation and intonation mistakes, and some hesitation. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation and intonation mistakes, and a lot of hesitation. Writing You are expected to write a summary. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I wrote the text following all the indications, with no grammar, vocabulary or spelling mistakes. 5 to 7 Good I wrote the text following most indications, with very few grammar, vocabulary or spelling mistakes. 3 to 4 Not too bad I wrote the text following some indications and with some grammar, vocabulary and spelling mistakes. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I wrote the text but followed very few indications, and with a lot of grammar, vocabulary and spelling mistakes. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I reflected on my personal contribution to preserving our planet. I actively participated in the discussions related to technology issues. I applied the learnt structures and vocabulary in the exercises. I used different strategies to understand and to make myself understood. I showed respect for other students' opinions and ideas. SELF - EVALUATION
    • UNIT 4 66 In this unit you will learn to: READING: locate and classify specific information. LISTENING: identify speakers, find specific information. ORAL PRODUCTION: talk about art forms and preferences. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: write an article on art. FUNCTIONS: express likes and preferences. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: the Past Perfect tense (affirmative, negative and interrogative). VOCABULARY: words related to art forms such as music, painting, sculpture and others. You will pay special attention to these values Paying attention to, respecting and creating art in different forms. You will use the following text types: READING: an article. LISTENING: a conversation. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 67 HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? Match the descriptions (a. - e.) with the pictures (1 –5). 6 pts. a. Circle - a perfectly round shape. b. Hexagon - a geometric shape with six sides. c. Oval - a round, flattened shape. d. Rectangle - a geometric shape with four sides that are at right angles to each other. e. Triangle - a geometric shape with three sides. 1 What shapes are these instruments? 4 pts.2 Classify the words in the box under the corresponding category. 6 pts. Your score: 0 – 4: Look up the words in a dictionary or ask your teacher to help you. 5 – 10: Well done, but you could improve your vocabulary looking up some words. 11 – 16: Great job. You are ready to start the lesson. People Instruments Styles 1.a.-Picture3.b.-Picture2.c.-Picture1.d.-Picture5.e.-Picture4.2.1Theviolinisanoval.2Thetambourineisa circle.3Theharpisatriangle.4Thekeyboardisarectangle.3.People:cellist,composer,discjockey,singer,vocalist. Instruments:accordion,drums,flute,piano,recorder,trumpet.Styles:ballad,classical,country,gospel,jazz,reggae. · accordion · arranger · ballad · cellist · classical · composer · country · disc jockey · drums · flute · gospel · jazz · piano · recorder · reggae · singer · trumpet · vocalist 3 YOUNG ART 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 1 Classical 2 Heavy metal 3 Folk 4 Hip hop 5 Pop 6 Rock and roll 68 UNIT 4 URBAN RHYTHMS READING Lesson 1 BEFORE YOU READ Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. Why do you think people like music? b. Why do you prefer some kinds of music to others? c. How many musical instruments can you name in one minute? Put these music styles along the time line according to the pictures and your previous knowledge. Do the pictures help you decide? How? 2 1 Compare the types of music in Exercise 2 using the sentences provided. a. ____________ music is older than hip hop. b. ____________ music is louder than classical music. c. ____________ is newer than rock and roll. d. In my opinion ____________ is better than pop music. e. ____________ is as good as pop. f. ____________ has more interesting lyrics than rock and roll. g. ____________ is as entertaining to watch as heavy metal. 3 Did you know that... scientists believe that thousands of years ago, before people learnt how to speak simple music was a means of communication? Ancient people communicated imitating animal sounds (for example the roar of a lion to tell their tribe that danger was approaching) or the sound of wind or water to say that a river was near. 1. Toconnecttopicandpersonal experiences. 2. Tomatchinformationand picturesthatrepresentit. 3. Toexpressopinions. 4. Toidentifycognates. 5. Topredictusingprevious knowledge. Learning abilities
    • 6. Tovalidatepredictions. 7. Toidentifytypeoftext. 8. Tofindandmatchspecific information. 9. Tofindandtransferrelevant informationtoavisual organiser. 10. Toidentifysynonyms. Learning abilities 69YOUNG ART Read the words in the box. Which of them look / sound similar in Spanish? Do you know their meaning? Check in a dictionary. You will read an article called The Rapping Years. What do you think it will be about? a. The best age to learn to play rap music. b. The history of rap music. c. The years when rap music was most popular. WHILE YOU READ Read the text on pages 70 - 71 and check your prediction in Exercise 5. Explain your choice. Where do you think the text came from? a. A music magazine for teens. b. A daily newspaper. c. A magazine dedicated to fine art studies. Read the text again and choose one heading (a. - e.) for each paragraph (I. -V.). a. SOME FAMOUS RAPPERS b. RAP CRITICS HAVE THEIR SAY c. FROM AFRICA TO THE BRONX d. THE AFRICAN AND JAMAICAN ROOTS OF RAP MUSIC e. DIFFERENT MUSIC THROUGH THE DECADES Read the text again and tick the corresponding paragraph. Find synonyms for the following words in the text. The number in brackets indicates the paragraph. a. Connection (I) b. Source (II) c. Bad name (III) d. Differentiate (IV) e. Words of a song (V) f. Locality, area where one lives (II) · audience · captive · dimension · explosive · lyrics · popularity · rhyme 4 10 a. Mentions different types of music. b. Mentions female rappers. c. Mentions what a“toast”is . d. Lists the bad sides of rap. e. Describes the typical rapper look. I II III IV V 9 8 7 6 5 Did you know that... one of the oldest instruments on Earth is the didgeridoo - the traditional instrument of the Aboriginal peoples of Australia used for over 40,000 years? You can find information about instruments, with a brief history of each at http://www.dsokids.com/2 001/instrumentchart.htm
    • 70 UNIT 4 Every so often a new style of music emerges that takes America bystorm and comes to represent the generation that grows up with it. Inthe 50’s it was rock’n’roll, followed by the pop of the 60’s; the 1970’sbrought folk music and disco, and in the 80’s it was rap. Perhaps noother form of music has crossed as many boundaries and become abridge between America’s many cultures as rap has.Today, the art ofrapping has evolved into something that cultural and lifestyledimensions and appeals to all kinds of people all over the world. Before rap became popular it had evolved from African people ingeneral and black people born in the U.S. in particular. Its origins can betraced to West Africa, where tribesmen held“men of words”in highregard.When slaves were brought to the New World, the captives mixedAmerican music with the beats they had heard in Africa.Another originof rap is a form of Jamaican folk stories called“toasts.”These are narrativepoems that tell stories in rhyme. Over a hundred years later, rapping was a street art. Although it had first been sung in the 1950’s, three decades later it took over inner-city schoolyards and street corners. Before the slightly violent and aggressive rap of the eighties and nineties, early raps had been tales and insults directed at other rappers.This music style was slowly growing in popularity among black teens in NewYork City,Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia.As early as 1974 neighbourhood block parties in NewYork featured early forms of rapping. spans The development of rap music from its inner-city roots to its breakthrough in the 80’s with rapperslike the Sugar Hill Gang and artists like Salt-n-Pepa. :verb/stretchover;extendfromonepointtoanother.Span
    • Adapted from: The Music Library - The History of Rap and Hip-Hop, The Music Library, Hardcover by Soren Baker. 71YOUNG ART But it wasn’t until the commercial success of“Rapper’s Delight”by the Sugar HillGang in 1979 that major record labels took notice of this explosive new sound.Rap’s audience started to grow tremendously and gain notoriety with acts likePublic Enemy, N.W.A., and Ice-T. More than 30 years have now passed and rap stillhas a huge following among people of all ages and socio-economic backgrounds.From its origins in the gang dominion of Bronx and the dancehalls of downtownghettos, rap music soon found its way into the music scene. Soon, notonly African-Americans were dancing to rap music. Rap music evolved into a lyricalreflection of urban life. Rastafari-clad youth wore oversized shirts and jackets pairedwith low-riding oversized jeans that exposed their underwear. Heavy chainaccessories also became part of the rapper look. Rap music, while considered by some to be afad that would eventually lose its appeal, is really a form of musical art thathas become a way of expression. Elements of rap music like modern mouthpercussion, vocal improvisation and stripped down melody make it aunique musical experience. However, the musical style is not without itscritics. In the 80’s many raps were commentaries on the hardships of ghettolife, warnings about drugs and about teenage love or lust.Those topics ledsome parents to fear that rap encouraged youths to turn to violence andillegal substance use. Organisations such as the Parents’Music ResourceCenter had fits over lyrics in rap and hip-hop which contained explicitreferences to sex, drugs and racism.The performers don’t deny that rapmusic speaks openly about harsh topics. But they argue that audiencesshould be able to distinguish between fantasy and reality, right and wrong. Rap historians cite young Jamaican Clive Campbell as one of the proponents of rap music. After hehad migrated to the Bronx he brought with him the art of Jamaican rapping. In the Bronx, Campbell wasknown by his nickname, Kool Herc (short for Hercules). Other earlyrappers had been Jamaicans such as U Roy, Duke Reid, and SirCoxsone, followed by the next decade of rappers like MelleMel,Fatback Band, Sugarhill Gang, Grandmaster Flash, and Run-D.M.C.The early nineties saw the entry of white American rappers like IceCube to the African-American-dominated world of rap music. Evenwomen rappers surfaced in the mainstream rap music scene. Womenrappers like Salt-N-Pepper, Monie Love, and Queen Latifah rappedover R&B melodies and expressed lyrics that touched on women-related issues. Presently, rap and its close relative hip-hop are enjoyingits largest popularity ever as a result of its mainstream acceptance.And thanks to artists like Kid Rock and Eminem, African-Americansare not the only ones listening anymore. Also, the female audiencehas grown steadily with the emergence of ladies behind themicrophone like Salt-n-Pepa, Queen Latifah, and Li’l Kim. mainstream :adj/normal,typical.Mainstream HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 72 UNIT 4 AFTER YOU READ Complete this diagram with information from the text you read. a. General topic. b. Three types of music in three different decades. c. Two different origins of rap music 11 Language Note 1. Study these examples from the text paying special attention to the words in bold and the different colours used. a. After he had migrated to the Bronx he brought with him the art of Jamaican rapping. b. The captives mixed American music with the beats they had heard in Africa. c. Although it had first been sung in the 1950’s, three decades later it took over inner-city schoolyards. 2. Read the verbs highlighted in red and blue. Both of them express an action in the past but one of them indicates an action that happened before the other one. Decide which action was first. Answer: the action expressed by the verb form in red happened first. 3. The Past Perfect expresses the idea that an action occurred before another action in the past. 4. Read these examples. In which of them can you notice which action happened first? How? a. We went to see Queen Latifah’s latest film.We discussed the film in class. b. We went to see Queen Latifah’s latest film. We had discussed it in class. 5. Change sentence b. above to indicate that the other action happened first. 6. Go back to the text and find more examples of the Past Perfect tense. Copy them into your notebook using different colours and compare with other students. The Past Perfect tense a b c 11. Tosummariseinformationina graphicorganiser. 12. Toconsolidatealanguage structure. 13. Toconsolidatevocabulary throughagame. 14. Toconsolidategrammarand vocabulary. 15. Toparticipateinaguided dialogueimitatingaspoken model. 16. Toconsolidateagrammar pointinwriting. 17. Toevaluateprogress. 18. Towriteanewtextfollowing instructions. 19. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 73YOUNG ART Which action happened first? Complete with the Past Simple or the Past Perfect tense of the verbs in brackets. The pictures can help you. a. He only ___________ the film because he ___________ the book. (understand - read) b. After we ___________ at the cafeteria we ___________ to class. (eat – go) c. Marie ___________ TV once she ___________ her homework. (watch – do) d. Carlos ___________ English before he ___________ to New York. (study – travel) Play the Guess the Song game (this game requires previous preparation and a CD player). a. Choose one person in the class, who is very fond of music, to be the game master. b. The game master should bring a CD of a well-known singer or a band to the classroom. It should have at least 15 songs. c. The game master plays just 15 seconds of the first song and the group that guesses the title of the song first scores a point. d. The winner is the group that collects the highest score. 13 12 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • I can’t believe I (a. get) that flat. I (b. submit) my application last week, but I didn’t think I had a chance of getting it. When I (c. show) up to have a look at it, there were at least 20 other people who (d. arrive) before me. Most of them (e. already fill) in their applications and were leaving.The landlord said I could still apply, so I did. I (f. try) to fill in the form, but I couldn’t answer all the questions.They (g. want) me to include references, but I didn’t want to list my previous landlord because I (h. have) problems with him and I knew he wouldn’t recommend me. I (i. end) up listing my father as a reference. It was total luck that he (j. decide) to give me the flat. It turned out that the landlord and my father (k. go) to school together! He decided that I could have the flat before he even (l. look) at my credit report.Thanks, Dad! 74 UNIT 4 Complete the conversation using the Simple Past or the Past Perfect of the verbs in the box. They are in the order they should be used to fill in the blanks. Check with the recording Joanne: So, Eric, are you a music fan? Eric: I wouldn’t call myself that. I just like music. Joanne: Do you like pop music? Eric: Not really, but I _____________ to it before I _____________ rap. Joanne: What do you mean,“_____________”rap? Eric: I _____________ a great rap musician when I _____________ in New York. Joanne: Yeah? Who is he? Eric: His name’s Sean Paul. Joanne: Is he American? Eric: He _____________ in Kingston, and _____________ to New York after he _____________ in Jamaica for more than twenty years. Joanne: What’s so special about him? Eric: Before he _____________ a rapper in the Bronx he _____________ a“toaster”in Kingston. Joanne: A toaster? Eric: Yes, a singer who tells stories in songs. Joanne: I think I know him. He’s the singer who _____________ his money to charity after he _____________ a Grammy. Eric: The same one. Joanne: You’re right. He’s a great musician. Practise the conversation with a partner and then role play it for the rest of the class. Copy this text into your notebook putting the verbs in brackets (a. - l.) in the correct form. 16 · listen · discover · discover · meet · live · be born · move · live · become · be · give · win 2814 2815 Sean Paul (born in 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica) HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 75YOUNG ART You are going to write an article on the history of a painting style or some type of music (not rap or hip hop). a. Work in groups of four or five students. b. Choose a type of music (pop, classical, rock, etc.) or a painting style (impressionism, cubism, realism, etc.) and one person to take notes. c. Brainstorm what you know about the subject. List all the contributions from group members and then organise the gathered information in some meaningful way (for example, by dates). d. Decide what tasks still need to be carried out, for example, investigate the subject using the Internet or the library, collect and classify pictures, etc. e. Prepare a time line for your chosen style and plan your article by using all the information and the visuals you have gathered. f. Decide how many paragraphs your article will have and choose one heading for each paragraph. g. Finish the article with a conclusion: what was the reason you chose to write about this style? Why is this style especially important for you? h. Remember: i. Keep it simple. Do not use“flowery language”, or too complex sentences. ii. Write about the past in the past tense. Remember the sequence of events. iii. Avoid writing in the first person (I, we). i. Check your work. Reread your article and make sure that it makes sense. j. Evaluate your work following these points. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING18 • We analysed the topics and the information. • We divided the tasks before writing. • We discussed the structure of the article and agreed on the title and paragraph headings. • We used expressions and structures learnt in the lesson. • We checked and corrected errors and punctuation. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What vocabulary related to music and music styles have you learnt? b. What have you learnt about the history of rap? c. What is your opinion of rappers who insult other singers? d. There are some people who think that rap is a social tool which young people use to express themselves. Do you agree? e. What do your parents say about the kind of music you like? 19 MINITEST Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 10 pts. a. The fans ____________ very angry with the football players because they ____________ the match. (be - lose) b. Before he ____________ to Valdivia my father ____________ in the north. (move - work) c. He ____________ with the Rolling Stones after he ____________ the other band. (play - leave) d. Great grandpa Dennis ____________ excellent Italian because he ____________ in Rome. (speak - study) e. Karen ____________ very tired this morning because she ____________ to bed very late last night. (be - go) 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to6GOOD JOB! 7to 10EXCELLENT! 17
    • Going to art galleries Attending lectures on art Going to concerts Reading a book Painting pictures Listening to music Looking at paintings on the web Taking photographs 76 UNIT 4 MOBILE ART LISTENING Lesson 2 BEFORE YOU LISTEN In pairs talk about these activities. Which ones do you enjoy doing? Use the expressions in the box to express your preferences. · I prefer · I like · more / less than · better than · I don’t like · as much as 1 One of the pictures below is painted in a style called cubism and the other in a style called futurism. Can you guess which one is which? What do you think the words mean? What shapes were used to paint the pictures? Which one do you prefer? Compare the pictures using expressions such as: as _____ as, not so _____ as, more / less _____ than, bigger, smaller, etc. 2 Listen and repeat these words. Do you know what they mean? Which ones sound similar in Spanish? Check all the meanings in a dictionary. · affordable · application · brush · canvas · cheerful · colourful · saturation · stroke · thumb · walker 293 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Toexpresspersonalattitudes andopinions. 3. Togetgeneralmeaningfrom cognates. 4. Topredictmessagesusing non-verbalcontent. Learning abilities
    • 77YOUNG ART WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the conversation and check your prediction in Exercise 4. Listen again. Which of these two paintings does the speaker have on the wall of her living room? How do you know? List the key words that helped you to decide. Compare with another student. 306 305 Listen again and write the corresponding name: Belinda, Matthew Watkins, Jorge Colombo or Renata. a. _______________ bought one of the paintings. b. _______________ is the painter of the picture on the wall. c. _______________ used the iPhone to paint a cover of the New Yorker. d. _______________ is the owner of the gallery that sells iPhone paintings. 307 American v/s British English color/colorful colour/colourful You will hear two people talking about a new art form that involves a device we use in everyday life. Which of these do you think it is? 4 a. A microwave oven. b. An iPhone. c. An iPod. 1 2 5. Tovalidatepredictions. 6. Tofindspecificsupporting information. 7. Tomatchspecificinformation. 8. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 9. Tofindspecificinformation. 10. Toinferinformation. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 78 UNIT 4 Listen again and choose the correct option. a. This painting is __________ many posters. i. cheaper than ii. as cheap as iii. not as cheap as b. Unlike canvas, you can undo and redo strokes __________ you like. i. as rarely as ii. as often as iii. more frequently than c. It looks as if iPhone is becoming __________ iPod. i. as hot as ii. not so hot as iii. hotter than Listen once more and answer these questions. a. How much did Renata pay for the painting on her wall? b. Where did she buy it? c. How long did it take the painter to paint Renata’s picture? d. Where did he paint it? What probably happened after this conversation? a. Giovanni bought an iPhone to replace his iPod. b. Giovanni bought some futuristic paintings at the gallery. c. Giovanni made a futuristic painting on his iPhone. AFTER YOU LISTEN Match the words from the recording in box A with their synonyms in box B. A B Fill in the gaps in these sentences with some of the words in Exercise 11. a. Brushes from an iPhone uses different painting ____________. b. First she wanted to buy a rectangular table but then chose a ____________ one. c. I’d rather be a good ____________ than a bad professional. d. Paola used this ____________ for her first oil painting. e. This ____________ is designed to perform editorial functions. f. We bought the car from the ____________. g. When he went to London, he visited the National Portrait ____________. 3010 9 12 · exhibition room · fabric · non-professional · program · proprietor · round · technique · ultramodern · visual artist · amateur · application · canvas · circular · futuristic · gallery · owner · painter · style 11 30 308Did you know that... a mobile phone works by sending radio signals through the air? When you talk on a mobile phone the message doesn’t go straight to the person at the other end; it goes to the nearest cell phone tower and into the telephone network. Then it is connected to the phone of the person you want to speak to. Each cell phone tower only covers a certain area so as you move from one place to another you move from one cell phone tower ranger to the next. 11. Toidentifysynonyms. 12. Toexpandvocabulary. 13. Toconsolidatevocabularyand structures. 14. Toexpandcontentexpressing opinions. 15. Toimitateaspokenmodel. 16. Toevaluatelearning. 17. Totalkaboutartformsand preferences. 18. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities
    • Language Note 1. Read these sentences from the listening text. a. Matthew Watkins told me he had already made 20 and sold most of them. b. Watkins explained he had painted the one I bought while on the underground. c. He said he hadn’t needed more than 30 minutes to finish it. 2. What is the first verb in the three sentences? What do they have in common? 3. We use the Past Perfect to indicate an earlier event in the past in sentences that start with words such as: said, told, explained, answered, indicated, etc. The action of saying, telling, answering, etc. takes place after the action we are talking about. 4. Read some more examples. a. Renata said (second) she had bought (first) the painting in London. b. Giovanni told us (second) he had seen (first) this film before. c. The painter explained he had sold the painting to someone else. d. The accident victim answered that he had lost control of the car. The Past Perfect tense (continued) Match bubbles to form four sentences and then match the sentences with the pictures below. 13 79YOUNG ART 1 2 3 4 a b c Renata said he had lived in Paris as a child. he had painted the picture on the subway. d e f she had gone to school with Belinda. g The painter told us h they had played football in the park. Terrence said The children explained HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 80 UNIT 4 Camila: Which art form do you prefer, painting or sculpture? Andy: I much prefer __________________________ __________________________. Camila: Which do you prefer, modern or traditional art? Andy: I think modern art is ____________________ __________________________. Camila: Do you think that the colours used in futuristic paintings are more or less vivid than in traditional paintings? Andy: They’re definitely _______________________ __________________________. Camila: Are foreign artists better than national ones? Andy: In my opinion, foreign artists _____________ __________________________. Camila: Which is more interesting: the Fine Arts or the Modern Arts museum? Andy: I think that ____________________________ __________________________. Camila: Who do you think is a better painter, Leonardo da Vinci or Picasso? Andy: It depends, but ________________________ __________________________. Camila: And if you could buy one painting, what style would you choose? Andy: I would choose ________________________ __________________________. Listen to the recording and then practise the conversation with a partner, using your own ideas. Role play the conversation in small groups. 3115 Finish the conversation using your own ideas. Tick your choice in the pictures and then compare with the recording. 3114 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 81YOUNG ART You will discuss the art form you prefer with your partner. a. Prepare a set of cut-outs with different art forms or use an art book from the library. Each of you will need at least 1 pair of pictures. Each person should take 2 pictures to compare. b. Make a list of adjectives for each picture. Divide the list into two categories: one to describe the pictures and one with adjectives that describe your feelings while looking at them. Here are some examples: Description: bright, colourful, dull, elegant, magnificent, ugly. Feelings: bored, curious, depressed, excited, indifferent, joyful. c. Take turns to describe and compare the first pair of pictures, talking first about what you can see. Then say how the pictures make you feel. You can ask questions such as: What are your impressions of…? Which picture is more / less…? Which one would you buy? etc. d. Now compare your likes / dislikes and preferences. Do you both agree on all the pictures? Why? Why not? What is different? e. Finally get together with another pair and compare your pictures, descriptions and opinions. f. Ask your teacher to listen to the presentations and correct errors and pronunciation. g. Use these points to evaluate your performance. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK - SPEAKING17 • We prepared for the exercise very carefully. • We followed the suggestions offered in the instructions. • We helped each other to express our preferences showing respect for our differences. • We corrected each other’s grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. • We used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about art in this lesson? b. Can you name at least five famous artists? c. What do you think about paintings done with an artist’s own hands and paintings done using some type of software? d. If you could choose between a painting by Leonardo da Vinci and one created on an iPhone to put in your living room, which would you choose? Why? 18 MINITEST Write sentences in your notebook reporting what these people said. 8 pts. a. “I saw Casino Royale on TV”, Laurie said. b. “ I sent the packet three days ago”, the man told me. c. “The Neanderthal lived thousands of years ago”, the scientist explained. d. “We have uploaded the exam results on our website”, the university authorities announced. 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to5GOOD JOB! 6 to8EXCELLENT! 16 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 82 UNIT 4 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Complete the diagrams below. In groups or pairs choose four adjectives from the box to describe each central idea. Write four sentences comparing rap with other types of music and iPhone painting with other forms of painting. Use expressions such as I prefer ______ to ______, I like ______ more than ______, ______ is better than ______, ______ is more interesting than ______, etc. · African · appealing · boring · colourful · disappointing · expressive · futuristic · happy · incomprehensible · loud · modern · multi-cultural · mysterious · original · popular 1 ________________ iPhone art ________ ________ ________________ Rap music ________ ________ a. _____________________________________________________________________________. b. _____________________________________________________________________________. c. _____________________________________________________________________________. d. _____________________________________________________________________________. a. Rap is more appealing than pop because it talks about everyday things. b. _____________________________________________________________________________. c. _____________________________________________________________________________. d. _____________________________________________________________________________. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • No other artist is more associated with the term Modern Art than Pablo Picasso. He a. (paint) ______________ thousands of paintings, prints and ceramics before he was 50 years old. After he left Malaga where b. (live) ______________ as a young boy, he joined the Barcelona School of Fine Arts at the age of only 14. According to one of many legends about the artist’s life, his father, also a painter, gave him all his brushes and palettes after he c. (see) ______________ his son’s first painting. During his lifetime, the artist went through different periods of characteristic painting styles. The Blue Period d. (come) ______________ before the artist started the so-called Rose Period. But after he e. (see) ______________ the works of Paul Cezanne, he developed, together with George Braque and Juan Gris, the style called cubism. In 1937, after the painter f. (learn) ______________ about the barbaric air raid against a Basque village during the Spanish Civil War, he created his landmark painting Guernica. In Guernica, Picasso used symbolic forms such as a dying horse or a weeping woman. 83YOUNG ART Complete these questions using the Past Perfect tense of the verbs in brackets. a. ________________________ your homework before you surfed the Internet? (finish) b. ________________________ breakfast before you left for school? (have) c. ________________________ in Canada before she moved to Mexico? (live) d. ________________________ his hands before he made the sandwich? (wash) e. ________________________ this guy before he came to the party? (meet) Complete this biography using the Past Perfect tense.3 2 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • An artist who cannot spare the time to travel is using Google StreetView to visit stunning locations around the world and capture them in paint. For the past year, the virtual globe- trotter Bill Guffey, 45, has spent hundreds of hours travelling thousands of virtual miles to visit places he feels he will never get to see in person. But using the Internet giant’s mapping tool, with which web-surfers can visit locations across the globe, Bill, from Kentucky in the U.S. has been able to capture iconic landscapes far from home. Creating his amazing set of paintings through their street view counterparts, the 45-year-old graphic artist has walked through every state in his home country as well as England, Italy, France, Switzerland, China and India. And after electronically hiking through some of the planet’s most beautiful spots, this father-of-two sits down to paint them at his home studio. He said:‘Having to look after my family and hold down a job have meant that I cannot travel very much. But StreetView has really changed everything for me because it means I can go to all of those places I am in love with, sit and paint them as if I am really there. ‘Travelling is what really does it for me.When I was younger and single I travelled around Europe and other countries across the world and it is the best thing I have ever done. ‘Now that I have become a painter I would love to revisit some of those places and capture them in paint. But for the present, Google is an amazing substitute.’ ‘Working like this I can look for those views I think are still iconic of their countries, but not necessarily their most famous buildings,’he said. To find his perfect places, Bill uses the odd method of beginning his Google search looking for certain businesses. ‘By picking a type of business that fits the kind of location I want to find, I end up in places that would be difficult to discover on foot. For example, if I pick a tattoo parlour in a certain US state, I seem to have a pretty good feel of the architecture that will come up on street view.’ Onotheroccasions,Billsimplypicksaplacenameoutofahat andvirtuallywalksarounduntilhefindsaninspiringview. He has so far created over 100 paintings and in his series has captured a red phone box inTrafalgar Square, London, a lonely house in Scotland, a yellow taxi in NewYork, and a canal boat in Holland. His pieces range up to 76x102 centimetres and sell for up to £1,500. JUST FOR FUN 84 UNIT 4 Which of these countries has Bill visited virtually (V) and which of them has he included in his paintings (P)? ____ China ____ England ____ France ____ Holland ____ India ____ Italy ____ Switzerland ____ The USA 1 Taken from: www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1212494/Vincent-Van-Google-Artist-uses-Street-View-website-travel-world-virtually.html Vincent Van Google How an artist uses the StreetView website to travel the world virtually
    • 85YOUNG ART CHILEAN CONNECTION Talk about graffiti in your group. Do you think it is an art form or vandalism? Can you name a few examples of street paintings you have seen recently? MURALS IN CHILE Chile has long been a centre for radical mural painting and it is a place where many colourful and quality murals can be seen in the streets of Valparaiso, Santiago and other cities. As early as 1940, leading Mexican and Chilean artists, including David Alfaro Siqueiros, Fernando Marcos and Gregorio de la Fuente, were painting murals in Chile. Today, Latin American street art is as innovative as any in the world, and Chile plays a leading part. At present, Chile is part of a very ambitious project called Murals Around the World. This project is a worldwide collaborative effort that began in 2003. It is produced through submission of mural photographs by supporters of the decorative arts worldwide. The goal of the project is to document murals from around the world. Only commissioned, private or community murals, produced with permission from the property owner, are accepted. The project is also looking for documentation regarding the mural artist or artistic group, and any facts related to any murals on this site. Art is often temporary and as such, the project’s goal is to document as many murals as posible from both the past and the present. Some of the murals have already disappeared, since the project began. On March 10, 2009 the project managers released their first Windows Media Player version and the murals, from Chile and other countries can be seen on video. Adapted from: www.danfulwiler.com/muralsaroundtheworld 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Match the countries in Exercise 1 with the typical views in these pictures (1 – 8).2
    • 86 UNIT 4 WHO IS BANKSY?READING TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. He is perhaps the most famous, or infamous, artist alive.To some, he is a genius; to others, a vandal. Always controversial, he inspires admiration and provokes outrage in equal measure. II. Since Banksy made his name with his trademark stencil-style ‘guerrilla’art on walls, subways, buses and other public spaces - on walls in London, Brighton, and even on theWest Bank barrier separating Israel from Palestine - his works have sold for hundreds of thousands of pounds. III.He has dozens of celebrity collectors including Brad Pitt and Christina Aguilera (1) ________________ For example, Banksy’s painting of a monkey wearing a sandwich board sold for £228,000 this year. He has also painted murals including a Mona Lisa with a rocket launcher – sold for another outrageous amount. IV.Yet his most provocative statement, and the one that generates the most publicity, is the fact that Banksy’s true identity has always been a jealously guarded secret, (2) ________________. Some myths have grown around him.That his real name is Robin Banks. That before he became a painter (3) ________________.That his parents don’t know what he does and think that he is an unusually successful painter and decorator.Then there’s the suggestion that Banksy is actually a number of artists or that he does not exist at all. V. Such is the curiosity about Banksy that when the great man is supposed to have thrown away a pizza box into a bin in Los Angeles, (4) ________________, with the seller suggesting that the few anchovies left inside might have traces of his DNA! But trying to establish just who the elusive Banksy is has proved as difficult as predicting the location of his next work. VI.Banksy has supposedly been photographed a few times but each photo appears to be that of a different person, so who knows? But does it really matter who Banksy is? Is art about the artist (5) ________________?The people who buy his art think that the person behind it does not really matter. It seems to support the statement: art, in the end, is only about art. Adapted from: Daily Mail by Claudia Joseph, 12 July, 2008.
    • 87YOUNG ART Listen to this conversation and choose the best option. 4 pts. a. Who is going to the concert? i. Dani and Carol. ii. Dani, Carol and Jen. iii. Dani and Jen. b. When is Jen’s maths exam? i. Tomorrow. ii. On Monday. iii. Today. c. How is Jen doing in maths? i. It is her worst subject. ii. It is her favourite subject. iii. It is her most important subject. d. How is Nelly Furtado described? i. A fantastic jazz singer. ii. The best ballad singer. iii. A wonderful singer. Listen again and write the name of the speaker, Dani or Jen. 4 pts. a. _______: I’m studying for my maths exam. b. _______: I have a spare ticket to a Nelly Furtado show. c. _______: Her guitarist and drummer are tops. d. _______: I’m a concert fan! Listen once more and choose the word you hear. 4 pts. a. This is your only chance / choice. b. My maths exam is more important / difficult now. c. You cannot / mustn’t miss her. d. I can / can’t help you with maths tomorrow. 326 325 324 CONCERT FANSLISTENINGRead the text. Parts of some sentences have been cut out (a. – e.). Place them back in the correct positions in the text ((1) – (5)). 5 pts. a. he had been a butcher b. known to only a handful of trusted friends c. or is it about the art itself d. the box was sold on eBay, the auction site e. who buy his art without actually meeting the man! Read the text again and mark with a tick the paragraph where you can find this information. 6 pts. Read the text once more and answer these questions. 4 pts. a. What are some things that Banksy has painted? b. Who are some of Banksy’s collectors? c. What object supposedly belonging to the artist was sold on eBay? d. Do people who buy his art care about his identity? a. Atruthaboutart. b. Difficultytoprove Banksy’sidentity. c. Famouscollectorsand priceypaintings. d. Inventedinformation aboutBanksy. e. People’sreactionsto Banksy’swork. f. Placeshehaspainted. I II III IV V VI 3 2 1
    • 88 UNIT 4 WRITING John arrived late at different places yesterday. What had happened by the time he arrived at each place? Write the correct sentences using the clues provided and the correct verb form. 4 pts. a. (the station - train - leave) _____________________________________. b. (the theatre - play - start) _____________________________________. c. (his friend’s house - she - go out) _____________________________________. d. (football stadium - game - finish) _____________________________________. Rewrite these sentences using the openings provided. 4 pts. a. John:“The phone rang at three o’clock in the morning!” John complained that __________________. b. Tina:“The exam began ten minutes late.” Tina told us that _______________________. c. Fred:“I lived in Dublin before moving to Los Angeles.” Fred said that _________________________. d. Marian:“The doctor asked me to describe my typical day.” Marian explained that __________________. 8 7 One of these pictures is an example of surrealism by Chilean painter Roberto Matta and the other one is an example of pop art by American artist Andy Warhol. Work with a partner and compare the two paintings, expressing your preferences. 10 pts. 9 LANGUAGE SPEAKING 1 2 Choose a singer or a band that you like. Write three paragraphs about the artist / artists. Include information about the points below (a. – c.) 10 pts. a. A brief history / biography of the artist(s). b. The type of music he / she plays / they play, giving examples of his / her / their hits. c. Why you think this type of music is worth listening to. 10 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 89YOUNG ART YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 15 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 7 to 9 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 4 to 6 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just a few questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 12 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 7 to 9 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 4 to 6 Not too bad I identified some general and specific information correctly. 0 to 3 Unsatisfactory I deduced a few bits of the general and specific information. Language You are expected to apply and identify two language items. Your score 7 to 8 Excellent I understood and applied all the items in all cases. 4 to 6 Good I understood and applied all the items in most cases. 2 to 3 Not too bad I understood and applied the items in some cases. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I understood and applied the items in very few cases. Speaking You are expected to be able to compare two paintings expressing your preferences. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent Good pronunciation and no hesitation. 5 to 7 Good Good pronunciation and minimum hesitation. 2 to 4 Not too bad Some pronunciation mistakes and hesitation. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Writing You are expected to write three paragraphs following instructions. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I wrote the text about my favourite band following all the indications. 5 to 7 Good I wrote the text following most of the indications. 2 to 4 Not too bad I wrote the text following some of the indications. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I wrote the text following very few of the indications. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I critically thought about different types of art, expressed my opinion and showed interest and respect for other people’s ideas. I applied the learnt structures and vocabulary in the exercises. I used different strategies to understand and to make myself understood. I actively participated in the discussions and conversations related to art and artists. SELF - EVALUATION
    • UNIT 5 90 In this unit you will learn to: READING: fill in graphic organisers with specific information / identify the source of a text / identify scientific language. LISTENING: find specific information / transfer information to a graphic organiser / identify Internet language. ORAL PRODUCTION: discuss a scientific topic. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: write a scientific article. FUNCTIONS: forming and substantiating hypotheses. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: reporting verbs and indirect questions. VOCABULARY: words related to science and scientific discoveries. You will pay special attention to these values Why and how science can change our lives for the better. You will use the following text types: READING: a scientific article. LISTENING: a web cam lecture. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 91 HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? Match the names of scientists in the box with the pictures that represent them (1 – 6) and their areas of study (a. – f.) Say / write definitions like this: A(n) ________________________ is a scientist who studies ________________________. 12 pts. · Archaeologist · Astronomer · Enologist · Entomologist · Geneticist · Ornithologist 1 SCIENCE a. Ancient cultures and periods of history. d. Heredity and variation in organisms. b. Birds and their behaviour. e. Insects. c. Celestial bodies and the universe. f. Technique and art of producing wine. Classify the nouns in the box under the corresponding heading. 9 pts. Your score: 0 - 6: Look up the words in a dictionary or ask your teacher to help you. 7 -13: Well done, but you could improve your vocabulary looking up some words. 14 - 21: Great job. You are ready to start the lesson. Instruments People Disciplines 1.Archaeologist–2–a.Astronomer–6–c.Enologist–4–f.Entomologist–5–e.Geneticist–4–d.Ornithologist–3–b. 2.Instruments:barometer,microscope,speedometer,stethoscope,telescope,thermometer.People:geologist,inventor, palaeontologist,researcher,scientist.Disciplines:astronomy,biotechnology,chemistry,geography,microbiology,neurology. · astronomy · barometer · biotechnology · chemistry · geography · geologist · inventor · microbiology · microscope · neurology · palaeontologist · researcher · scientist · speedometer · stethoscope · telescope · thermometer 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 1 92 UNIT 5 THE MAGIC OF DNA READING Lesson 1 BEFORE YOU READ Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. Why do you think we use scientific terms? b. Do the words in the box look or sound similar in Spanish? c. What do you think their origin is? d. What do they mean? e. In which science discipline are they normally used? Classify the animals in the pictures under the corresponding category, living or extinct. 2 · biologist · carnivore · DNA · dinosaur · geneticist · genome · molecular · ornithologist · permafrost · zoologist 1 According to their origin, scientific words in English can be: a.taken from ordinary English words: energy, power, womb, etc. b.taken from another language: nimbus, cortex, pelvis, helix, etc. c.Invented: polonium, uranium, watt, etc. While scientific words are sometimes long and difficult to pronounce, Internet users have created netspeak or chatspeak, which is very often abbreviated or simplified. The same abbreviations appear in texting and instant messaging or in social networking websites. Examples: Blog - the publication of one’s thoughts on the Internet. To tweet - to write comments on the Twitter website. To unfriend - to remove someone from Facebook. PAW - parents are watching. 2day - today. b4n - good bye for now. Learning tip 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Toconnectpicturesandtopic. 3. Toexpressopinions. 4. Topredictcontentfromthe context. Learning abilities
    • 93SCIENCE In your opinion, which word in each line does not correspond to the category? Why? a. animal - beast - creature - dangerous b. egg - mother - species - womb c. alive - endangered - extinct - happy d. baker - biologist - geneticist - zoologist You will read a text about scientists cloning extinct animals from their DNA. Which animals from Exercise 2 do you think will be mentioned? WHILE YOU READ Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 4. What is the purpose of this text? Choose the best alternative. a. To describe. c. To instruct. b. To inform. d. To persuade. Read the article again. Which of the animals are represented in these pictures? Which key words helped you decide? 7 6 5 4 3 Did you know that... according to scientists, more than one and a half million species exist on the earth today? However, recent estimates state that at least 20 times that many species inhabit the planet. There are more than 1,000 animal species endangered world-wide. 1 2 3 4 5 6 What do these words in bold in the text refer to? a. it (paragraph 4, line 1) d. it (paragraph 10, line 3) b. he (paragraph 5, line 3) e. its (paragraph 11, line 2) c. she (paragraph 8, line 1) f. he (paragraph 13, line 5) 8 5. Tovalidatepredictions. 6. Toidentifypurposeofatext. 7. Tofindspecificsupporting information. 8. Toidentifyreferences. 9. Totransferrelevant informationtoavisual organiser. 10. Todifferentiatebetweenfact andopinion. 11. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. Learning abilities
    • 94 UNIT 5 THE MAGIC OF DNA may bring back extinct animals The recipe for making any creature is written in its DNA. So when geneticists recently published the near-complete DNA sequence of the long extinct woolly mammoth, there was much speculation about whether we could bring this creature back to life. Creating a living, breathing creature from a genome sequence that exists only in a computer’s memory is not possible right now.“But someone, some day, is sure to try it”says Stephan Schuster, a molecular biologist at Pennsylvania State University and a driving force behind the mammoth genome project.“After all, 50 years ago, we could have only dreamt we would now be capable of reading the instructions for making humans or clone animals such as Dolly the sheep!” Schuster added. Besides the mammoth, what other extinct beasts might we bring back to life? Schuster explained that it was only going to be possible with beings for which we can retrieve a complete genome sequence. He added that without one, there was no chance.The revival recipe also requires a living and closely-related species to act as a mother, donating an egg and her womb to bring the project to completion. In this case, we can forget about dinosaurs. So, what does the potential“resurrection list”look like? Schuster explained that it included some ten creatures either already extinct or about to disappear. Woolly Mammoth These giant woolly creatures first appeared around 4.8 million years ago but mysteriously disappeared around 5,000 years ago, possibly due to climate change or hunting. Schuster told us that their DNA had already been decoded. He added that if this could be turned into fresh material, the creatures could be cloned with the African elephant acting as a surrogate mother. Dodo Hunting and habitat destruction led to the bird’s demise in the late 17th century. However, the phrase‘dead as a dodo’has meant it lives on in the imagination. Ornithologists predict that if suitable DNA is found it could be used to create clones nursed through pregnancy by pigeons. The Sabre-toothed Tiger. Despite becoming extinct 10,000 years ago, likely due to environmental changes or over-hunting at the end of the last Ice Age, this beast with dagger- sharp fangs has remained a source of fascination. Can it be resurrected? Apparently yes. Zoologists announce that DNA samples preserved in permafrost or tar could be used to create clones which would be grown inside an African lion. fearsome surrogate :adjective/awful:causingfearordreadorterror. :nounoradjective/onethattakes theplaceofanother. SurrogateFearsome American v/s British English Dreamt Dreamed
    • 95SCIENCE :noun/thehornytoeofamammalsuchasacoworahorse.Hoof/pl.hooves Tasmanian Tiger Tissue samples of this marsupial, which was hunted to extinction in the 1930s, are stored in museums around the world. “How easy is it to clone it?”we asked Jenny White, a geneticist. She replied that once sequenced, the DNA could be used to create clones, brought into the world with the help of Tasmanian devil surrogate mothers. Irish Elk Once found across Europe, the Irish elk had antlers almost four metres wide and stood two meters tall at the shoulder. It became extinct 7,700 years ago. Its closest living relative is the much smaller European deer, which could be used as a surrogate for this elk. Short-faced Bear Despite its name, the short-faced bear, which became extinct 11,000 years ago, dwarfed the polar bear - the world’s current largest living land carnivore. “Any chance of bringing it back?”we asked Prof. Schuster from Pennsylvania. He responded that there were specimens encased in permafrost from which DNA could be recovered.The species’closest living relative is the spectacled bear of South America. The Neanderthal The Neanderthal, a distant relative of the humans, disappeared 25,000 years ago, although a draft of its genome is expected to be published later this year. Modern humans would provide ideal egg donors and surrogate mothers, but as New Scientist says:‘It is hard to imagine even the most crazed of mad scientists entering such taboo territory’. Woolly Rhinoceros The woolly rhinoceros became extinct 10,000 years ago. Many specimens are preserved in permafrost and hair, horns and could provide DNA. Ironically, the surrogates - modern rhino species - are on the brink of extinction. Giant Ground Sloth The giant ground sloth stood nearly six metres tall and is believed to have weighed four tonnes. It disappeared some 8,000 years ago. “How feasible is it to resurrect it?”we asked an expert. “Several specimens have been found with hair, but finding a suitable surrogate mother would be a challenge, as its nearest living relative - the three-toed tree sloth - is tiny by comparison,”he answered. Moa This huge bird was a distant relative of the ostrich from New Zealand and disappeared only 508 years ago. It might be possible to‘boot up’the Moa genome in an ostrich egg, but no bird of any description has yet been cloned. hooves Adapted from: Ten extinct beasts that could walk the Earth again, by Henry Nicholls. New Scientist Magazine, issue 2690, 07 January 2009.
    • Name Became extinct DNA availability Surrogate Late 17th Century 11,000 years ago. 508 years ago. DNAsamplespreserved inpermafrostortarcould beusedtocreateclones. A draft of its genome is expected to be published later this year. Tasmanian devil. Moderm rhino. 96 UNIT 5 Read the text again and fill in the missing information in the table.9 Read these sentences and then read the text again. Do the sentences express a fact (F) or an opinion (O)? a. ______ The“resurrection list”includes ten different creatures. b. ______ But someone, some day, is sure to try it. c. ______ The European deer is smaller than its ancestor species. d. ______ It is a crazy idea to use humans to clone the Neanderthal. e. ______ The Moa disappeared in the 16th century. 10 a. Woolly mammoth b. c. d. e. Irish elk f. g. h. i. Giant ground sloth j. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 97SCIENCE Language Note 1. Examine these pairs of sentences from the text, paying special attention to the parts in bold. a. “It is only going to be possible with creatures for which we can retrieve a complete genome sequence,”Schuster explained. b. Schuster explained that it was only going to be possible with creatures for which we can retrieve a complete genome sequence. c. “Without one, there is no chance,”he added. d. He added that there was no chance without one. e. “If suitable DNA is found it could be used to create clones nursed through pregnancy by pigeons,”ornithologists predict. f. Ornithologists predict that if suitable DNA is found it could be used to create clones nursed through pregnancy by pigeons. 2. What do you notice about sentences a, c and e? How are sentences b, d and f different? 3. Notice the verbs in bold in the sentences. We call them reporting verbs and we use them to communicate what someone said more accurately than using say or tell. Other reporting verbs are: 4. Notice that if the reporting verb is in the Past tense the rest of the sentence experiences some tense changes. Present Simple Past Simple Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Simple (will) would Present Perfect Past Perfect 5. Go back to the text and find more examples of sentences reporting what someone said. Write them in two groups in your notebook. “_________________” _______________ that _______________ · add · admit · agree · announce · answer · claim · comment · complain · confirm · consider · deny · doubt · estimate · explain · feel · insist · mention · observe · persuade · propose · remark · remember · repeat · reply · report · reveal · say · state · suggest · suppose · tell · think · understand Reporting verbs Read the text once more. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false statements. a. _____To clone any creature we need its DNA. b. _____The Neanderthal was a relative of humans. c. _____The modern three-toed sloth is an ideal surrogate for the giant sloth. d. _____Tissue samples of the Tasmanian tiger can be found in many museums around the world. 11 AFTER YOU READ 12. Toapplynewvocabularyand structures. 13. Toconsolidategrammarand vocabulary. 14. Toparticipateinaguidedoral activity. 15. Toevaluatelearning. 16. Tocreateanewtext. 17. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 98 UNIT 5 Write what the people said exactly. Example: Schuster explained that it included some ten creatures either already extinct or about to disappear. “It includes some ten creatures either already extinct or about to disappear,” Schuster explained. a. She replied that once sequenced, the DNA could be used to create clones, brought into the world with the help ofTasmanian devil surrogate mothers. b. He added that if this could be turned into fresh material, the creatures could be cloned with the African elephant acting as a surrogate mother. c. We asked an expert how feasible it was to resurrect it. d. He responded that there were specimens encased in permafrost from which DNA could be recovered. Read what Wanda told her friend (a. – e.) and match each situation with one of the pictures (1 – 6) Then re-write the sentences using different reporting verbs + that. Be careful to include any necessary changes. 13 12 a. “Jack, I can’t go to the party on Wednesday with you,”I told him. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. b. “I have some really important homework to do,”I explained. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. c. “But we have to go out some time soon”, he insisted. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. d. “I will go to the cinema with you on the weekend,”I promised. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. e. “Call me on Friday to decide on the film,” I suggested. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. f. “Yes, the best films are romantic comedies,” I agreed. ______________________________________ ______________________________________. Listen to the recording to check your answers. Listen and practise the dialogue. Then role play it for the class. 3414 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 99SCIENCE In your group, you are going to write a scientific article. a. Choose a subject you are currently studying in your biology, physics or chemistry class. For example, if you are currently studying the cell, choose one specific type of cell such as the nerve cell, or the blood cell, etc. b. Distribute research tasks among the group members: parts of the cell, reproduction, ageing, etc. c. Think about and develop a list of points to be included in the article. d. Think what title you would like to give the article. Scientific articles do not have catchy titles but rather informative ones. e. Consider these important suggestions when writing your article. i. Be clear and concise; write briefly and to the point. ii. Use the right terminology; scientific articles do not use colloquial expressions. iii. Do not use contractions: for example, “don’t” must be “do not”, “isn’t” must be “is not”, etc. iv. Use the appropriate tenses; the Past tense to reflect work that has been completed, the Present tense to indicate permanent processes, etc. f. Write the article as a group; check each other’s grammar and spelling. g. At the end of your article, provide the references you based your article on. For example: Cell reproduction - http://anthro.palomar.edu h. Follow these points to evaluate your work. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING16 • We analysed the topic and the information required. • We divided the research tasks and did what we were expected to do. • We discussed the structure of the article and agreed on the title. • We used expressions and structures learnt in the lesson. • We checked and corrected errors and punctuation. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What new scientific terms have you learnt? b. What are the main characteristics of a scientific article? c. What is your opinion of science and its importance in our lives? d. What do you think about bringing back extinct animals? e. Would you visit a Jurassic park with dinosaurs which are fed with hundreds of live cows? What would be the consequences of that feeding system? 17 MINITEST Read this story and complete sentences a. - d. according to the context. Then re-write the sentences in blue (i. - iv.) using the corresponding reporting verbs. 16 pts. 15 0 to4REVISE AGAIN 5to 10GOOD JOB! 11 to16EXCELLENT! This happened last summer. I was walking down the beach when I saw this pretty girl. I approached her and asked her name. She answered (a.)________.“Carla! (i.) You have a lovely name,” I said. I followed her and asked her if she lived there all year round. She looked back at me and replied that (b.)________.“Great!”(ii.) “I’m from Benton City too.” I added. She seemed more relaxed now and asked me which school I went to. I told her that (c.)________. “What a coincidence! (iii.) My boyfriend goes to that school, too.” she exclaimed. I was also amazed by the coincidence and asked her boyfriend’s name. She answered that (d.)________. Now I couldn’t believe it. (iv.) “My name is George too!” I shouted. I looked at her again and saw that she was laughing. I was laughing too. I took her hand and we ran down the beach together, laughing at our little joke. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 100 UNIT 5 ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS LISTENING Lesson 2 BEFORE YOU LISTEN Which of the following processes (a. – e.) do you think we use in science? a. Classifying - arranging or organising according to class or category. b. Experimenting - carrying out tests to check a hypothesis or an assumption. c. Hypothesising - making suppositions about something. d. Measuring - establishing dimensions such as weight, length, height, etc. e. Observing - looking at objects or phenomena in order to form hypotheses. Can you identify an example of each of the processes above (a. – e.) in these pictures (1 – 5)? 2 1 Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. In what other areas of life can we use the processes in the pictures? b. Have you ever used them? What for? Listen to these words. What do they mean? Which ones sound similar in Spanish? You will listen to a lecture by science professor Digby Jones, who will be talking about a scientific method. Which words from Exercise 4 would you expect to hear? 5 · analyse · conclusion · experiment · hypothesis · journal · method · palaeontologist · universe 354 3 1 2 3 4 5 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Toconnectthetopicand experience. 3. Toexpressopinions. 4. Toinferthemeaningofkey wordsandidentifytheir pronunciation. 5. Topredictcontentfrom cognatesandfamiliarwords. Learning abilities
    • If hypothesis is ________ Ask _____________ Communicate ________ If hypothesis is ________ Think again Analyse your ________ and draw __________ Test your __________ Construct __________ Listen again and complete this diagram that represents the steps of a scientific process. 368 101SCIENCE WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the lecture and check your predictions in Exercise 5. Listen again. What question did each of these people ask?367 366 a. Columbus ______________ _________________________ _________________________ b. Newton _______________ _________________________ _________________________ c. Darwin ________________ _________________________ _________________________ d. Paleontologists _________ _________________________ _________________________ e. Lemaitre _______________ _________________________ _________________________ 6. Tovalidatepredictions. 7. Tofindspecificsupporting information. 8. Totransferinformationtoa graphicorganiser. 9. Tofindspecialwords. 10. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 11. Toidentifytextualclues. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 102 UNIT 5 Listen again and tick (4) three words taken from Internet slang that Prof Jones uses. a. ______ blogger b. ______ chilax c. ______ cu soon d. ______ to text e. ______ to tweet f. ______ to unfriend Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false statements. a. ____ For the scientific process to start people should ask themselves one of these questions: how, what, when, who, which, why, or where? b. ____ A hypothesis is a presumption about how things work. c. ____ You should never do an experiment more than once. d. ____ If your hypothesis is wrong construct a new one. e. ____ Scientists usually do not communicate the results of their work. Listen to the lecture very carefully once more, and find out what the words in bold in these sentences refer to. a. You asked me to explain. It refers to ___________________________________________________. b. It must be about something that you can measure. It refers to ___________________________________________________. c. In such cases they’ll construct a new hypothesis. It refers to ___________________________________________________. d. Text them to your colleagues. It refers to ___________________________________________________. AFTER YOU LISTEN Match the words from the listening text in box A with their synonyms in box B. A B Fill in the gaps in these sentences with some of the words in Exercise 12. a. If you work hard and prepare yourself you can expect good ___________. b. The _______________ provided by the computer programme must now be analysed. c. There are several _______________ you can use: measuring, testing, analysing. d. The most important _______________ to consider is temperature of the mixture. 36 36 11 13 · aspect · consequence · examine · find out · information · method · data · discover · factor · process · result · test 12 10 369 12. Toconsolidatevocabulary. 13. Toapplynewvocabulary. 14. Toconsolidatekeywordsand expressions. 15. Toconsolidatealanguage item. 16. Toconsolidatealanguageitem andimitateaspokenmodel. 17. Toevaluatelearning. 18. Todiscussascientifictopic. 19. Topractiseandconsolidate languagethroughagame. 20. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities
    • 103SCIENCE Choose the best option to fill in the gaps in these sentences. a. The anthropology professor _______________ a few more comments on historical analysis. i. added ii. predicted iii. said b. The librarian _______________ a few more databases specialising in English literature. i. debated ii. said iii. suggested c. Geologists _______________ that the rocks were“younger”than what the carbon dating ultimately showed. i. asked ii. wondered iii. said d. The students _______________ useful questions while revising for the final exam. i. alerted ii. asked iii. said e. The job applicant _______________ his relevant experience and educational background. i. described ii. requested iii. told f. The announcer _______________ the most important instructions several times. i. admitted ii. complained iii. repeated g. The accused strongly _______________ that she had sold stolen goods. i. announced ii. denied iii. commented 14 Language Note 1. Read these sentences from the recording. a. Darwin wanted to know why caterpillars were sometimes so beautifully coloured. b. Columbus wondered what the shortest way to India was. c. Newton asked what made an apple fall. d. Palaeontologists wanted to discover when exactly dinosaurs disappeared. e. Lemaitre asked where the universe was expanding to. 2. Compare the sentences with their direct speech equivalents. a. “Why are caterpillars sometimes so beautifully coloured?”Darwin asked. b. “What is the shortest way to India?”Columbus wondered. c. “What makes an apple fall?”Newton asked. d. “When exactly did dinosaurs disappear?” e. “Where is the universe expanding to?”Lemaitre asked. 3. What do you notice about all of them? They all lost the typical“interrogative order”. They no longer look like questions, the question word (why, when, what, where, which) is moved to the middle of the sentence and none of them has a question mark. 4. These reporting verbs are generally used to introduce indirect questions: · ask · enquire · wonder · want · would like to know · discover · find out Reporting verbs – indirect questions HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 104 UNIT 5 Re-write these questions using the corresponding reporting verbs. a. “Why does the teacher get angry so often?”the child asked. _____________________ why _____________________. b. “When do we use a microscope?”I wondered. _____________________ when _____________________. c. “When should I talk to the coach about the match?”I enquired. _____________________ when _____________________. d. “How much meat do we need for the meat pie?”my mother wanted to know. _____________________ how much _____________________. e. “Which colour does Susan prefer: blue or green?”Georgina wondered. _____________________ which colour _____________________. Re-write the questions below as indirect questions using the openings provided in the dialogue. Check with the recording and then practise and role play the dialogue with a partner. a. Could you give me some information? b. What time do museums generally close? c. Where can I buy a map? d. How can I get to a handicrafts centre from here? e. Who designed that magnificent building? Tourist: Excuse me, I wonder if you (a.) ____________________. Guide: Of course, what would you like to know? Tourist: First, I'd like to know (b.) __________________________. Guide: At half past five. Tourist: Then do you happen to know (c.) ___________________? Guide: You can get one at the Tourist Information Centre on the corner. Tourist: Great. And could you tell me (d.) ___________________ to a handicrafts centre from here? Guide: Walk along this street and turn right at the corner. There is a small handicrafts market very near the big building you can see there. Tourist: Do you have any idea (e.) ___________________ that magnificent building? Guide: Yes. It was designed by Juan José de Goycolea y Zañartu. MINITEST Look at the pictures and finish the sentences. 10 pts.17 3716 15 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to6GOOD JOB! 7to 10EXCELLENT! a. My son asked me why ___________________ _____________________________________. b. I wanted to know when __________________ _____________________________________. c. My young wife wondered where __________ _____________________________________. d. I asked my dad how much _______________ _____________________________________. e. My teacher enquired how many ___________ _____________________________________. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 105SCIENCE You will discuss a scientific topic in groups of seven to ten students. You will need to prepare for the discussion beforehand using your own knowledge, available literature, articles from the Internet or talking to your science teacher. a. Choose one of these topics. i. The Earth is in danger of being hit by an asteroid. ii. The dangers of the swine flue pandemic. iii. Making fuels from plants. iv. Animals in danger of extinction. b. Sit in a circle. c. It would be good to establish some ground rules such as i. Everyone should listen respectfully to the others (even if they disagree). ii. The person who is speaking should not be interrupted. iii. No more than one person should speak at the same time. iv. No one’s ideas should be made fun of. v. If you disagree with someone, disagree with their ideas, but don’t attack the person. d. Choose a moderator who will decide on the order of speaking. As participants offer their views, he / she can encourage group members to respond to each other by asking questions like:“What does everyone else think?”or“Is there anyone else who agrees?”“Anyone else who disagrees?” e. Start the discussion with setting the purpose and what and why you are discussing. f. Use these ideas to evaluate your discussion. Answer Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK - SPEAKING18 • We followed the purpose of the discussion. • We were able to present our arguments logically. • We handled disagreements and conflicts well. • Everyone in the group got a chance to participate. Play the radio interview game in groups of 6 students. a. Choose a famous character you would like to interview. b. On separate pieces of paper, write the questions you would like to ask your character. Put them face down on the table. c. On other pieces of paper, write openings for indirect questions, like: would like to know / wonder / ask, etc. Put them on a separate pile face down on the table. d. Choose one person in the group to be the famous person, to answer the questions. e. To act out the interview, the rest of the players must take turns to pick up a piece of paper from each pile and ask the corresponding question, inventing the name of the listener of the programme who asked that question. Example: Martha Bravo, from Linares, would like to know where you were born. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about the scientific process? b. Has the lesson changed your perception about science? c. If important leaders in history, either positive or negative, could be cloned, what would be the consequences of such an action? d. If you had the possibility of choosing the physical characteristics of your future child or cloning all his / her vital organs, what would you prefer to do? Why? 19 20
    • 106 UNIT 5 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Professor Digby Jones was interviewed by Teen Science Blog. Read the blog and write the questions he was asked. 1 a. __________________________________________________________________________________? b. __________________________________________________________________________________? c. __________________________________________________________________________________? d. __________________________________________________________________________________? e. __________________________________________________________________________________? The sentences on the left (a. – d.) are written using scientific terms. Match them with their everyday language equivalents on the right (i. - iv.). a. The hypothesis that dinosaurs became extinct because of a fallen meteorite is now widely accepted. b. The marsupial was created by the genetic manipulation of its DNA. c. Some animals are carnivores and some are herbivores. d. The ornithologist examined the fossilised remains and established it was a dodo. i. Some animals eat meat and some eat plants. ii. The bird specialist looked at the old bones and said it was a dodo. iii.What scientists believe about the extinction of dinosaurs is now accepted by most people. iv.The kangaroo was cloned in a lab. 2 In his interview, Professor Digby Jones explained that palaeontology is a science that studies fossil organisms; he said that we cannot clone dinosaurs because we do not have their DNA. He told our journalist that the film Jurassic Park was just a fantasy and revealed that he was working on a new hypothesis about dinosaurs. Finally, he suggested that we should visit him at his laboratory.
    • 1 2 3 4 5 107SCIENCE a. John asked the waiter what the soup of the day was. John: ____________________________________________________________________________? Waiter: ___________________________________________________________________________. b. Belinda asked the mechanic when the car would be ready. Belinda: __________________________________________________________________________? Mechanic: _________________________________________________________________________. c. Emily asked the doctor how many pills she should take. Emily: ____________________________________________________________________________? Doctor: ___________________________________________________________________________. d. Fred asked the police officer why she was arresting the young man. Fred: _____________________________________________________________________________? Police officer: ______________________________________________________________________. e. Gillian asked the usher what time the film would start. Gillian: ___________________________________________________________________________? Usher: ____________________________________________________________________________. Nelly is going to the USA on holiday. All her friends and relatives gave her some advice. Re-write their advice using reporting verbs. a. “Take your digital camera with you,”aunt Sybil recommended. __________________________________________________________________________________. b. “Don't talk to strangers”, Ursula's father warned her. __________________________________________________________________________________. c. “Send me en e-mail when you arrive”, Vivian's mother told her. __________________________________________________________________________________. d. “Buy a Yankees T-shirt”, Richard's brother suggested. __________________________________________________________________________________. 4 Match the sentences (a. - e.) with the pictures (1 - 5). What questions were these people asked? Write the dialogues using the clues and your own ideas and then role play them for the class. 3 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • JUST FOR FUN 108 UNIT 5 Do numbers control your destiny?Do numbers control your destiny? You know the saying – there is power in numbers. What people want to say by that is that the more people get together the more powerful they become. But here we will talk about an alternative power. One that you might think is true or not – it really depends on you. We are talking about the strange art (because it is far removed from science) of numerology. On this page we explain how numerology works. Have a pencil and paper handy? Great! Start by writing out your full birth name (first, middle, and last). Now assign numbers to each letter using the chart as a guide. (Note: This chart is read downwards so that 1 is A, J, S; 2 is B, K, T; etc.) Later you can analyse other variations of your name (nicknames, married names), but for now let’s just stick with your birth name. Does it sound confusing? It really isn’t. Just take a look at the following example and you’ll get the idea. In this example, we will use Henry Quincy Mathers as the birth name. What’s more, we’ll say that old Henry was born on November 11, 1922. Or 11/11/22, the way it is usually written. (By the way,“11”and“22”are generally considered master numbers in numerology. So Harry’s an interesting character, judging by his day of birth alone!). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Now let’s assign numerical values to Henry’s full name at birth. H e n r y = 8, 5, 5, 9, 7 =34 = 3+4=7 Q u i n c y = 8, 3, 9, 5, 3, 7 =35 = 3+5=8 M a t h e r s = 4, 1, 2, 8, 5, 9, 1 = 30 = 3 Sum the numbers up = 7 + 8 + 3 =18 = 1 + 8 = 9 So Henry’s full name is reduced to 9. Okay, you have your Destiny Number. Now what does it mean? On the chart below is a quick interpretation of the numbers 1 through 9 and the two master numbers (11 and 22). You should be aware that some numerologists attach special significance to other two-digit numbers. However, they are not universally recognized in numerology circles. The Numbers Revealed! Adapted from: Numerology and the Secrets of Your Name! http://www.astrology- numerology.com/numerology.html 1 is ambitious, independent, and self-sufficient. 2 is supportive, diplomatic, and analytical. 3 is enthusiastic, optimistic, and fun-loving. 4 is practical, traditional, and serious. 5 is adventurous, mercurial, and sensual. 6 is responsible, careful, and domestic. 7 is spiritual, eccentric, and a bit of a loner. 8 is money-oriented, decisive, and stern. 9 is multi-talented, compassionate, and global. 11 is enlightened, intense, and high-strung. 22 is goal-oriented, a global planner, and inspired.
    • 109SCIENCE CHILEAN CONNECTION What do these numbers in the text refer to? 1.2 - 2.2 - 3.58 - 3.6 - 4 - 27 - 100 - 160 - 300 - 600 - 1960 - 2,400 - 67 million. The La Silla Observatory, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile and at an altitude of 2,400 meters, has been a European Southern Observatory stronghold since the 1960s. Here, ESO operates several of the most productive 4-meter class telescopes in the world. La Silla is a mountain bordering the southern extremity of the Atacama Desert in Chile. It is located about 160 km north of La Serena, 27 km south of the Las Campanas Observatory, and 100 km north of the Cerro Tololo Observatory. The 3.58-meter New Technology Telescope (NTT) broke new ground for telescope engineering and design and was the first in the world to have a computer-controlled main mirror (active optics), a technology developed at ESO and now applied to most of the world’s current large telescopes. The ESO 3.6-meter telescope is now home to the world’s foremost extrasolar planet hunter: HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher), a spectrograph with unrivaled precision. The La Silla Observatory is the first world-class observatory to have been granted certification for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 Quality Management System. The infrastructure of La Silla is also used by many of the ESO member states for targeted projects such as the Swiss 1.2-meter Euler telescope, as well as more common user facilities such as the 2.2-meter Max Planck telescope. The 67-million pixel Wide Field Imager on the 2.2- meter telescope has taken many amazing images of celestial objects, some of which have now become icons in their own right. With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. La Silla has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several“firsts”. The HARPS spectrograph is the undisputed champion at finding low-mass extrasolar planets. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in linking gamma-ray bursts — the most energetic explosions in the universe since the Big Bang — with the explosions of massive stars. Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest recent supernova, SN 1987A. Adapted from: the European Southern Observatory, www.eso.org and the Andean World http://www.mundoandino.com/Chile/La-Silla-Observatory WATCHING THE SKIES IN THE NAME OF SCIENCE American v/s British English meter - organization - standardization - unrivaled metre - organisation . standardisation - unrivalled
    • 110 UNIT 5 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE The moon is not the dry dull place it seems; scientists said they had found traces of water in the dirt.Three different space probes found the chemical signature of water all over the moon’s surface, surprising the scientists who at first doubted the unexpected measurement until it was confirmed independently and repeatedly by several experiments and tests. Scientists revealed that it was not enough moisture to foster life on the moon but if processed in mass quantities, it might provide resources — drinking water and rocket fuel — for future moon inhabitants.The water comes and goes during the lunar day. It is not a lot of water. If you took a two-litre soda bottle of lunar dirt, there would probably be a quarter of a tea spoonful of water in it, said University of Maryland astronomer Jessica Sunshine, one of the scientists who discovered the water. She said the water was simply sticking to the surface. The discovery, with three studies published in the journal Science on Thursday and a NASA briefing, could refocus interest in the moon.The appeal of the moon dropped after astronauts visited it 40 years ago and called it“magnificent desolation.” The announcement comes two weeks before a NASA probe purposely smashed near the moon’s South Pole to see if it could kick up buried ice. Over the last decade, astronomers have found some signs of underground ice on the moon’s poles, but this latest discovery is quite different. It finds unexpected and pervasive water clinging to the surface of soil, not absorbed into it. The water was spotted by spacecraft that either circled the moon or flew by. All three ships used the same type of instrument. At first, scientists thought that something was wrong with the instruments because everyone knew the moon did not have a drop of water on the surface. “We argued literally for months amongst ourselves to find out where the problem was,” one scientist said. But then they used a different probe that belongs to NASA and the result was the same. Finally, the team also looked back at the records of NASA’s Cassini probe, which is circling Saturn. It has the same type of instrument and it passed by the moon ten years ago. Sure enough, the same result was revealed. Experts say that the chance that three different instruments malfunctioned in the same way on three different spaceships is almost zero, so this confirms that it is water. Scientists testing lunar samples returned to Earth by astronauts did find traces of water, but they had figured it was contamination from moisture in Earth air. Lunar and Planetary Institute senior scientist Paul Spudis called the new find “exciting”and said it raised the logical question: Where did that water come from? There are two possibilities: It came from comets or asteroids that crashed into the moon and those crashes freed up trapped water from below the surface, or the solar wind carries hydrogen atoms that bind with oxygen in the dirt, thus forming water molecules. Adapted from: AP Science Writer Seth Borenstein, AP Science, September 23, 2009. FINDING WATER ON THE MOONREADING
    • 111SCIENCE Read the article. Which of these is the main conclusion you can draw from it? 2 pts. a. The presence of water on the moon means that life existed on the moon before. b. If there is water on the moon people might one day install human colonies there. c. If there is water on the moon we might one day bring it to Earth. Read the text again and complete these sentences. 5 pts. a. Scientists said they were surprised ________. b. They also revealed that _________________. c. Scientists argued for months ____________. d. Lunar senior scientist Paul Spudis called the new finding __________________________. e. He also asked the question where ________. Read the article once more and answer these questions. 3 pts. a. What did astronauts call“magnificent desolation”? b. Why did the NASA probe smash into the moon? c. What are the two explanations for the presence of water on the moon? 3 2 1 Listen to two people talking about some mysteries of science. Tick which of the two speakers mentioned these points. 6 pts. Listen again and circle the word you hear. 4 pts. a. Jesús Martínez-Frías, a planetary geologist, went to investigate the accident / incident. b. Ice balls have fallen in other parts of the world, some up to 100 /200 kilograms in weight. c. The phenomenon is clearly caused by an acoustic resonance / response. d. In many booming dunes, the sand grains are unusually uniform in shape / size. a. A Spanish geologist b. A British researcher c. Low ozone levels d. Global warming e. Acoustic resonance f. Various instruments Speaker I Speaker II 385 386 Complete the sentences in column A with your own ideas. Then ask your partner the appropriate questions to complete the same sentences in column B with his / her answers. 10 pts. 4 SPEAKING MYSTERIES OF SCIENCELISTENING You Your partner a. In our chemistry class I discovered that ______ _______________. b. Our English teacher explained that _______ _______________. i. In our chemistry class _________ discovered that _____________. ii. Our English teacher explained that _______ _______________. You Your partner c. I clearly remember when ________________ _______________. d. My parents complain that ________________ _______________. e. I have learnt how much ________________ _______________. iii._____clearly remembers when ____________ _______________. iv.____ ’s parents complain that _____________ _______________. v. _________ has learnt how much _________ _______________.
    • 112 UNIT 5 WRITING Change these sentences into Reported Speech. 4 pts. a. Jane:“What programme did you see on Saturday?” b. Shop assistant:“Can I help you?” c. Customer:“How much does the computer cost?” d. Sandra:“It’s not a good idea to leave so late.” Look at the pictures and answer the questions. 4 pts. a. A: What did the tourist ask you? B: ___________________________________. b. A: What did you tell Susan? B: ___________________________________. c. A: What did the policeman say? B: ___________________________________. d. A: What did the astronomer explain? B: ___________________________________. 8 7 LANGUAGE Write two short paragraphs (maximum 150 words) with the information in the interview below. Use the reporting verbs in the box. 10 pts. Reporter: Can you tell me a little about the Nazca Lines? Prof. Maine: The Nazca Lines are an enigma. No one has proof who built them or why. Reporter: Is it true what some people say, that they are old landing sites for extraterrestrials? Prof. Maine: Some people say so, but we scientists are sure that it is not true. Reporter: What is the specific location of the lines? Prof. Maine: They are located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the pampa. Reporter: And how big are they? Prof. Maine: They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Reporter: What is the scientific name for such structures? Prof. Maine: Figures produced on the ground by the clearing of stones are called geoglyphs and they can be found in Egypt, Malta, the United States, Chile, Bolivia and several other countries. · asked · answered · enquired · explained · indicated · replied · said · told · wanted to know 9 b c a d HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 113SCIENCE YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions/tasks correctly. 6 to 7 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just a few questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 6 to 7 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I identified some general and specific information correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced a few bits of the general and specific information. Language You are expected to apply and identify two language items. Your score 7 to 8 Excellent I understood and applied all the items in all cases. 4 to 6 Good I understood and applied all the items in most cases. 2 to 3 Not too bad I understood and applied some of the items in some cases. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I understood and applied very few of the items in very few cases. Speaking You are expected to be able to ask and answer questions using reporting verbs. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent Good pronunciation and no hesitation, structures well applied. 6 to 7 Good Good pronunciation and minimum hesitation. Structures applied. 3 to 5 Not too bad Some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. Some structures applied. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. No structures applied. Writing You are expected to write a short text based on an interview. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I wrote the text following all the indications. I used the verbs correctly. 6 to 7 Good I wrote the text following most indications. I used some reporting verbs correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I wrote the text following some indications. I used a few reporting verbs correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I wrote the text but followed only very few indications. I did not use the reporting verbs. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I analysed and considered the consequences of some hypothetical scientific experiments. I reflected on the implications of genetic manipulation and cloning. I actively participated in discussions and conversations related to science issues. I applied the learnt structures and vocabulary in the exercises. I used different strategies to understand and to make myself understood. I showed respect for other students' opinions and ideas. SELF - EVALUATION
    • UNIT 6 114 In this unit you will learn to: READING: define and infer. LISTENING: identify specific information. ORAL PRODUCTION: discuss professions and occupations. WRITTEN PRODUCTION: write a business letter. FUNCTIONS: complain / disagree / apologise / warn. You will also learn: GRAMMAR: reporting verbs – questions / indirect questions. VOCABULARY: words related to business activities and commercial letters. You will pay special attention to these values The importance of following specific procedures in formal situations. You will use the following text types: READING: business / commercial letters. LISTENING: conversations. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 115 HOW READY ARE YOU FOR THIS UNIT? List two jobs for each category. 5 pts. a. They require great physical strength. b. They require long years of study. c. They require a lot of patience. d. They require spending a lot of time away from home. e. They are really dangerous. Match each of these situations (a. – d.) with the cartoon that best represents it (1 – 4). 4 pts. a. A complaint. c. A disagreement. b. A warning. d. An apology. 2 1 IN BUSINESS Why do people normally write letters? In pairs, list four reasons. 4 pts. Your score: 0 - 4: Look up the words in a dictionary or ask your teacher to help you. 5 - 9: Well done, but you could improve your vocabulary looking up some words. 10 - 13: Great job. You are ready to start the lesson. 1.Possibleanswers(anytwoofthese):a.Athlete,builder,luggagehandler,lumberjack,miner.b.Doctor,lawyer,musician, scientist,teacher.c.Artist,nurse,secretary,shopassistant,teacher.d.Pilot,soldier,touristguide,traindriver,travelling salesperson.e.Diver,fireman,stuntman,windowcleaner,zookeeper.2.a.Cartoon1.b.Cartoon3.c.Cartoon2.d.Cartoon4. 3.Possibleanswers(anyfourofthese):Toapplyforajob,toprovide/askforinformation,tocomplainaboutsomething,to keepintouch,toapologise,toconfesssomething,todeclarelove,etc. 3 1 2 3 4 Excuse me, there seems to be something wrong with this laptop. Young man! I'll have to give you a fine if you don't get up from the grass. I'm very sorry for interrupting. I don’t like your idea of buying new earphones for the iPod. HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 116 UNIT 6 BUSINESS LETTERS READING Lesson 1 BEFORE YOU READ Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. In what situations do people complain? b. Have you ever had to return an article you bought? c. What was the reason? How did you do it?Were you satisfied with the result? Match the informal expressions in column A with their formal equivalents in column B. Which of these words sound or look similar in Spanish? Find the meaning of the rest in a dictionary. A B a. Ask your dad to help you with your homework. b. I totally agree with you, but there’s nothing I can do to help you. c. John, there is a guy waiting for you to complain. d. This thing is broken, so I want it changed. e. Will you come to my birthday party? i. I request the pleasure of your company at the party to be held on the occasion of my birthday. ii. Mr Jensen, a young gentleman is waiting for you to make a complaint. iii.The item is not working; therefore I would like you to replace it. iv.I thoroughly understand your position; however, there is nothing I can do to help you. v. You should request your father’s help to do your homework. 3 2 1 When using formal English we often use the expression: I’m afraid… It means something like “I would help you if I could, but I can’t”. Examples: I’m afraid the train is late. I’m afraid I can’t offer you a refund. I’m afraid Mr Smith is out of the office at the moment. Learning tip Match the names of letters in the box with their definitions (a. – e.). a. _______________: you write it when you are not satisfied with a product or a service. b. _______________: you send it to your employers when you can no longer work for them. c. _______________: you offer your gratitude for something done for you. d. _______________: you ask for a product or a service to be delivered. e. _______________: it shows you are sorry and says that you value your relationship with the other party. · Letter of apology · Letter of complaint · Order letter · Resignation letter ·Thank you letter 4 discriminatedepartmentclientaccount purchasejustifiablyissueinvoice 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Todifferentiatebetween formalandinformallanguage. 3. Toinferthemeaningofkey words. 4. Todeducethecommunicative purposeoftexts. 5. Topredictgeneralinformation usingpreviousknowledge. 6. Toidentifyformatofbusiness letters. Learning abilities
    • 117IN BUSINESS In your opinion, which of these are characteristics of business letters? Mark them with a tick (4). a. _____ They are fairly short and to the point. b. _____ They are usually handwritten. c. _____ They are usually rude and offensive. d. _____ They are written to express personal feelings. e. _____ They follow a strict format. f. _____ They have a very specific purpose such as a complaint, an enquiry, a request, etc. g. _____ They use formal language. These diagrams show what a one-page business letter should look like. Have a look at the letters on pages 118 - 119 you are going to read and decide which style they are. a. Block Style b. Semiblock Style c. Modified Block Style 6 5 WHILE YOU READ Read the letters on pages 118 - 119 and check your predictions in Exercise 5. Match the letters (I – V) with the definitions in Exercise 4 (a. – e.). Mark with a tick (4) the letter that mentions the following points. I II III IV V a. A product required by a certain date. b. An inconvenience caused by a new staff member. c. A request for an explanation. d. Someone’s plans for the future. e. Someone’s positive qualities. 9 8 7 7. Tovalidatepredictions. 8. Toidentifydefinitions. 9. Tofindandsupportspecific information. 10. Todiscriminatebetween correctandincorrect information. 11. Toidentifyexplicitandimplicit information. 12. Toinferinformation. Learning abilities
    • August 12, 2011 Mr Ray Daniels Teen Delight 226 Oak Tree Avenue Maryland Dear Mr Daniels, Last Friday, my 16-year old son, Andrew, went to your shop to buy a few products. It was his first shopping trip alone and he was looking forward to buying a pair of pants and a sweater – all paid for with the money he earned working in a local fast food restaurant. He had high hopes for his first shopping trip alone and did not want any adults to accompany him. Unfortunately, after an hour or so he came back without any of the things he wanted to buy and he was also extremely upset. While he was looking at different clothes he was by one of your guards who questioned him extensively on matters I find difficult to understand. First of all the guard asked him what his name was. Then he asked him what the purpose of his visit to the shop was. He then wanted to know where his parents were. These questions made my son really upset and he left the shop without making any purchases. I feel that your guard acted incorrectly. My son was simply looking around a shop with the intention of buying a few things. He felt watched and discriminated against in a place that is supposed to specialize in products for teenagers. I would like some kind of explanation as to what the reason for this kind of treatment was. You will understand that I feel justifiably upset given that the situation affected my son, who now does not want to go shopping on his own. Will you please investigate the issue and inform us your findings? Sincerely, Michelle Ortega approached 118 UNIT 6 :adj/happeningorcontinuingwithoutproblems. :verb/comenearsomeone.ApproachSmooth II I January 30, 2010 Marina Stanley HRM Manager VanguardTelecommunication Inc. 1, High Street Glasgow Dear Ms Stanley, Please accept this letter as notification that I am leaving my position as Call Center Agent withVanguardTelecommunication Inc. on March, 1 of this year. I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks for being able to work for such an important company asVanguardTelecommunications. I feel that I have learnt a lot as a member of your staff. One of the most important benefits is that thanks to my interacting with international clients I have enormously improved my English. I now feel confident talking to people, I am familiar with client services and I have learnt how to work in a team - all this thanks to the opportunity you have given me over the past year. I will try to use all these new skills in my future positions.The reason for my leaving is that I have decided to take up my studies again. I will be starting a course in information technology on March, 13. I hope to become a computer engineer in the future.I will be happy to train my replacement or do anything else you feel will help make the transition . Please let me know if you find this arrangement satisfactory. Thank you very much for giving me this opportunity,Sincerely yours, Valeria Santos smoother
    • March 19, 2011 Mr. Steve Reavis 225 Gilbert Road Loves Park, IL 61111 Dear Mr. Reavis, I would like to apologize for the mix-up on your last order. We recently hired a new sales person who was not familiar with your systems. We have corrected your orderand shipped it out this morning. We understand your and appreciate the inconvenience this must have caused your organization, which is why we have applied a 10% discount on your order. Again, I apologize for our mistake and regret any inconvenience caused as a result. Yours faithfully, Gerald Belknap Customer Service Manager disappointment V 119IN BUSINESS Adapted from: Shocked, Appalled and Dismayed! How to Write Letters of Complaint that Get Results (Paperback), by Ellen Phillips, Randomhouse, 1999 edition. June 22, 2010 Karen Bewley Human Resources Manager Royal National Hospital 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 Dear Karen, Just a quick note &to &thank you &for my &interview on June 21. I &found your &interviewing &style &very &refreshing, and I appreciate your openness and &honesty. I am &very &excited about &the accountant assistant &position at &the &hospital’s Human Resources Department and &the chance &to work with &such a great &team. This &position &is &exactly what I &have &been &looking &for, and I &sincerely &hope I am &the &person you are &looking &for as &well. If you &have any questions or , &please &feel &free &to &contact me at 736-7374. Thank you once again, and I &look &forward &to &talking &further. Yours &sincerely, Samuel H. Morgan &concerns III August 6, 2010 Mr. Joey Derwin 415 Greenhills Street San Fernando, TexasDear Mr. Derwin, Will you &kindly &send me &five (5) &boxes of A4, white&printing &paper, &suitable &for &use with &both &inkjet and&laser &printers as advertised &in your July catalogue on&page 23 &under &the number TP0987? Please charge &this&purchase &to my &bank account, details of which you will&find &in a &previous &invoice, as I have made other&purchases with your company &in &the &past (&inkcartridges, &printing &paper and office &stationery). I &shall &especially appreciate your &usual &promptdelivery, as I’m currently working on &several &important&projects and must &print a &large number of documents &byAugust, 25. Please deliver &the &five &boxes &to my &usualaddress: 124 Meadow Street, San Juan, Texas. I wouldappreciate &it &if you could &let me &know &the date of &thedelivery &in advance &to make &sure &there &is &someone &to&receive &it. Please &send &the &invoice with &the &boxes. Sincerely yours, Christina Hamilton IV :noun/sadnessbecausesthhasnothappenedorbeenasgoodasexpected. :noun/feelingofworry.Concern Disappointment
    • 120 UNIT 6 Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? a. ____ The sender of Letter I was very happy with her job. b. ____ The name of the recipient of Letter II is Michelle Ortega. c. ____ The sender of Letter III would like to work as an accountant’s assistant. d. ____ The sender of Letter IV does not have a bank account. e. ____ The sender of Letter V is asking for a 10% discount. Read the letters again. Do these sentences express explicit (E) or implicit (I) information? a. _____ Christina Hamilton is often out. b. _____ Valeria Santos is going back to university. c. _____ Michelle Ortega’s son did not buy the clothes he wanted. d. _____ The sales person has been working with Gerald Belknap for a short time. e. _____ Samuel Morgan will be delighted to get the job. What can you infer from these sentences in the letters? Choose the best alternative. a. Letter I: i. Valeria's boss is very demanding. ii. Valeria is willing to help the company and her replacement. iii. Valeria is relieved to be leaving the company. b. Letter II: i. Ms Ortega does not agree with the guard's actions. ii. Ms Ortega finds the guard's attitude correct. iii. Ms Ortega is unhappy with her son's reaction. c. Letter III: i. Samuel disliked the interviewer. ii. Samuel felt uncomfortable at the interview. iii. Samuel liked the interview. d. Letter IV: i. Mr Derwin knows Ms Hamilton very well. ii. Ms Hamilton has made purchases from this company before. iii. Ms Hamilton's bank account details are public. e. Letter V: i. An employee caused the problem. ii. Computers and an employee caused the problem. iii. Computers caused the problem. “We recently hired a new sales person who was not familiar with your systems”. “You &will &find &the details of my &bank account &in a &previous &invoice”. “I &found your &interviewing &style &very &refreshing, and I appreciate your openness and &honesty”. “I feel that your guard acted incorrectly”. “I will be happy to train my replacement or do anything else you feel will help make the transition smoother”. 11 10 12 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 121IN BUSINESS AFTER YOU READ Use some of the words in Exercise 3 to fill in the gaps in these sentences. a. You have bought another video game! It’s such an unnecessary _______________________. b. If you need more information please contact the Human Resources _______________________. c. What must I do to open a bank _________________________? d. One of the most important _____________________ people talk about is global warming. e. It is very important to answer the complaint letter sent by one of your _______________________. The words in the first column of this chart appeared in the letters you read, which are in American English. Complete the chart with the correct word in British English and tick the correct column (Spelling or Vocabulary). Then, add two more examples of your own for each type of difference. Spelling Difference Vocabulary Difference Apologize Center Learned Organization Pants Specialize 14 13 Language Note 1. Read these sentences from Letter III and the original direct questions. a. He asked him what his name was. “What is your name?”the guard asked. b. The guard asked him what the purpose of his visit to the shop was. “What is the purpose of your visit to the shop?”the guard asked. c. He also wanted to know where his parents were. “Where are you parents?”the guard wanted to know. 2. What do you notice about the indirect questions? a. The tenses change. b. The word order changes. c. Nothing changes. 3. The answer is a. and b. If the reporting verb is in the past then the rest of the sentence also undergoes a verb change (see Language Note Unit 5, Lesson 1, Page 97). There is also a change of the word order. Direct question: “Why is she late?”he asked. Indirect question: He asked why she was late. Reporting verbs – questions (continued) 13. Toconsolidatekeyvocabulary. 14. Toidentifyandclassify differencesbetweenAmerican andBritishEnglish. 15. Topractisealanguageitem. 16. Touseinformationto completeaconversation. 17. Toimitateaspokenmodel. 18. Toevaluatelearning. 19. Towriteanewtextfollowinga model. 20. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 122 UNIT 6 Change these direct questions into indirect ones. a. “What time is it?”Sally wanted to know. b. “Who is your maths teacher?”my brother asked. c. “Where is the bathroom?”the child asked his father. d. “How tall are you?”the doctor enquired. e. “How much are these Coldplay CD’s?”I wanted to find out. Use information from Letter I and the visual clues on the left to complete the conversation between Valeria and her boss, Marina. Marina: So Valeria, I understand that you are leaving the Call Center. Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: And when exactly are you planning to leave? Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: What are your plans for the future? Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: I believe that you liked working for us. Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: And what is the most important thing that you learned here? Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: And what other skills have you learned from working with us? Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Marina: Do you think you could help us train your replacement? Valeria: _______________________________________________________ Now listen to the conversation and check your answers. Then practise and role play the dialogue for the class. MINITEST Report what these people asked. Use a different reporting verb for each sentence. 10 pts. a. Molly’s mother: “Molly, where is your father?” ____________________________________________________________. b. The teacher:“How did you find the information to write the report?” ____________________________________________________________. c. Sarah: “How many languages can you speak?” ____________________________________________________________. d. Kelly: “Why don’t you answer my messages?” ____________________________________________________________. e. The interviewer: “What is your experience with learning disabilities?” ____________________________________________________________. 15 16 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to6GOOD JOB! 7to 10EXCELLENT! 18 4017 American v/s British English center / learned centre / learnt HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 123IN BUSINESS You are going to work with a partner to write a business letter. a. Choose one of the following situations: i. You have ordered a PC for your brother’s birthday, which is in four days. The company you ordered it from is: PC Quick Deals, 12 Dalton Street, Minneapolis, USA. The sales manager is Ms Edna Carrow. OR ii. You are leaving your job because you found another one closer to your home. You work for QMC Department Store, 234 Garden Avenue, Wicklow, Ireland. The Human Resources Manager is Miss Kiara Spencer. OR iii. You went to your local Municipal Office to obtain a driving licence. You found the service exceptionally good and quick. You would like to thank the Customer Service manager, Mr Steve Soames, for the service. The address is: 17 Coleman Parade, Waverley, Victoria, Australia 3150. b. According to the situation you have chosen, decide what type of letter you are going to write – apology, order, resignation, etc. In pairs, discuss the details: format of the letter, what information you should include, and what kind of language to use. c. One of you should write the letter on a clean sheet of paper following the agreed format. d. Keep the letter brief and to the point. In a one- page letter, you will usually need only three or four paragraphs, single spaced. Use a double space in between paragraphs. e. Remember not to use shortened verb forms (don’t instead of do not; it’s not instead of it is not). f. Finish the letter with a salutation (Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully, etc.). g. Always sign the letter by hand. h. Proof-read the letter and then read it aloud. Ask and answer these questions: Does it make sense? Does it sound polite? Does it have all the relevant information? Does it follow a business letter format? i. If you answered yes to all the questions above, write the letter on a clean sheet of paper. j. Ask your teacher to read the letter and give you his / her opinion. Do not tell her / him what type of letter you were going to write. Does she / he consider that you have achieved your objective? Evaluate your performance. Say Yes or No. APPLICATIONTASK –WRITING19 • We read and followed the instructions. • We determined the purpose of our letter. • We wrote the letter keeping the relevant format and purpose. • We checked spelling and grammar. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. What have you learnt about writing business letters? b. Can you name two situations in which you would use formal and informal language? c. What would you do if one of your best friends needed a job, but he / she didn't have a good CV? Would you send a letter recommending her / him to your boss? d. What do you think of these quotations? How much do you agree with them? 20 “A friendship founded on business is better than a business founded on friendship. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.(1874 - 1960) “Success is never final.” Winston Churchill (1874 - 1965) “Competition brings out the best in products and the worst in people.” David Sarnoff (1891 - 1971)
    • 124 UNIT 6 DESCRIBING JOBS LISTENING Lesson 2 BEFORE YOU LISTEN Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. How do people know what to do in a specific job before they start working? b. Why do you think we need a job description? c. What information should a job description include? Look at the pictures (1 – 4) and complete the short job descriptions for each one (a. – d.). 2 1 a. A security guard is a person who ________________________________. He or she usually _____________________________________________. b. A postman is a person who _____________________________________. He or she usually _____________________________________________. c. A pilot is a person who _________________________________________. He or she usually _____________________________________________. d. A sports commentator is a person who ___________________________. He or she usually _____________________________________________. Work with your partner. Each of you must choose a job and describe it. Use the descriptions in Exercise 2 as a model. Can your partner guess the job? These pictures can give you some ideas. 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 American v/s British English Mailman / woman Postman / woman 1. Toconnectcontentand previousknowledge. 2. Toconnectpicturesand content. 3. Todescribeandguessjobs. 4. Toinferthemeaningofkey words. 5. Topredictcontent. Learning abilities
    • 125IN BUSINESS Listen to the words and indicate which ones look or sound similar in Spanish. Find the meaning of the rest in a dictionary. You will listen to three conversations. What do you think the common subject of the three will be? a. Looking for a job. b. Jobs people like and dislike. c. How to apply for a job. WHILE YOU LISTEN Listen to the three conversations and check your prediction in Exercise 5. Listen again and tick the jobs mentioned.Three of them are not mentioned. · applicant · committee · loan · maintenance · qualifications · require · salary · supplies 5 414 427 426 :verb/keeptogetherwithstaples(staple:apieceofmetalintheshapeofasquarebracket).Staple Listen again and fill in each blank in these sentences with ONE word. Then write the corresponding name of the jobs you identified in Exercise 7. a. ____________: this person usually ____________ loan ____________, analyses ____________ reports and ____________ and reviews loan ____________. b. ____________: this person will investigate ____________ and suggest preventive ____________; he / she will examine potential unsafe working ____________, direct the activities of a ____________ committee and may provide safety ____________. c. ____________: this person will run the photocopying ____________ and perform special ____________ such as ____________, binding, cutting and ____________. He / she will be ____________ for the maintenance of the ____________ and ordering ____________. stapling 8 42 American v/s British English High school Secondary school a. ____ Accountant b. ____ Loans officer c. ____ Office assistant d. ____ Pilot e. ____ Receptionist f. ____ Safety officer 6. Tovalidatepredictions. 7. Tofindspecificinformation. 8. Tofindandmatchspecific information. 9. Tomatchnon-textual informationandvisualsthat representit. 10. Tofindandclassify information. 11. Tofindspecificsupporting information. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 126 UNIT 6 Tick which conversation mentions each of these points. Listen again and choose the best answer (i. or ii.) for these questions (a. – f.) Conversation I a. Who are the participants in this conversation? i. A job counsellor and a job seeker. ii. Two friends. Conversation II b. Where does this conversation take place? i. At a job centre. ii. In a school. c. What does the man in this conversation think of the job? i. It is ideal for him. ii. It is too dangerous. Conversation III d. Where did the girl in this conversation find the job advertisement? i. On a bulletin board. ii. In a newspaper. e. What did she do immediately? i. She phoned. ii. She sent her CV. f. What is the situation of the girl in this conversation? i. She needs some experience. ii. She doesn’t need any experience. 42 10 11 I II III a. A diploma. b. A job counsellor. c. An application form. d. Maintenance. e. Maths skills. f. The salary. g. Training. h. Two years’experience. 42 Listen to the conversations again and match each one with a picture (1 – 3). Identify two details (clues) that helped you to decide. 429 Conversation _________ Clues: _______________ ____________________ ____________________ Conversation _________ Clues: _______________ ____________________ ____________________ Conversation _________ Clues: _______________ ____________________ ____________________ 1 2 3 American v/s British English Counselor Counsellor HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 127IN BUSINESS Language Note 1. Read these examples from the recording. a. She wanted to know if I was good at any specific school subjects. b. I asked her if I had to take a special course. c. They asked if I could start next week. d. I enquired if I needed any experience. 2. Can you match the indirect questions above with their direct equivalents? a. “Do I have to take a special course?” b. “Do I need any experience?” c. “Are you good at any specific school subjects?” d. “Can you start next week?” 3. Which of these statements is true about the indirect questions? a. They all include the word if. b. They don’t have a question mark at the end. c. They all use the word ask. d. They look like a sentence in the affirmative form. 4. a., b. and d. are true. Notice that we use the word if when the direct question does not have a question word (what, when, where, etc.) and requires a simple yes / no answer. Indirect questions When you want to ask a question that is quite sensitive, difficult or embarrassing, try using one of these openings: Can / Could you tell me if …? I’d be interested to hear / know if … I’d like to know if … Would you mind telling me if …? Learning tip Change these direct questions into indirect ones. a. “Can you take me to the station?”Emily asked. b. “Do you have a spare pen?”the man enquired. c. “Does the new employee know anything about computers?” Annie wondered. d. “Did we switch off the lights at home?”Helen asked. e. “Are you coming to my party?”Stephen wanted to know. f. “Have you ever applied for a scholarship to study abroad?”the interviewer asked me. 13 AFTER YOU LISTEN Use some of the words from Exercise 4 to complete these sentences. a. If you want to work in program analysis you must have the right _____________________. b. She applied for a bank _____________________ but did not get it. c. Tammy sent a letter to order some _____________________. d. The interviewing _____________________ will meet today and decide who will get the job. e. There were over 500 _____________________ for the job we advertised. f. David is in charge of the general _____________________ of the building and the gardens. 12 12. Tousenewvocabulary. 13. Tousenewvocabularyand structures. 14. Toreinforceagrammarpoint. 15. Toparticipateinaguided conversation. 16. Toevaluatelearning. 17. Tosummarise(ideas, information)through discussionandoralwork. 18. Toreflectonthecontentofthe textandrelateittoown experiences. Learning abilities HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 128 UNIT 6 Read and complete the indirect questions in these conversations.14 I Rosa: Can you tell me if _________________________________? Assistant: Sorry, Mrs White is not in at the moment. Rosa: Would you mind telling me what time ________________? Assistant: Yes, she will be back in about half an hour. Rosa: I was wondering if ________________________________. Assistant: Of course you can leave her a message. Tell me. II Peter: I’d like to know if __________________________________. Tourist guide: Sorry, the Fine Arts museum is closed right now. Peter: Can you tell me if _________________________________. Tourist guide: Yes. It opens at 10 am on Mondays. Peter: I can’t remember if ________________________________. Tourist guide: No, it’s not in the city centre. It is in Marylebone. Peter: I’d also like to know if ______________________________. Tourist guide: Yes, you have to pay an entrance fee, but it is not much. Listen to the recording and check your answers. Practise and role play the two conversations. MINITEST Complete these sentences using your own ideas. 8 pts. a. George asked Fred and Myra if they ______________________________. b. The doctor asked me if I ________________________________________. c. The Finance Minister asked if the President ________________________. d. The hairdresser wanted to know if Frances _________________________. e. The Japanese tourist wondered if anyone _________________________. f. Teresa would like to know if you _________________________________. g. The children asked if they ______________________________________. h. Mr Thomas wanted to know if the band ___________________________. 0 to2REVISE AGAIN 3 to5GOOD JOB! 6to 8EXCELLENT! 16 4315 HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 129IN BUSINESS Gathering information is a critical step in making an effective career decision. Work in pairs. a. Make two copies of the worksheet opposite for a job you think you would like to have. b. Read the form through and find out the meaning of any words you do not understand. c. With your partner, discuss each heading and the points provided. For example, if your chosen job is an accountant (job title) what responsibilities would be the most important? d. Make notes of the relevant information in the answers. e. Make a presentation to the class about the job of your choice. Use the notes you have taken to help you. f. Did anyone else choose the same job? Are his / her findings the same as yours? If not – what is different? g. Now that you have researched the profession you liked and talked about the positive and negative aspects – do you still see yourself doing it? h. Ask your teacher and classmates to evaluate your presentation using these points. Say Yes or No. 1. Occupation / Profession / Job title: ________________________________________ 2. Primary responsibilities • What do people in this occupation do? • Mention at least two specific responsibilities for this occupation. 3. Requirements • Key skills and abilities required. • Personality traits that are important for this occupation. 4. Employment • In what setting is this occupation found? Indoors? Outdoors? Both? • In what kind of organisations? (small businesses, public schools, hospitals, etc.) 5. Educational preparation • What programme of study or training is required or suggested for entry into this occupation? • What licenses or certifications are required? 6. Salary range • What is the typical salary for someone entering this occupation? 7. Job characteristics • How many working hours are there in an average week for this occupation? • Is shift work involved? • Is travel involved? How often? Short / Long distances? Overnight? 8. Positive features • Mention two positive aspects of this occupation. 9. Negative features • Mention two negative aspects of this occupation. 10. Related occupations • Mention two occupations that are similar to the one you researched. APPLICATIONTASK - SPEAKING17 • I filled in the form according to the instructions. • I included all the relevant information. • I used words, structures and ideas from the lesson. • I checked and corrected grammar and spelling mistakes. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. a. Can you now describe jobs? b. What information must you include in a job description? c. Why is it necessary to list someone’s duties and tasks before he or she starts working? d. If you had the opportunity to earn a lot of money doing something that goes against your principles or is very controversial, would you do it? 18
    • Mr. George Gulliver Trenton Hospital 87 Delaware Road, Hatfield, CA 08065 17 January, 2011 Dear Mr. Gulliver, I am writing to apply for the position of Head Nurse as advertised in the NewYork Times. As requested, I am enclosing a completed job application, my certification, my resume and three references from previous employers and teachers. 130 UNIT 6 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES Read the beginnings of three letters (I – III). What type are they? Choose from the alternatives in the box. · a follow-up letter · a letter of complaint · a resignation letter · a thank you letter · an application letter · an order 1 Avicom Computer Company Sales Department 23rd Street, Washington, Washington DC 29 January, 2008 Dear Sirs I’m afraid that the enclosed software doesn’t work. It is the second time I have had to return software this month (see attached correspondence). I bought it from the Avicom store at Newtown Street, Washington. While installing the software I was careful to follow your instructions. 19 February, 2010 Dear Frederick, Thank you &for all &the &help you &have given me with my &job &search. I &especially appreciate &the &information and advice you &have &provided, and &the contacts you &have &shared with me. Your assistance &has &been &invaluable &to me during &this &process. I III II HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • Dear Sue, I really appreciate your letter. I am glad that you could use my help and that it has assisted you during your search. c a b c d Dear Tom, I am terribly sorry you have had so many problems installing the software you bought at our store. I can assure you that you are a valued customer and we would like to offer you a home installation service. We will send an IT technician to see to the installation and to additionally check that your PC does not present any problems. Dear Ms Stevens I would like to confirm the receipt of your application letter. However, I must inform you that because the application period for the nursing job closed the day before we received your letter we cannot consider you for the position. 131IN BUSINESS Re-write the direct questions (a. – d.)in these cartoons (1 – 4) in indirect form.3 1 2 3 4 a. __________________ __________________ __________________ b. __________________ __________________ __________________ c. __________________ __________________ __________________ d. __________________ __________________ __________________ Match these answers (a. - c.) with the three letters in Exercise 1 (I - III).2 Where is the nearest post office? Are you having a good time? How much does it cost? How old are you? a b HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • JUST FOR FUN 132 UNIT 6 Read the text and fill in the blanks completing the calculations.1 So you want a day off? Let’s take a look at what you are asking for. There are 365 days per year available for work. There are 52 weeks per year in which you already have 2 days off per week.That means that 52 weeks by 2 gives us (a.) ________. If we subtract it from the 365 days we will have only (b.) ________ available for work. Since you spend 16 hours each day away from work, you have used up 170 days, leaving only (c.) ________ days available. You spend 30 minutes each day on coffee break which counts for 23 days each year, leaving only (d.) ________ days available. With a 1 hour lunch each day, you used up another 46 days, leaving only (e.) ________ days available for work. You normally spend 2 days per year on sick leave. This leaves you only (f.) ________ days per year available for work. We are off 5 holidays per year, so your available working time is down to (g.) ________ days. We generously give 14 days vacation per year which leaves only (h.) ________ day available for work. There’s no way I’ll let you take that day off! Match the cartoons (1 – 3) with the punch line (a. – c.).2 321 a b c His heart is too soft to be a good chef! I hate summers! It always means unemployment for us. I know that you are a teacher; that is why I will give you a short SENTENCE! Answers:a.104d.68g.15 b.261e.22h.1 c.91f.20
    • 133IN BUSINESS CHILEAN CONNECTION How do you think foreigners see us behave in business activities, formally or informally? In which months are business meetings in Chile not advisable? This guide to doing business in Chile highlights some key areas for consideration when doing business in Chile. Meeting and Greeting When meeting someone in Chile a handshake is customary. You may see women patting each other on the right forearm or shoulder rather than shaking hands. When meeting large groups, it is good etiquette to shake hands with all those present. When addressing people, start formal and wait for an invitation to go informal. Address people by their surnames and Mr, Mrs or Miss. Gestures In Chile, people leave little space between each other when interacting. Do not be surprised if the person you are speaking with places a hand on your shoulder when talking with you. Eye contact is important in Chile as it conveys trust, sincerity and interest. Entertaining Business entertaining usually takes place at hotels or restaurants. If you are the one inviting them you should pick up the bill. If you are invited to a person’s home in Chile, it is good etiquette to send flowers or chocolates to the hostess in advance. If you wish to convey your thanks after the meal, do so by phone rather than in writing. Business Meetings and Negotiating Appointments should be made a few weeks prior to arrival in Chile. January and February are the summer holidays, so try to avoid them. Chileans negotiate in a serious and straight talking manner. Be upfront, but not overbearing. Hard sell tactics or pressure never work. Always be prepared to compromise as this shows you value the relationship more than the financial aspects of the deal. Adapted from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-chile.html CHILEAN BUSINESS ETIQUETTE FOR VISITORS FROM OVERSEAS
    • 134 UNIT 6 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE I II Dear Sir, I would like to say that people usually do not take the chance to write and congratulate companies on the excellent service they received. However, after vacationing at your St. Petersburg campsite I have to say I am quite pleased with your operations and personnel. I don’t believe I have ever been at a more efficient and welcoming place. Upon our arrival we were greeted by cheerful staff members who made our check-in short and comfortable. All of your employees were extremely courteous and went out of their way to explain various functions of the campsite, which was clean and nicely kept. My family and I had a lovely time while staying there. I am pleased to say I will recommend the St. Petersburg site to my friends. Sincerely yours, John Davis and family THE BUSINESS OF LETTER WRITINGREADING Dear Mr Castle, It was distressing to learn that the Easy Spin washing machine you bought from us last month did not work properly. I am also sorry to hear that the manager of the store in Essex did not attend to your needs properly. This issue will be taken up immediately and investigated further and I will keep in touch to let you know the outcome. I have now instructed the store to replace the item. Please turn over the damaged goods to the driver at the time of delivery of the new machine. I am sincerely sorry that this unfortunate incident occurred and kindly ask for your understanding. Please believe me when I say that each customer is highly valued by Easy Spin. Easy Spin Washing Machines General Manager Dustin Cole Re: Replacement of washing machine Dear sir or madam, This letter is to notify you about a problem I am having with the Easy Spin washing machine that I bought at your Essex store last October. I am dissatisfied with your product because it does not heat up water correctly and when it washes it does not remove all the detergent. I have already attempted to solve this problem by talking to the store manager, but without any results. I also found him quite rude and unwilling to find a satisfactory solution to my problem. I hope that you can investigate this matter further. Having received no satisfactory solution from your store I am hereby requesting that you replace the faulty machine or refund my money. Yours faithfully, Jordan Castle. Adapted from: The Encyclopaedia of Business Letters, Fax, Memos, and E-Mail (Paperback), By Robert Bly, February 2009, ISBN-10: 1601630298, Published by Career Pr Inc. III
    • 135IN BUSINESS PLACING A JOB ADVERTISEMENTLISTENINGRead the letters (I – III) and match them with these types of letters (a. – c.) 3 pts. a. A letter of apology. b. A thank you letter. c. A letter of complaint. What can you infer from these sentences in the letters? 3 pts. a. Letter I: I hope that you can investigate this matter further. i. The writer expects the Essex store manager to be congratulated. ii. The writer expects the Essex store manager to talk to the General Manager. iii.The writer expects the General Manager to deal with an employee’s bad attitude. b. Letter II: I have now instructed the store to replace the item immediately. i. The customer will get his money back. ii. The customer will receive a new machine. iii.The customer will receive further instructions. c. Letter III: (Your employees) went out of their way to explain various functions of the campsite. i. The employees got lost. ii. The employees were very helpful. iii.The employees worked outside the camp. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? 6 pts. a. _____ The writer of the first letter has a problem with a clothes dryer. b. _____ The writer of the first letter will accept a new machine or his money back. c. _____ Mr Castle bought his machine in Essex. d. _____ Letter II is offering a satisfactory solution to a problem. e. _____ The writer of letter III went to the campsite alone. f. _____ The staff at the campsite were very friendly. 3 2 1 Listen to the conversation and choose the best answer to the questions. 5 pts. a. Where does the person want to place an advertisement? i. In a newspaper. ii.On a website. b. What position is the ad for? i. A pilot. ii.A flight attendant. c. How many words does the ad have in total? i. 80. ii.65. d. What must the ideal candidate for the job have? i. Experience. ii.A high school diploma. e. When will the ad be published? i. Next week. ii.Tomorrow. Listen again and fill in the contact details of the person placing the ad. 5 pts. Name: __________________________________ Surname: _______________________________ Position: ________________________________ E-mail address: ___________________________ Telephone number: _______________________ 446 445 Listen to a conversation and choose the picture that best represents it. What clues did you hear? 2 pts. 444 a b
    • 136 UNIT 6 Change the direct into indirect questions using the provided openings. 5 pts. a. Has Sean been to New Zealand? I wonder _____________________________ _____________________________________. b. Is Manchester United winning the match? The football fans asked the commentator _____________________________________ _____________________________________. c. Have I left my umbrella at home? I can’t remember ______________________ _____________________________________. d. Can you play the accordion? The music teacher asked ________________ _____________________________________. e. Did you learn English at school? Our new friends enquired _______________ _____________________________________. Fill in the blanks in this paragraph with the phrases in the box. 5 pts. The police found the little boy wondering alone on the beach. They asked him where (a.) ________________ but he looked scared and did not answer. They took him to the police station and gave him something to eat and drink. Then a police psychologist asked him what (b.) ________________ and how (c.) ________________. The psychologist also enquired if (d.) ________________ but the boy was quiet. It was only after a while that a policewoman asked in three different languages where (e.) ______________.When she at last spoke in Portuguese the boy smiled and said he was Brazilian. 7 8 · he knew his home address · he was from · his name was · his parents were · old he was Use the expressions in the box to complete the interviewer’s part, and your own ideas to complete the applicant’s part of this interview (a. – l.). Then practise and role play it with a partner. 6 pts. Interviewer: (a.) __________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: Well, my name is (b.) _____________ and I’m (c.) _____________ years old. Interviewer: (d.) _________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: Yes, I sent my application form by e-mail last Wednesday. Interviewer: (e.) __________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: I’m sorry that you cannot find it but I have another copy with me. Interviewer: (f.) __________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: Yes, I have some experience. I worked as a(n) (g.) ____________ for (h.) ____________. Interviewer: (i.) __________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: I’m applying for the job because (j.) _____________________________________. Interviewer: (k.) __________________________ ________________________________________. Applicant: I could start work next (l.) _________ ______________________________ if necessary. · Can you tell me · I can’t remember · I wonder if · I would like to know · I’d like to ask you · I’m afraid 9 LANGUAGE SPEAKING You ordered five (5) boxes of A4, white printing paper, suitable for use with both inkjet and laser printers but the order did not arrive.You phoned once and spoke to the secretary but did not get a positive answer.Write a letter of complaint (maximum 150 words) requesting that the order be delivered as soon as possible. 10 pts. 10 WRITING HYPERTEXT: digital resources and activities
    • 137IN BUSINESS YOUR TEST RESULTS Reading You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 12 Excellent I grasped all the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 6 to 9 Good I grasped the majority of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I grasped some of the main ideas and answered most questions correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced some of the main ideas and answered just a few questions correctly. Listening You are expected to be able to identify and understand key facts and details. Your score 10 to 12 Excellent I identified almost all general and specific information correctly. 6 to 9 Good I identified most general and specific information correctly. 3 to 5 Not too bad I identified some general and specific information correctly. 0 to 2 Unsatisfactory I deduced a few bits of the general and specific information. Language You are expected to apply and identify two language items. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I understood and applied all the items in all cases. 5 to 7 Good I understood and applied all the items in most cases. 2 to 4 Not too bad I understood and applied all the items in some cases. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I understood and applied all the items in very few cases. Speaking You are expected to be able to ask and answer questions using reporting verbs. Your score 5 to 6 Excellent Good pronunciation and no hesitation, structures well applied. 3 to 4 Good Good pronunciation and minimum hesitation. Structures applied. 1 to 2 Not too bad Some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. Some structures applied. 0 Unsatisfactory A lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. No structures applied. Writing You are expected to write a letter of complaint. Your score 8 to 10 Excellent I wrote a letter following all the indications. I used indirect questions / reporting verbs correctly. 5 to 7 Good I wrote a letter following most indications. I used some indirect questions/ reporting verbs correctly. 2 to 4 Not too bad I wrote a letter following some indications. I used a few indirect questions / reporting verbs correctly. 0 to 1 Unsatisfactory I wrote a letter, but followed only very few indications. I did not use indirect questions / reporting verbs. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE In this unit Always Sometimes Never I reflected and gave my opinion on moral issues related to work and business. I actively participated in the discussions and conversations related to business issues. I applied the learnt structures and vocabulary in the exercises. I used different strategies to understand and to make myself understood. I showed respect for other students’opinions and ideas. SELF - EVALUATION
    • ANSWERS 138 UNIT 1. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING –THREE LOVE LETTERS Letter I – c. Letter II – a. Letter III – b. a. Because Brad makes her laugh really hard. b. Because he left Krissy / because he feels guilty. c. Probably yes, but only as a friend. a. - ii. b. - iii. c. - i. LISTENING – LOVE REUNITED a. a. a. 42 / 17. b. ended / France. c. mother’s / Spain. d. answered / right. e. 30 / kissing. LANGUAGE A B What time might it be? I’m not sure. It might be around 5 p.m. A possibility She might miss the plane if she does not hurry. A possibility Where might we go at the weekend? A suggestion Whatever you prefer - you might have salad or pasta. A possibility Might I take this chair if you are not using it? A request (Other sensible answers are acceptable). a. so. b. absolutely. c. such. d. really. SPEAKING (Other sensible answers are acceptable according to your reality). You might have lunch in the school cafeteria. You might ask Carlos. You might join the drama class. You might call Jenny. You might need to fill in a form. Assign points to the activity according to the following criteria. • Student completes the dialogue with four or five of the correct alternatives and role plays it with good pronunciation and no hesitation. 8-10pts. • Student completes the dialogue with three or four of the correct alternatives and role plays it with good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 5-7pts. • Student completes the dialogue with two or three of the correct alternatives and role plays it with some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 2-4pts. • Student completes the dialogue with one or two of the correct alternatives and role plays it with a lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0-1pts. WRITING The students complete the letter with their own ideas, using the vocabulary and structures leant in the unit. Assign points according to the following criteria. • Student completes the letter expressing his / her own feelings, using the vocabulary and structures learnt in the unit, without grammar or spelling mistakes. 8-10pts. • Student completes the letter expressing his / her own feelings, using most of the vocabulary and structures learnt in the unit, with a few grammar or spelling mistakes. 5-7pts. • Student completes the letter expressing his / her own feelings, using some of the vocabulary and structures learnt in the unit, with some grammar or spelling mistakes. 3-4pts. • Student does not expresses his / her feelings to complete the letter, does not use the vocabulary and structures learnt in the unit, and makes a lot of grammar or spelling mistakes. 0-2pts. 3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 14 2 1
    • 139 MINITEST P. 13 Possible answers a. You might visit (interesting place in student's area). b. Helen / Ian, might I borrow your T-shirt? c. Mum, I have looked everywhere. Do you know where my favourite jeans might be? d. You might buy crisps, biscuits and soft driks. P. 17 Possible answers This happened a month ago. The day was terribly hot and I really wanted a drink. I looked around and saw a little kiosk with soft drinks and ice-cream but it was so crowded I decided to look somewhere else. Then a boy standing right in front of the kiosk waved to me. He was very cute! He had a bottle of orange crush in his hand and he was offering it to me. I was quite impressed. And now, a month later, we are dating! I still think he is absolutely fabulous. UNIT 2. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING – UNUSUAL VAMPIRES a. Bella Swan – main female character. Billy Burke – supporting actor. Catherine Hardwicke – director. Melissa Rosenberg – screenwriter. Robert Pattinson – main male actor. Stephanie Meyer – author / writer. a. No. There are no clichéd stereotypes with fangs, coffins and stakes through the heart. b. In Portland, Oregon. c. It ties in to the story perfectly; the soundtrack fits the tone of the film (with its moody rock songs). LANGUAGE Answers will vary. a. He was playing football when I saw him yesterday. (present participle) b. There is only one great passion in his life: writing books. (gerund) c. Thank you for giving me such a beautiful gift. (gerund) d. What is she doing here? (present participle) e. I hate doing the same thing twice. (gerund) LISTENING – OPINIONS FROM MOSCOW a. librarian. b. romance. c. fantasy. d. last week. e. people. a. RYM. b. BT. c. RYM. d. RYM. e. BT. SPEAKING (Other sensible possibilities are acceptable). Juliet: I'msureI'veseenthatJamesBondfilmbefore. Brenda:Ithinkyou'rewrong.You'veseen“CasinoRoyale”, butnot“QuantumofSolace”. Juliet: You'reright about“CasinoRoyale”butI'mnot certainifIsawtheotherfilmtoo. Brenda:Thetwofilmscertainlyarequitesimilar. Juliet: NowthatIremember;“QuantumofSolace”was filmedinLatinAmerica,wasn'tit? Brenda:Argentina,Ithink. Juliet: No,Iamquitecertainitwasadifferentcountry.Let methink…Chile!Yes,that'sright,itwasChile. Brenda: I'mnotreallysure.Theyfilmeditsomewherein thedesert,didn'tthey? Assign points to the activity according to the following criteria. • Student completes the dialogue with seven or eight of the correct alternatives and role plays it with good pronunciation and no hesitation. 8-10pts. • Student completes the dialogue with five or six of the correct alternatives and role plays it with good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 5-7pts. • Student completes the dialogue with three or four of the correct alternatives and role plays it with some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 3-4pts. 13 8 7 6 20 5 4 3 2 1 13
    • 140 • Student completes the dialogue with one or two of the correct alternatives and role plays it with a lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0-2pts. WRITING Assign points according to the following criteria. • Student writes a coherent review including all the required elements, with no grammar or spelling mistakes. 8-10pts. • Student writes a fairly coherent review including most of the required elements, with very few grammar or spelling mistakes. 5-7pts. • Student writes a simple review including a few of the required elements, with several grammar and spelling mistakes. 3-4pts. • Student writes a few sentences that do not include the required elements, with a lot of grammar and spelling mistakes. 0-2pts. MINITEST P. 33 Possible answers a.is sitting. b.Eating. c.watching. d. is helping. e.doing. f.learning. g.is enjoying. h.Arriving. P. 37 a. repairing all kinds of things. b. arriving late. a. Eating fruits and vegetables. a. doing her homework. UNIT 3. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING - GREEN SHIPS FIGHT GLOBALWARMING c. a. True. b. False. c. True. d. False. a. It is much cheaper than other methods. b. The impact it has on different industries. LISTENING – CUTTING EDGETECHNOLOGY Interview I: b. — Interview II: c. c. d. a. light. b. cut. c. on TV. d. tiny. a. A nanometre is 1 billionth part of a metre. b. Invention 1, the molecular clippers, is useful because we can use it to hold very tiny objects. c. Invention 2, the mini laser, is useful because it is used to cure skin cancer. LANGUAGE a. The doctor suggested that I drink lots of water and have three light meals a day. b. The teacher insisted that we submit the paper on Monday at the latest. c. Marie proposed that we sell the tickets at 3 pounds each. d. The scientist recommended that we take the necessary steps to reduce global warming now. 9 8 7 6 5 26 4 9 3 15 2,000 5.3 billion 150 billion The amount of benefit for each pound spent on stratospheric aerosols. The number of ships to be used in the project. The total cost of cloud whitening. The cost governments are considering spending on the reduction of CO2 emissions. A B 2 1 15 13
    • 141 a. He didn't study for the test. In fact, I was surprised that he passed it at all. b. I will help you with the dishes as long as you dry and put them away. c. Even though she looks oriental she was born and brought up in Toronto. Answers will vary. Check that students use that and the Subjunctive. SPEAKING Assign 1/2 points for each correct match picture - introduction. a. Picture 2. b. Picture 3. c. Picture 1. d. Picture 4. Assign the rest of the points according to these criteria: • Student role plays the introductions with good pronunciation and no hesitation.7-8pts. • Student role plays the introductions with good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 5-6pts. • Student role plays the introductions with some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 2-4pts. • Student role plays the introductions with a lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0-2pts. WRITING Refer students back to the brochure on page 62 and tell them to summarise it in no more than 100 words. Tell them to use the subjunctive mood in the summary. • Student writes a summary that contains all relevant information, with no grammar or spelling mistakes. 8-10pts. • Student writes a summary that contains most of the relevant information, with a few grammar or spelling mistakes. 5-7pts. • Student writes a summary that contains some of the relevant information required, with some grammar or spelling mistakes. 3-4pts. • Student writes a summary that contains very little of the relevant information required, with a lot of grammar or spelling mistakes. 0-2pts. MINITEST P. 53 Possible answers a. The teacher suggested that we read Don Quijote de la Mancha as a good example of Spanish literature. b. The doctor recommended that I take the cough mixture after I eat. c. I demand that you return my money! The computer is not working. d. She insisted that we drink some milk before we set off. e. I propose that we fly to Mexico and there we can rent a car. f. The President urges that we all vote in the next elections. P. 57 Will vary. Check that the Subjunctive is used correctly. UNIT 4. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING - WHO IS BANKSY? a. (3). b. (2). c. (5). d. (4). e. (1). a. VI. b. IV. c. III. d. IV and V. e. I. f. II. a. A monkey wearing a sandwich board, Mona Lisa with a rocket launcher. b. Brad Pitt, Cristina Aguilera. c. A pizza box. d. No, they don’t. LISTENING – CONCERT FANS a. ii. b. ii. c. i. d. ii. a. Jen. b. Dani. c. Dani. d. Jen. a. chance. b. important. c. cannot. d. can. 10 12 11 13 15 13 1 2 3 32 4 5 6
    • 142 LANGUAGE a. By the time he arrived at the train station the train had left. b. By the time he arrived at the theatre the play had started. c. By the time he arrived at his friend's house she had gone out. d. By the time he arrived at the football stadium the gamed had finished. a. John complained that the phone had rung at 3 o’clock in the morning. b. Tina told us that the exam had begun 10 minutes late. c. Fred said that he had lived in Dublin before moving to Los Angeles. d. Marian explained that the doctor had asked her to describe her typical day. SPEAKING Give students a short time to prepare. Allow them to take notes but do not let them read the written sentences - they should use their notes as props only. Assign points according to these criteria. • The student compares the two paintings and expresses his / her preferences with correct sentences, appropriate pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 8 - 10 pts. • The student compares the two paintings and expresses his / her preferences, but makes some grammar and pronunciation mistakes and hesitates. 5 - 7 pts. • The student compares the two paintings and expresses his / her preferences, but makes several grammar and pronunciation mistakes and hesitates. 2 - 3 pts. • The student cannot compare the two paintings or express his / her preferences, makes several grammar and pronunciation mistakes, and hesitates a lot. 0 - 1 pts. WRITING Historical truth is not the objective of the activity, so correct dates and real names are not essential. Students should use their previous knowledge of the band or singer. Assign points according to the following criteria. • Student writes appropriate information in all the corresponding paragraphs of the article, with very few grammar or spelling mistakes. 8-10pts. • Student writes appropriate information in most of the corresponding paragraphs of the article, with some grammar and spelling mistakes. 5-7pts. • Student writes only a few pieces of information in the corresponding paragraphs of the article. There are several grammar and spelling mistakes. 2-4pts. • Students writes very little information and no paragraphs can be noticed. There are a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes. 0-1pts. MINITEST P. 75 a. were / had lost. b. moved / had worked. c. played / had left. d. spoke / had studied. e. was / had gone. P. 81 a. Laurie said she had seen Casino Royale on TV. b. The man told me he had sent the packet three days ago. c. The scientist explained that the Neanderthal had lived thousands of years ago. d. The university authorities announced that they had uploaded the exam results on their website. 16 7 9 8 17 10
    • 143 UNIT 5. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING - FINDING WATER ONTHE MOON b. (Be flexible to accept other correct answers). a. Scientists were surprised to find out there was water on the moon. b. They also revealed that it was not enough moisture to foster / support life. c. Scientists argued for months to find out what the problem with the instruments was. d. Lunar senior scientist Paul Spudis called the new find exciting. e. He also asked the question where the water came from. a. The moon. b. To see if it could bring up buried ice. c. (1) The water came from comets or asteroids that crashed into the moon or (2) The solar wind carries hydrogen atoms that bind with oxygen, this way making water. SPEAKING This exercise draws on what students learnt in this unit and links it to their own experience, asking them to use their imagination. Students work in pairs. First both students complete column A with their own ideas and then they ask each other questions to complete column B. Assign points according to these criteria. • The student asks and answers the appropriate questions correctly, with appropriate pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 8-10pts. • The student asks and answers the appropriate questions correctly, but makes some grammar and pronunciation mistakes and hesitates. 5-7pts. • The student asks and answers some appropriate questions correctly, but makes several grammar and pronunciation mistakes and hesitates. 2-3pts. • The student cannot ask and answer the appropriate questions correctly, makes several grammar and pronunciation mistakes, and hesitates a lot. 0-1pts. LISTENING - MYSTERIES OF SCIENCE a. incident. b. 200. c. resonance. d. size. LANGUAGE a. Jane asked what programme I had seen on Saturday. b. The shop assistant asked if she could help me. c. Thecustomeraskedhowmuchthecomputercost. d. Sandrasaiditwasnotagoodideatoleavesolate. Check that the students use the correct tenses and appropriate pronouns. Possible answers a. The tourist asked me where the museum was. b. I told Susan I was happy. c. The policeman said he wanted to see my documents. d. The astronomer explained that the telescope was working again. WRITING Ask students to read the interview and then rewrite it in no more than 150 words, using the reporting verbs provided in the box. Tell them to pay attention to word order in the sentences and to include any other necessary changes. 9 1 2 4 3 8 7 6 a. A Spanish geologist b. A British researcher c. Low ozone levels d. Global warming e. Acoustic resonance f. Various instruments I II P P P P P P 5 38
    • 144 Assign points according to these criteria. • Student reports all the required information, using different reporting verbs and incorporating all the necessary changes, with very few spelling mistakes and grammar errors. 8-10pts. • Student reports most of the required information, using several reporting verbs and incorporating most of the necessary changes, with a few spelling mistakes and grammar errors. 5-7pts. • Student reports some of the required information, using a few reporting verbs and incorporating some of the necessary changes, with some spelling mistakes and grammar errors. 2-4pts. • Student reports very little of the required information, using very few of the reporting verbs and incorporating very few of the necessary changes, with several spelling mistakes and grammar errors. 0-1pts. MINITEST P. 99 a. that her name was Carla. b. she did. c. I went to Alexander Fleming school d. his name was George. i. I told her / I said she had a lovely name. ii. I added that I was from Benton City too. iii. She exclaimed that her boyfriend also went to that school. iv. I shouted that my name was George too. P. 104 Possible answers a. My son asked my why I was so tired / sad. b. I wanted to know when we would go on holiday. c. My young wife wondered where we would buy our first home. d. I asked dad how much the TV cost. e. My teacher enquired how many students knew the answer. UNIT 6. TESTYOUR KNOWLEDGE READING –THE BUSINESS OF LETTER WRITING I - c. II - a. III - b. a. iii. b. ii. c. iii. a. False. b. True. c. True. d. True. e. False. f. True. LISTENING – PLACING A JOB ADVERTISEMENT a. a. i. b. ii. c. i. d. ii. e. ii. Name: Pauline. Surname: Brown. Position: Human Resources manager. E-mail address: pbrown@nationalair.co.uk. Telephone number: 44 028 786765. LANGUAGE a. I wonder if Sean has been to New Zealand. b. The football fans asked the commentator if Manchester United was winning the match. c. I can’t remember if I left my umbrella at home. d. The music teacher asked if I played / could play the accordion. e. Our new friends enquired if we had learnt English at school. a. his parents were b. his name was c. old he was d. he knew his home address e. he was from 17 15 1 2 3 44 4 5 6 7 8
    • 145 SPEAKING Ask students to work in pairs, taking turns to be the interviewer and the interviewee. They both look at the suggestions for an interview and the interviewer prepares the questions while the interviewee prepares the answers. They role play the interview. Assign points according to these criteria. • Student uses his / her own ideas and the information provided to complete the job interview, with good pronunciation and no hesitation. 8-10pts. • Student uses his / her own ideas and the information provided to complete the job interview, with good pronunciation and a minimum of hesitation. 5-7pts. • Student uses his / her own ideas and the information provided to complete the job interview, with some pronunciation mistakes and with hesitation. 2-4pts. • Student uses his / her own ideas and the information provided to complete the job interview, with a lot of pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. 0-1pts. WRITING Students read the instructions carefully and then write a letter of complaint with a maximum of 150 words. Check each letter individually. Assign points following these criteria. • Student writes a letter of complaint that contains all the required information placed in its correct location and respects the word limit, with no grammar or spelling mistakes. 8-10pts. • Student writes a letter of complaint that contains most of the required information placed in its correct location and the word limit slightly under/over limit, with a few grammar or spelling mistakes. 5-7pts. • Student writes a letter of complaint that contains some of the required information often placed in its correct location and the word limit slightly under/over limit, with some grammar or spelling mistakes. 3-4pts. • Student writes a letter of complaint that contains very few pieces of information in the corresponding parts, does not respect the word limit -(the text is too short), with a lot of grammar or spelling mistakes. 0-2pts. MINITEST P. 122 (Accept variations in the reporting verbs). a. Molly's mother wanted to know where her father was. b. The teacher asked how we had found the information to write the report. c. Sarah enquired how many languages we could speak / spoke. d. Kelly wondered why I didn't answer her messages. e. The interviewer wanted to find out what my experience with learning disabilities was. P. 128 Check each student´s answers individually or ask them to exchange minitests with a partner and correct each other's answers. 9 10 16 18
    • THEMATIC INDEX 146 A biography: Pablo Picasso. 83 A brochure: Planet saving technology. 50 A conversation about iPhone art. 77 A conversation between two girls. 87 A film poster. 31 A film review: Unusual Vampires. 42 A film review. 31 A news story. 23 A song. 15 A web cam lecture: Asking the right questions. 101 An article about science and technology. 62 - 109 - 110 An article on numerology . 108 An article: Vincent Van Google . 84 An article: Who is Banksy? 86 An interview with a famous person. 35 Business letters. 59 - 118 - 119 - 130 - 131 - 134 Chilean Connection. 21 - 41 - 61 - 85 - 109 - 133 Extract from a novel. 30 Gerunds. 36 Indirect questions. 103 - 127 -ing forms. 32 Intensifiers. 16 Job interviews. 63 Love letters. 10 - 22 Magazine article: The Rapping Years . 70 - 71 Reporting verbs. 97 - 121 Scientific article: The Magic of DNA . 94
    • 147 Teen Science Blog. 106 Telephone conversation: placing a job advertisement. 135 The modal verb might. 12 The Past Perfect tense. 72 - 79 The Subjunctive with that. 52 - 56 Three conversations about jobs. 125 To apply new vocabulary and structures. 52 - 98 - 127 To ask and answer questions. 32 To classify information. 34 To classify words. 12 - 48 To connect content and previous knwoledge. 34 - 48 - 54 - 69 - 76 - 76 - 92 - 100 - 116 - 124 To connect pictures and content. 34 To connect pictures and topic. 92 To connect the topic and experience. 100 To consolidate a grammar point in writing. 74 - 128 To consolidate a grammar point. 12 - 17 - 32 - 35 - 56 To consolidate a language item. 104 - 122 To consolidate a language structure. 73 To consolidate vocabulary. 17 - 35 - 55 - 57 - 73 - 74 - 79 - 98 - 102 - 121 To create a new text. 17 - 53 - 75 - 99 - 123 To deduce the communicative purpose of texts. 116 To describe and guess jobs. 124 To differentiate between fact and opinion. 96 To differentiate between formal and informal language. 116 To discriminate between correct and incorrect information. 15 - 29 - 35 - 78 - 97 - 102 - 120 To discuss a scientific topic. 105 To discuss an issue. 57
    • 148 To draw conclusions. 55 To evaluate learning. 13 - 17 - 33 - 37 - 53 - 57 - 75 - 81 - 99 - 104 - 122 - 128 To expand content expressing opinions. 80 To expand vocabulary. 12 To express opinions. 7 - 35 - 68 - 93 -100 To express personal attitudes. 7 To find general and supporting information. 29 - 55 To find meaning of words / to make predictions. 8 - 14 - 34 To find specific information. 9 - 49 - 55 - 69 - 77 - 78 - 93 - 101 - 102 - 117 - 125 - 126 To find the meaning of key words and identify their pronunciation. 54 - 100 To identify and classify differences between American and British English. 121 To identify cognates. 34 - 48 - 69 - 76 To identify explicit and implicit information. 120 To identify format of business letters. 117 To identify purpose of a text. 93 To identify references. 93 To identify speakers. 35 To identify stressed word. 15 To identify synonyms. 69 - 11 To identify textual clues. 102 To identify textual references. 49 To identify tone of message. 14 - 15 To identify type of text. 48 - 69 To infer information. 120 To infer meaning of words / expressions. 48 - 78 - 116 - 125 To infer the meaning of key words. 54 To match information and visuals. 7 - 14 - 35 - 54 - 68
    • 149 To match information. 29 - 48 - 77 To participate in a guided oral dialogue. 49 - 98 To practise a structure. 52 To predict content from cognates and familiar words. 48 - 100 To predict content from the context. 54 - 93 - 125 To predict messages using non-verbal content. 77 To reflect on the contents of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences. 17 - 33 - 36 - 53 - 57 - 68 - 75 - 81 - 99 - 105 - 123 - 129 To reinforce a grammar point. 12 - 17 To relate content to personal experiences. 17 To role play an interview. 37 To role play dialogues imitating a spoken model. 17 - 32 - 37 - 56 - 74 - 80 - 104 - 122 To summarise (ideas, information) through discussions and oral work. 129 To synthesise information and transfer it to a graphic organiser. 29 - 72 To talk about art forms and preferences. 81 To transfer relevant information to a visual organiser. 49 - 69 - 96 - 101 To use information to complete a conversation. 122 To validate predictions. 29 - 35 - 48 - 55 - 69 - 77 - 93 -101 - 117 - 125 To write a text. 17 - 33 Two presentations about mysteries of science. 111 Unit Test 1 22 Unit Test 2 42 Unit Test 3 62 Unit Test 4 86 Unit Test 5 110 Unit Test 6 134 Writing tips. 40
    • 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY MASCULL, B.L.; 1997. COLLINS COBUILD KEY WORDS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 1st Edition. England, Heinemann Publishers. MURPHY, R.M.; 1997. ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR IN USE; 2nd Ed. Great Britain, Cambridge University Press. SEVERAL AUTHORS; 1996. SPANISH - ENGLISH STANDARD DICTIONARY; 2nd Ed. Mexico, s.e. SEVERAL AUTHORS; 1997. THE MACMILLAN VISUAL DICTIONARY; 1st Edition. USA, Prentice Hall Hispanoamericana. RINVOLUCRI, M. et al; 1995. MORE GRAMMAR GAMES; 1st Edition. Great Britain, Cambridge University Press. JARA, H. et al; 1995. TECHNICAL ENGLISH 1; 3rd Ed. S.l, Salesiana. BURKE. J.M;. et al.; 2003. READING REMINDERS: TOOLS, TIPS, AND TECHNIQUES, s.e.s.l. PEREGOY. S.F. et al.; 2005. READING, WRITING AND LEARNING IN ESL; 3rd Ed. England, Allyn & Bacon. SANDLER, C. AND KEEFE. J; 2004. 1001 LETTERS FOR ALL OCCASIONS: THE BEST MODELS FOR EVERY BUSINESS AND PERSONAL NEED. Adams Media. BLANDHCARD, K.R.; ROOT C.T.; 1996. FOR YOUR INFORMATION; 1st Edition. USA, Addison Wesley Longman. WEB SITES http://www.ingles.mineduc.cl/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p002vsmz http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/ http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/Stories/ http://dsc.discovery.com/ http://dsc.discovery.com/games/games-tab-03.html http://www.mansioningles.com/index.htm http://www.isabelperez.com/ http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/
    • ©2011EdicionesCalyCanto ® Originaltext JolantaPolkReyes TeachingEnglishasaForeignLanguage, Dublin,Ireland. Teachertraining,translationandEnglishLiterature, UniversityofSilesia,Poland. Originalillustrations EdicionesCalyCanto ® Design EdicionesCalyCanto ® GeneralPublisher JorgeMuñozRau. Publisher AliciaManonellasBalladares. AssistantPublisher GloriaCaroOpazo. Ly-SenLamDíaz. Designedby MaríaJesúsMorenoGuldman. Coverdesignedby MaríaJesúsMorenoGuldman. Layoutby CristinaSepúlvedaAravena. Proofreading KevinTowl. Illustrations VenusAstudilloVera. GeneralProduction CeciliaMuñozRau. ProductionAssistant LorenaBriceñoGonzález. RecordingProducer RodrigoGonzálezDíaz. Photos BancodeFotosEdicionesCalyCanto. ISBN:978-956-8623-97-5 N˚deInscripción:197.520 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in Chile
    • 9 789568 623975 EDICIÓN ESPECIAL PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIÓN AÑO 2011