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Body systems

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    Body systems Body systems Presentation Transcript

    • BODY SYSTEMS
    • Body Organization a) Cells -Your body is made up of trillions of cells, the simplest and most basic units of all living organisms. b) Tissue – A group of cells that are similar and work together to perform a specific function c) Organ – Two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function d) Body System – A group of organs that work together for one purpose iscalled a body system
    • I) The Nervous System A) Acts as the body control center B) Regulates all body functions C) Composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory organs such as eyes, ears and taste buds in the tongue D) Controls the voluntary activities such as walking, running E) Controls the involuntary activities such a breathing
    • F) The Central Nervous System (CNS) > Made of the brain and the spinal cord G) The Peripheral Nervous System ( PNS) > Made of the nerves or a bundle of cells that conduct electrical signals through the body
    • H) Problems of the Nervous System 1) Meningitis – infection of the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord caused by a bacteria or a virus 2) Rabies – viral infection of the brain passed by the saliva or bite of an infected animal 3) Concussion – an injury of the brain caused by a blow to the head; may cause memory loss or unconsciousness 4) Stroke- the death of brain tissue due to lack of blood to the brain 5) Paralysis – partial or total loss of the ability to use muscles 6) Epilepsy – disorder of the brain and nerves characterized by uncontrolled muscle activity 7) Cerebral Palsy – a person has very poor muscle control caused by damage to the brain
    • III) Endocrine System • Some Important Hormones A) Thyroxine: regulates body growth B) Testosterone: male hormone C) Estrogen: female hormone D) Progesterone: prepares the uterus for pregnancy and helps regulate the menstral cycle E) Insulin regulates amount of sugar in the blood F) Human growth hormone: stimulates body growth G) Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Stimulate the body system and metabolism in emergencies and Glands __________ hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Slow acting.
    • Problems of the Endocrine System A) Type II Diabetes: high level of sugar in the blood B) Gigantism: Very large body size(overproduction of the human growth hormone (hgh) C) Dwarfism: Very small body size (underproduction of hgh D) Hyperthyroidism: overproduction of the thyroid gland; too active which can lead to weight loss E) Hypothyroidism: underproduction of thyroid gland; slow down of the body systems that can lead to unhealthy weight gain
    • Gigantism and dwarfism
    • II.Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs; provides a framework muscles use to cause movement; blood cells are formed within bones (hematopoiesis); stores minerals.
    • Problems of the Skeletal System A) Osteoporosis: the bones become weak due to lack of calcium and/or Vitamin D B) Fracture: a break in the bone C) Osteomyelitis: a bacterial infection of a bone and its bone marrow D) Arthritis: joint inflammations E) Osteoarthritis: a type of arthritis that is caused by aging F) Rickets: soft bone because the body cannot absorb calcium G) Scoliosis: Curvature of the spine usually caused by uneven growth of the body H) Sprain: injury to the ligaments of a joint
    • Scoliosis
    • Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expressions; maintains posture; produces heat.
    • Problems of the Muscular System A) Muscular dystrophy: muscle weakness B)Inguinal Hernia: the intestine bulges through the abdominal muscle C)Muscle Cramp: a sudden and painful contraction of the muscle usually at night or when exercising D)Strain: overstretching and possible tearing or a muscle because of overuse E)Tendinitis: inflammation of the tendon because of aging or too much exercise F) Shin splints: pain or irritation of the shins
    • Muscle Cramps
    • Circulatory System Or Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc,; the heart pumps blood. White blood cells and chemicals in the blood help to protect the body from bacteria, toxins and tumor cells. A) blood: contains liquids and solids; 5 liters of blood in the body B) Plasma: the liquid part 90% water; carries nutrient and hormones to parts parts of the body; contains proteins that are needed in blood clotting and fighting disease C) Platelets: fragments that help repair blood vessels and form blood clots D) Red blood cells: transport Oxygen and Carbon dioxide through the body E) White blood cells: fight infection F) Hemoglobin: protein in RBC
    • Problems of the Circulatory System A) Hypertension: abnormally high blood pressure that can lead to stroke a heart attack B) Heart Attack: Blood supply to the heart is reduced of stopped C) Anemia: Number of RBC and amount of hemoglobin is below normal D) Sickle Cell Anemia: RBC are sickle shaped and contain abnormal type of hemoglobin E) Leukemia: cancer of the tissue of the body that produces WBC F) Hemophilia: blood does not clot or clots slowly
    • Respiratory System The primary function of the respiratory system is the _________ of oxygen to the blood so this in turn delivers oxygen to all parts of the body.
    • Problems of the Respiratory System 1) Tuberculosis: infection caused by bacteria in the lungs 2) Pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs where in the alveoli become filled with a thick fluid 3) Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchials 4) Asthma: an allergic response in which airways constrict and become filled with mucus 5) Emphysema: the alveoli in the lungs break; difficult breathing 6) Lung Cancer: a cancer destroying lung tissue
    • The urinary system, also known as the excretory system, is concerned with the removal of water-soluble waste products from the body in the form of urine. The various components or organs of the urinary system are associated with the production, storage, and then _______________of urine from the body. At the same time, the system also takes part in several vital functions of the body.
    • Problems of the Urinary System 1) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): An infection of one or more of the organs of the urinary tract caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites; more common in women: can be prevented with proper hygiene and limited intake of salt or MSG 2) Stones: crystallized mineral chunks that frequently form in the kidneys and the bladder; small stones will leave the body with the urine; large stones may become trapped and cause pain and need to be removed through operation: can be prevented by limiting salt intake and drinking plenty of water 3) Death of the kidney: when the kidney stops functioning due to too much salt,acid or fat; needs to undergo dialysis ( a blood cleansing procedure) or a kidney transplant 4) Urinary incontinence: loss of urine or inability to control urination caused by aging 5) Overactive or neurogenic bladder: inability to control urination caused by damage to the nerves that go to the urinary bladder
    • Kidney Stones
    • The Lymphatic System Complimentary to cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessels return fluid leaked from the blood to the blood vessels so that blood can be kept continuously circulating through the body. Lymph nodes ________ the blood and house the cells involved in immunity.
    • Problems of the Lymphatic System 1) Glandular fever - symptoms include tender lymph nodes 2) Hodgkin’s disease - a type of cancer of the lymphatic system 3) Oedema - swelling caused by too much fluid in the tissues 4) Tonsillitis - infection of the tonsils in the throat.
    • Integumentary System External covering of the body. It waterproofs the body. ________vitamin D; location of cutaneous (pain, pressure receptors etc.). Regulates body tempurature. Excretes salt and urea through perspiration.
    • Problems of the Integumentary System 1) Viral Infections: chicken pox, measles, German measles, cold sores ( herpes simplex) and warts 2) Fungal Infections: ringworm 3) bullae: fluid-filled areas of the skin 4) Psoriasis: abnormal keratinization(thickening and hardening of the skin) cause and treatment is unknown 5) Eczema or dermatitis: inflamation of the skin due to allergies, infections, poor blood circulation
    • Immune System The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against ________________ To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue.
    • Problems of the Immune System 1) Allergies and asthma: overreaction to a nonthreatening foreign substance 2) Rheumatoid arthritis: the immune system produces antibodies that attack the lining of a joint 3) Lupus: the immune system develop autoimmune antibodies that can attach to tissues of the body 4) Type 1 diabetes (mellitus): The immune system antibodies destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas 5) AIDS: the HIV virus destroys immune cells
    • Lupus AIDS