THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND
At the point of writing this dissertation, conscription exists in the country.
Conscription means “compulsory enrolment for national service” (encarta.msn.com);
however, mandatory military enlistment is not enforced in the country. Military training
is only on a voluntary basis, and alternative service is available for those who did not
choose and are not qualified for military service. Should there be a full mobilization or
national emergency, all reservists between the age of 18 and 25 are called to serve
actively, in a way the government sees fit (Republic Act No. 7077, Article VI, Sec. 14).
What is mandatory, however, is national service training, which a student must undertake
while inside the confines of tertiary education (Republic Act No. 9163, Sec. 5).
An updated survey in Chartsbin.com showed that eighty-eight (88)
countries in the world do not have conscription, but most of them have voluntary military
service and alternative national service for the youth, like Romania and South Africa.
Only sixty-five (65) have military training or conscription, some of them are Algeria and
Cambodia, and twenty-one (21) have no defense mechanisms at all, like Palau and the
Vatican City. Most of the countries allow military training, voluntary or otherwise, for
citizens ages 18 and above. This chart speculates that most countries are likely to make
national security a top priority and utilize its young men and women to serve the country.
Table 1: Outcomes of youth service for the server and the served (PARAGRAPH
FOR IF FEASIBLE)
Outcomes for the server
Increase maturity and personal autonomy
Become disciplined and reduce risk behavior
Promote social, ethnic, and cultural interactions and awareness
Improve understanding of self and community
Practice and increase skills
Explore career opportunities
Acquire human capital and educational award
Increase civic knowledge and value
Bring change in civic attitudes and participation
Increase the likelihood to vote
Outcomes for the served
Improve school children’s attendance and literacy
Enhance manpower distribution and rural infrastructure development
Develop community projects and build community capacity
Provide better services in rural areas and a steady stream of volunteers
Benefit local nonprofit sectors
Promote personal and professional development of the individual members
Build inter-organizational partnerships
Foster a sense of national integration and cultural integration
Improve social infrastructures, future earnings, and productivity
Promote national unity and democracy
In an article entitled “United We Serve? The Promise of National Service,”
Dionne Jr. and Drogos (2003) posit that service can mean the slightest offering of coins
to a full-fledge mobilization for war, “but when service is seen as a bridge to genuine
political and civic responsibility, it can strengthen democratic government and foster
republican virtues” (p.5). They go on to say that service as public work is the essence of
the democratic project (p.7). It solves common problems and creates common things.
Public work entails not altruism, or not only altruism, but enlightened self-interest—a
desire to build a society in which the serving citizen wants to live (p.8). Service is a
serious matter, especially for those of our fellow citizens who render it under fire (p.9).”
McCain (2003) supports their concept and believes that countries should have
citizen-soldiers at the ready to diffuse territorial defense, “easing the strains created by
long-lasting conflicts and helping contain rising manpower costs” (p.79). “The decline of
the citizen-soldier is not healthy for a democracy.” (p.65)
Following this logic, the Philippine government has adjusted its national service
program according to the country’s needs since the conception of the Commonwealth Act
No. 1. The Philippines is one of the countries that abolished mandatory conscription but
retained national civic service. In fact, in 2010, the Implementing Rules and Regulations
of the National Service Training Program was revised to ensure that the students are well-
informed before choosing which component to take, and that the components are
available to be taken.
On the studies conducted evaluating the implementation of NSTP, particularly of
the ROTC component, Calonzo (2008) and David (2005) reported that one of the major
reasons for the plunging enrollment and graduation rates of the Reserve Officer Training
Corps (ROTC) component is that some universities and colleges are not offering the
ROTC in their curriculum. Students then choose only between Civic Welfare Training
Service (CWTS) and Literacy Training Service (LTS). Because of the downward spiral
trend of ROTC, the pool of Reservists is also drying up since the latter is its major
source. Furthermore, the studies also posited that no one seems to know what to do to the
graduates of CWTS and LTS, despite their massive number. After their one-year training,
they are often faced with “So, now what?” On the contrary, ROTC graduates are
managed and utilized in compliance to governing rules and regulations.
The researcher had the privilege of righting these wrongs when he was appointed
as Project Manager of the Amendment of Implementing Rules and Regulations, Republic
Act 9163 (NSTP-IRR) under the Philippine Defense Reform program.
After several workshops and consultations, a revised IRR was formulated and
released in 2010, in cooperation with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED),
Technical Education and skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of
National Defense (DND), and other key partners and stakeholders. One significant
amendment is the common module phase, where the students are informed about the
three components–ROTC, CWTS, and LTS—so that they will have a well-thought out
decision. Another significant amendment is the mandatory offering of all three
components to make choices available for the students. Also the school must establish
and maintain its own Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST), or its
equivalent in other major services, if there are a minimum of 350 student cadets. For the
original copy of the Revised NSTP-IRR, please see Annex A.
This dissertation, then, has a personal tie to the researcher, for he also wishes to
see the policies he has helped changed come to fruition and to evaluate the effectiveness
of the amendments in the IRR.
Since the release and promulgation of the Revised NSTP-IRR in answer to all
these concerns and more, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Technical
Education and skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of National Defense
(DND), and other key partners and stakeholders are optimistic that ROTC enrolment will
increase, that CWTS and LTS graduates will have an avenue for the national service
skills they have acquired, and all other concerns and problems will lessen or, hopefully,
The NSTP graduates are expected to give back to the community what is taught in
their schools. Community service is the foundation of national service, as communities
make up the nation, just as families make up the community. Goldsmith (2005) posits
that a community would feel the effects of national service.
Service connects people to neighborhood groups, building
them up and extending their reach. When a shelter in a
church basement gets stronger through more volunteers, it
builds up its influence and produces badly needed social
However, even the almost perfect policies shrivel in the face of implementation.
Its miscarriage is one of the reasons the aforementioned problems were there in the first
place. If one looks back on all the aforementioned problems, the main problem is
implementation of the policy. Proper implementation can be achieved through proper
supervision. To bridge this gap, this study aims to evaluate the implementation of the new
NSTP IRR in state and private universities/colleges in Region 3. Results from this
dissertation can be linked to the ones three years ago and can be a basis for comparison—
negative or positive the results may be—despite the fact that this dissertation is of the
entire NSTP and not just the ROTC component.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Republic Act 9163
“National Service Training Program (NSTP)” in Region 3 particularly its Revised
Implementing Rules and Regulations in order to provide the youth with quality education
that shall enhance their civic consciousness and defense preparedness.
Specifically, this study shall seek answers to the following questions:
1. How are the revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the
NSTP being implemented, specifically in terms of the following?
1.1 Program Component
1.1.1 Mandatory offering of all three (3) NSTP Components
1.1.2 Maintenance and provision of ROTC Components to State
1.1.3 Clustering and Cross-enrolment
1.2 Program of Instruction Implementation
1.2.1 Implementation of the conduct of Common Module Phase
1.2.2 Implementation of each of the three (3) NSTP
Components’ Program of Instruction
1.3 Monitoring and Evaluation
1.4 Fees and Incentives
1.5 Organization of the NSTP Graduates
2. Which of the programs are well subscribed (and not well subscribed) by the
institutions and what are the reasons for such?
3. What are the problems, issues and concerns in the implementation of the
NSTP and what measures could be taken to address them?
4. What implications to educational management could be derived from the
Significance of the Study
This study is important to the students who will graduate from the courses offered
by NSTP. The graduates will have a quality education and training that manifest
professionalism and unquestionable performance in relation to duties and responsibilities
as Filipino citizens. Quality training and education is essential as this will enable the
students to achieve the ultimate purpose of maintaining national peace and security.
It is also important to the NSTP Administrators in terms of determining the
effectiveness of the program to better achieve the objectives of NSTP’s training and
Furthermore, Philippine policymakers and legislators can gain knowledge of the
NSTP’s status from the results of this study. Negative or positive results still call for
improvement and recommendations could be used as a take-off for other policies.
The Department of National Defense (DND) and the Armed Forces of the
Philippines also have much to gain from this dissertation. The results shall help them
evaluate and improve the ROTC component.
The same applies to the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical
Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), who can derive from the results
enlightening information for the improvement of the CWTS and LTS components.
Also, future researchers and scholars have a very significant pool of information
in this dissertation as it evaluated the NSTP on the school year of the implementation of
the revised IRR.
Scope and Delimitation
This study focused on the administration of the new National Service Training
Program IRR in Region 3 in school years 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012 - 2013. It
shall specifically determine how the NSTP is being administered in terms of the
following: program component; program of instruction implementation; monitoring and
evaluation; fees and incentives; and organization of the NSTP graduates. It shall also
identify other problems encountered in the conduct of the NSTP implementation.
Furthermore, it shall determine measures to be undertaken to address these problems.
Last, this study will profoundly analyze its implication to education. s
Fourteen (14) schools in Region 3 were data sources. Respondents were from
fourteen Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)—seven (7) state universities/colleges and
seven (7) private universities/colleges. This study assumes that these institutions offer
NSTP because of the law requirement that the program be present in all state universities
and colleges. This study covers school years starting from 2011-2012 to present only,
since the revised IRR was very recently released and implemented.
Definition of Terms Used in the Study
This section presents the terminologies and their definitions as used in the study.
Administration. Applied in this context, it is the supervision and implementation
of NSTP “which includes adherence to policies, office and personnel management,
program execution and evaluation” (Calonzo, 2008, p.8).
Clustering. This refers to the grouping of students enrolled in different schools
and taking up the same NSTP component into one (1) group under the management and
supervision of a designated school;
Common Module. This refers to subjects with 25 hours training period.
Subjects covered are Citizenship training; drug education; disaster awareness;
preparedness and management; environmental protection; and other national security
concerns. These subjects will be generic to all NSTP components.
Cross enrollment. It refers to a system of enrollment where a student is officially
enrolled in an academic program of a school but is allowed to enroll in the NSTP
component of another school.
Fees. The term as used in this study refers to the NSTP fees collected that shall
constitute a Trust Fund, 70% of which shall be exclusively used for the operation of the
Program. The remaining 30% retained by the school shall serve as contingency fund
especially in support to un-programmed activities not originally included in the program
of expenditures prepared by the ROTC Commandant or CWTS/LTS Coordinator and
approved by the school head.
Gaps. It is any deviations identified from the standard implementation of the
Incentives. These refer to a program of assistance/incentives for ROTC students
that shall be provided and administered by DND, in accordance with existing laws and
regulations and subject to the availability of funds.
Mandatory Offering. It is having all three components of NSTP available or
open for the students to choose.
Monitoring and Evaluation. The former refers to a system of overseeing and
monitoring the implementation of the NSTP under their respective jurisdiction, to
determine if the trainings conducted are in consonance with the Act while the latter refers
to an Annual NSTP Performance Evaluation (ANPE) shall be conducted towards the end
of the school year to evaluate and determine the achievement of training objectives of the
NSTP three components program
NSTP Components. It refers to the three programs under NSTP, namely: The
Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), Literacy Training Service (LTS), and Civic
Welfare Training Service (CWTS).
Organization of the NSTP graduates. The term refers to the graduates of the
non-ROTC components of the NSTP organization to the National Service Reserve Corps
(NSRC) and could be tapped by the State for literacy and civic welfare activities, through
the joint efforts of DND, CHED and TESDA, in coordination with DILG, DSWD and
other concerned agencies/associations; and the graduates of the ROTC program
organization to form part of the Citizen Armed Force pursuant to RA 7077, subject to the
requirements of DND.
Program of Instruction. It refers to the different subjects to be taught for the
entire duration of the training to include the common module.
Revised IRR. A revised regulation or implementing rules and regulations to
implement the provisions of the NSTP that was jointly issued, adopted and promulgated
by the Tripartite Committee.
National Service Training Program (NSTP). Prevalent national youth service
program in the Philippines. NSTP is mandatory in tertiary education and has three
components where students can choose from. They are Reserve Officer Training Corps
(ROTC), Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), and Literacy Training Service (LTS).
NSTP Coordinators and Implementers. This refers to school officials and
teachers responsible for and involved in employing the NSTP. They shall organize and
supervise students in the duration of the students’ national service.
Teaching / Training Methodologies. “The mode used by instructors to impart
knowledge and skills to students in order to achieve the learning objectives” (Calonzo,
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE
This chapter presents a review of related foreign and local literature and studies
that are relevant to this research. It provides some concepts on the subject under study.
Grasping the enormity of the topic, the researcher collected information that
ranged from interrelated fields of military sociology, public administration, and even
psychology. Republic Acts were also a vital source of information in this study. Article
compilations and related dissertation papers presented information about national youth
service in other countries and its evolution, in the Philippines and abroad. Furthermore,
the researcher took advantage of the Internet to gain more timely data about the topic.
After exhausting all means available to acquire relevant and vital information about the
topic, the researcher divided the information in appropriate sections as will be seen in this
History reveals the unmistakable ties between military and national service
origins. In “The Evolution of National Youth Service”, Eberly and Gal (2007) cite some
examples from Glick (1967, p.33-34), saying that “it is worth noting that links between
military and civilian service go back thousands of years. Nubian soldiers in the army of
Old Egypt built monuments that still stand. The Incan army in South America built roads
and irrigation systems. The soldiers of Etruria built aqueducts around Rome to supply
water to the city, and later the Roman army built Hadrian’s Wall and highways, some of
which form the motorways of today’s England” (p. 17).
In The Postmodern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War, Moskos et al
(2000) claim that the military model in the last century has evolved, functioning on the
demands of the also-evolving environmental, political, and technological state of affairs.
Earlier in the 20th
century, perceived threats were focused on external menace, but were
later concentrated on the internal dangers, such as insurgencies, terrorism, and the like,
possibly culminating from cultural differences, political unrest and economic decline.
Following the evolution of national youth service (NYS), Eberly and Gal (2007)
experiences with NYS in the twentieth century suggests
that, in terms of the needs of individual countries, of
society at large, and of young people the world over, NYS
can successfully replace military service to a substantial
extent. It could become in the twenty-first century as much
an institution of society as military service was in the
twentieth century (p.31).
Furthermore, they cited Moskos about the difference between servicemen’s
attitude then and now. Today’s national service’s
orientation and ethos are more tolerant and flexible, thus
making it not as distinct as it was in the past, and finally,
the motivation of the servicemen and –women is not
necessarily patriotic, but rather stems from the desire for
self-actualization and exposure to occupational
Following this concept, national service programs should then be focused on the
growth of the people involved—the served and the server.
In the article “Youth Service and Elder Service in Comparative Perspective”,
Nancy Morrow-Howell and Fengyan Tan (2007) consolidated a list of outcomes of
national youth service from different sources, seen in Table 1. Meanwhile, some concepts
abroad are definitely note-worthy when applied to national service in the Philippines.
Looking at national service programs in other countries widened the perspective and
deepened the understanding of national service and how different one program is from
another, depending on the political, economic, environmental, and cultural requirements
of the country.
Morow-Howell and Tang (2007) present the outcomes of youth service for the
server and served. According to them the outcomes for the server are the following:
Increase maturity and personal autonomy; become disciplined and reduce risk behavior;
promote social, ethnic, and cultural interactions and awareness; improve understanding of
self community; practice and increase skills; explore career opportunities; acquire human
capital and educational awards; increase civic knowledge and value; bring change in civic
attitudes and participation; and increase the likelihood to vote. On the other hand, the
outcomes for the served include the following: improve school children’s attendance and
literacy; enhance manpower distribution and rural infrastructure development; develop
community projects and build community capacity; provide better services in rural areas
and a steady stream of volunteers; benefit local nonprofit sectors; promote personal and
professional development of the individual members; build inter-organization
partnerships; foster a sense of national integration and cultural integration; improve and
social infrastructures, future earnings, and productivity; and promote national unity and
Another example of a country that has mandatory conscription for both men and
women is the Israel’s Sherut Leumi although Arab youth are exempted (Eberly and Gal,
2007, p.24-25). In fact, long before the country was established, early occupants
organized youth organization with military nature and orientation, enabling young people
to “endure long route marches through the desert, and ready to defend the nation-state”
(Eberly and Gal, 2007, p.24).
“With the birth of Israel and its frequent wars with its neighbors, Israel
maintained a high state of military readiness combined with development of the land and
other nation-building missions” (Eberly and Gal, 2007, p.24). In fact, parliament passed
the Defense Service Law in 1949, which emphasizes that “agricultural training will be an
integral part of military service” (Glick 1967, 135).
“But by 2000, the number had edged toward 50 percent as
the army became increasingly professionalized. The low
participation rate concerns many Israelis who believe that
service by young people is both vital to national
development and a rite of passage to adulthood” (Eberly
and Gal, 2007, p.25).
In Yaheli Moran Zelikovich’s article in News.Com, entitled $7 Million for
National Service Program, the national service directorate was founded on 2007 and is
currently managed by the Ministry of Science and Technology. “During the service year
2008-2009, the directorate issued a tender that enabled 1,000 additional young people to
take part in the national service program” (par.6). Israel’s dominant civic service is called
Sherut Leumi in Hebrew. In the same article, several Jewish funds who have contributed
heaps of money for National Youth Service programs believe that “volunteering is a way
of reducing social rifts and making young people productive, drawing them out of the
weaker social stratum” (par.5).
The United States of America’s Selective Service System also has the Civilian
Conservation Corps (CCC), initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. This
was “America’s largest and probably most successful NYS program” (Eberly and Gal,
2007, p.21). Its administration was highly dependent on the US army and it addressed
conservation work and youth unemployment (Eberly and Gal, 2007, p.21). During the
second World War, former CCC members “easily adapted to the military lifestyle
because of their experience in the CCC” (Eberly and Gal, 2007, p.21).
John F. Kennedy proposed the Peace Corps in 1960, claiming it to be an
alternative to the then mandatory conscription, which was known as “the Draft” (Eberly
and Gal, 2007, p.21).
At present, although conscription no longer exists in the United States, the
Military Selective Service Act of 1967 states that all men—Green Card-holders, refugees,
dual citizen and illegal aliens but not non-immigrants—ages 18 to 25 are required to
register in the Selective Service System (SSS). This is a “back up system” to fill
manpower needs of the Armed Forces during instances which require their expertise
(Powers, par. 9).
Other than the SSS requirement, national service in America extends to volunteer
programs and charities funded by local government units, non-government organizations
and other groups addressing a specific social, economic or political issue, such as the
AmeriCorps, Corporation for National and Community Service, among others.
The Germany’s Zivildienst likewise adheres to the post-World War II
Constitution, which stated “No one shall be forced to do war service with arms against
his conscience,” as Eberly and Gal (2007) quoted Kuhlmann and Likkert, an alternative
service program for Conscientious Objectors (CO) was launched, named Zivildienst
Eberly and Gal (2007) wrote that a panel interviewed applicants to test the
authenticity of their objection to war. Several complaints arose, the strongest being
discrimination against the less educated who could not articulate their sentiments as well
as the upper class. Several modifications of the program led to only writing a letter
stating a request to be granted the CO status (p.23).
According to the same authors once again cite Kuhlmann (1982, 146), since 1960,
the number of conscientious objectors increased altered public perception about COs—
earlier seen as “deviants and draft-dodgers”, they are now viewed with favor (p.23).
Conscientious objection is seen and accepted more positively despite the fact that “the
length of civilian service is one-third longer than military service” (Eberly and Gal 2007,
According to the article “Global Perspective” by Susan Stroud (2005), Germany
stands out by retaining its military conscription as well as supporting Zivildienst.
Social welfare groups that benefit from the employment of
conscientious objectors are some of the strongest advocates
of conscription; roughly 100,000 conscripts work for low
wages in German mental hospitals and other welfare
organizations every year (Stroud, 2005, p.68).
In China, the National Youth Service participation is voluntary, but was not
always so. Communist in tradition, movements in the country were more political than
anything else. Before the reformation, it was not uncommon for young people to be
called away from home to serve upon the government’s summons (Stroud, 2005, p.70).
But programs have been made to make national service advantageous for both the served
and the server.
Stroud cites Yuanzhu Ding’s paper on China for Ford Foundation in explaining
developments on national service programs in the country.
In 1994, the Communist Youth League established the
China Young Volunteers Association (CYVA) to design
and implement youth service programs. Between 1994 and
1999, approximately 70 million young people participated
voluntarily in programs organized by the CYVA. These
programs helped the elderly and disabled, responded to
emergencies and disasters, and provided services to rural
areas through the Poverty Alleviation Relay Project (p.70).
Through the Poverty Alleviation Relay Project (PARP), college graduates have a
better chance in employment and housing in the city provided that they teach in the
countryside for a year or two (Eberly and Gal 2007, p. 24). The young men involved in
the project provide health and education services in local schools and communities,
making national youth service in China very effective because of the presence of
substantial incentives (Eberly and Gal 2007, p. 24).
Furthermore, In Nigeria, the National Youth Service entails serving outside their
community. This was a result of attempted secession of Biafra from Nigeria and the
government made moves to promote national unity through the youth (p.25). General
Yakubu Gowon passed the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) in 1973 which
requires NYSC cadets to be “posted to the place of assignment where they are expected
not only to work for eleven months in a regular job, but also to initiate community
development projects in the areas where they serve” (Eberly and Gal, 2007, p.25).
As soon as their immersion is done, “cadets are brought together again to discuss
their experiences, to participate in a passing out parade, and to receive a Certificate of
National Service that entitles them to be employed in Nigeria” (Eberly and Gal, 2007,
p.25). The authors also cited Akpan (1993) in saying that although cadets are initially
unhappy with serving far from home, “in retrospect only one in ten were negative”
Stroud (n.d.) added that, according to a Ford Foundation Report,
the Nigerian government provides most of the funding;
matching funds are required from state and local
authorities. Annual participation rates have varied,
depending on the numbers of university graduates and the
availability of funds. Approximately 710,000 young
Nigerians served in the program between 1973 and 1999
In Indonesia, before National Youth Service was officially established, the
Student Army did not only fight for independence but also taught in schools on the side.
As soon as independence was won, several in the Student Army recommended “that all
university students serve for a time as teachers” (p.26) which eventually led to the birth
of Kuliah Keria Nyata. At present, this program organizes “teams of about a dozen
students and one or two professors worked for periods of up to six months on village
development projects” (Eberly and Gel, 2007, 27).
The United Kingdom’s Community Service Volunteers, which was established in
1962, serves as the largest and most distinguished volunteer and charity organization.
According to their very comprehensive website, www.csv.org.uk, Community Service
volunteers was the frontrunner in adding community development in schools’ curriculum
in and since 1969, and in 2002, they helped ensure that citizenship was included in the
CSV is one of the major organizations who accept and train volunteers to become
active citizens by channeling their talents towards addressing problems in the community.
Fifteen thousand young people benefit yearly from the organization’s programs and
support. In service year 2008-2009, 7,750 volunteers participated in CSV’s line up of
India’s National Service Scheme likewise presents the detailed history of national
youth service. Mahatma Ghandi inspired youth involvement in national service,
emphasizing that education was not an “indulgence in intellectual luxury” but a step of
preparation to be able to return to the nation and its citizens the value of the goods and
services it has given him. The youth must do “something positive so that the life of the
villagers might be raised to a higher material and moral level" (nss.nic.in/intro.asp,
Considering that national service can be used for “developing healthy contacts
between the students and teachers” (par.2), “establishing a constructive linkage between
the campus and the community” (par.2), and “that national service could be a powerful
instrument for national integration” (par.7), NSS was soon launched in 1969 in 37
universities across the country (par.9).
The NSS is organized by the students, who acquire experience helpful in applying
for and during employment (par.10). “It has aroused among the student youth an
awareness of the realities of life, a better understanding and appreciation of the problems
of the people” (par.11). At present, NSS is adapted by all states and universities in India.
Activities include medical missions, education programs, sanitation drives,
helping the handicapped, elderly, and those in orphanages, among others. “The NSS
students have also done useful work in organizing campaigns for eradication of social
evils, and popularization of the nationally accepted objectives like nationalism,
democracy, secularism, social harmony and development of scientific temper” (par.12).
Another example is the Ghana’s National Service Scheme which was established
by Military Decree N.R.C.D. 208 in 1973, mandating that all citizens of 18 years and
above are required to perform one-year national service, according to Ghana NSS’s
website, www.nssghana.org (par.1).
The National Service Act of 1980, Act 426, however, extended the duration to
two years and required a military orientation of six months “to instill in them a sense of
discipline, patriotism and a culture of hard work” (par.2), but the two-year time allotment
was returned to a span of one year in 1997 (par.3).
Although national service is mandatory in Ghana, NSS is an alternate option for
college students who do not wish to serve through military means (par.3). Some of the
fields NSS deploys students to are agriculture, education, health, youth programs, among
others (nssghana.org, mandate). “The National Service Scheme currently deploys
between 40,000 and 50,000 mandatory service personnel and 20,000 volunteers
annually” (nssghana.org, what we do).
Costa Rica is one of the special cases where a country does not have an armed
defense force (chartsbin.com) yet the country is held by national service upheld by
universities and volunteerism.
In a study describing the effects of University Community Work or Trabajo
Comunal Universitario (TCU) in the University of Costa Rica, the site
www.unhabitat.org enumerates several interdisciplinary activities offered by TCU, such
as health and welfare, social services, civic engagement and cultural vitality, the arts and
cultural development, pollution reduction, and many more. This trait connects different
sectors in the community (www.unhabitat.org, Categories of Practice), something a
purely military orientation of national service alone cannot do.
Established in 1975, TCU became mandatory for graduation, according to the
Organic Statute, specifically Resolution No. 2122 (Summary, par.8). Its nature is not
academic per se; rather, TCU was seen as “a fundamental pillar for the humanistic
education” (Process, par.1). By 2008, “more than 558 TCU projects have been developed
mostly directed to areas and sectors of greater social vulnerability” (Summary, par.8).
There is an average of 2700 students participating per year
in TCU projects. In terms of quantification of time, there is
an investment of approximately 600400 hours of services to
the Costa Rican society (Sustainability, par.1).
The University of Costa Rica clearly defined and emphasized that each unit has a
role to play and should perform to the hilt to achieve maximum results. It placed
tremendous responsibilities on the school faculty and officials, who are the bridges
between the communities and the students (Process, par.2). Furthermore, projects,
activities and organizations linked to community service must be approved by the
Extension Work Commissions, thereby ensuring the legitimacy and security of the
servers and the served (Process, par.3).
The TCU fulfills not only the objective to serve and benefit
the country, but academic objectives when letting the
students grow values and attitudes of responsibility and
social solidarity, where the individual ethic is blended with
the collective one (Process, par.3).
Some of the results achieved by the University of Costa Rica in TCU include
education for socio-economic improvement, increased cultural understanding and
integration, heightened environmental awareness and protection, appreciation for and
defense of human rights, application of new technology to improve various situations,
better organizational skills, and many more (www.unhabitat.org, Results Achieved).
Canada has its own national youth service as well called Katimavik, “which
means meeting place in the Inuktituk language” (History, par.1) which was established in
1977 with Jacques Hébert as its founder. This organization hoped to expose young
Canadians to other cultures and peoples of their country and the realities they were facing
individually and as a nation (par.2). As a start, nearly 1,000 volunteers worked on
projects in more than 80 communities”.
Although from 1986 to 1994 its operation was stopped, Katimavik continued in
1994 with the help of Youth Service Canada. Since 1999, the Department of Canadian
Heritage has been funding Katimavik (katimavik.org, History).
In 2009-2010, Katimavik volunteers contributed the
equivalent of 964,200 volunteer work hours up to now. The
total value of these volunteer hours is estimated at
$21,414,882 in economic return for partner organizations
of participating community (katimavik.org, History).
In Italy, National Youth Service is also an option in Italy for those who do not
wish military orientation. In its National Civic Service, an men and women ages 18 to 28
render national service for a span of one year, according to Stroud (2005, p. 69). She also
cited statistics from the Youth Civic Service in Europe, Association of Voluntary Service
Organizations, draft report, Global Service Institute (2004).
During its pilot phase from 1998 to 2004 the program
enrolled both volunteers and military conscientious
objectors—15,000 volunteers and 85,000 conscientious
objectors in 2003. It is unclear how the end of military
conscription in January 2005 will affect enrollment, but
funds are available to support about 60,000 volunteers per
In Chile, conscription exists; however, it is not enforced (chartsbin.com). One of
the five programs of Fundación para la Superación de la Pobreza, Servicio Pais was
established in 1995 to help alleviate poverty in the country, wrote Stroud (2005) in
“Global Perspective.” This program recruits fresh college graduates to immerse in
isolated areas and perform service according to their expertise. At present, “young
professionals in the program engage community members and organizations in local
problem-solving and provide technical assistance” (p.67).
Stroud (2005) also emphasizes that NYS is holding up extremely well in this
country despite its many challenges.
As the gap between rich and poor has widened in Latin
America, civic organizations have taken the lead in fighting
poverty and political corruption. Schools and colleges have
been under pressure to do more in this regard but are
already overwhelmed. Service learning offers them a way
to attend to social needs, enhance educational quality, and
reinforce solidaridad (p.68).
This is mostly because “solidaridad is the driving force behind national service,
service-learning, and volunteer programs” (Stroud, 2005, p.66) in Latin America, because
it means unified efforts for a common goal, according to Maria Nieves Tapia, executive
director of Centro Latinoamericano de Aprendizaje y Servicio Solidario (CLAYSS). A
trait like this is definitely note-worthy in administering national service.
By looking at the national service programs in other countries, emulation of the
positive traits and rejection of the negative ones will take national service in our country
a long way towards a singular becoming.
In the Philippines, the National Service Training Program (NSTP) serves as the
counterpart of the National Youth Service of the other countries. In 1912, the Philippine
Constabulary launched military instruction at the University of the Philippines, marking
the official birth of ROTC in the country. Soon, other universities in the country followed
suit and created their own Department of Military Science and Tactics or DMSTs
Commonwealth Act No. 1, the national Defense Act, established the Philippine
Military Academy and legalized ROTC. On 1939, Executive Order No. 207 made ROTC
compulsory in all state colleges and universities. Although all ROTC units were closed
upon the advent of the Second World War, ROTC cadets have proven to be very valuable
and, evidently, their training had not been in vain (www.adroth.ph).
On 1967, the late President Ferdinand Marcos promulgated Executive Order No.
59, making ROTC mandatory once more in all state universities and colleges, but this
time, those only with an enrollment of 250 male students (www.adroth.ph).
The year 1991 saw the passing of Republic Act 7077, the Citizen Armed Forces
of the Philippines Reservist Act. Considered the Bible of the Reserve Force, RA 7077
provides the details for the acquisition, recruitment, organization, administration,
training, and resources for and of the Reservist, who wears the hat of the soldier and the
hat of the civilian. It is stated in Article II, Section 6 that “The manpower objective of the
Citizen Armed Force shall conform to projected and actual needs. It is not envisioned by
the State to have a nation under arms, unless extremely necessary.”
In 1993, the then Department of Education, Culture and Sports released Order No.
52, The Expanded ROTC Program, which retained mandatory ROTC but already offered
specific options for the second year of the ROTC curriculum. There were also three
choices. One is Military Training, a more vigorous expanded training of the ROTC.
Another is Law Enforcement Service (LES) is the expanded program which is “designed
to enhance the maintenance or peace and order and encourage observance of and
compliance with law” (DECS Order No. 23, s. 1994). The last is Civic Welfare Service
(CWS) which focuses on “the general welfare and the quality of life for the local
community” (DECS Order No. 23, s. 1994). Another provision was made saying that
all male students enrolled in initial baccalaureate degree
programs must take and complete the expanded ROTC
program, while female students in the same course may
enroll on an optional basis ((DECS Order No. 23, s. 1994).
Despite dissatisfaction about the implementation of the ROTC program was
spreading, the catalyst for its near-extinction was the murder of Cadet Sergeant Major
Mark Welson Chua, allegedly by members of the UST ROTCU training staff. Chua had
exposed several anomalies in the university’s ROTCU and the public took his death as
revenge for his whistle blowing. At present, few would probably even remember the
fellow cadet who was handed a death penalty after being charged guilty by the Manila
Regional Trial Court. All the public would doubtless remember was the injustice done to
Joseph C. Managula wrote a Policy Paper in 2002 entitled An Assessment on the
Implementation of the National Service Program. Although RA 9163 was released the
year before this paper was done, it wasn’t implemented until School Year 2002-2003.
Thus, this paper presented the options seen at that time to be feasible and most sought-
after: 1) retain the National Service Program, 2) abolish NSP, or 3) implement a
voluntary ROTC with a more enhanced support system. After intensive information
gathering, it was concluded that option 3 was, at that time, the most favored choice. To
retain NSP would defeat the purpose of adjusting national service to the call of current
situations and would arouse the wrath of dissenters. Abolishing NSP, however, is highly
discouraged because it would create a gaping hole where Reservists were once aplenty.
Recommendations included better support systems, training staff, equipment, training
instructions, and better incentives.
After innumerable protests, rallies, cries of injustice, several proposals for the
abolition of the ROTC program, and heated debates inside and outside the Houses, most
of which received extensive media coverage, Congress then came up with Republic Act
9163 or the National Service Training Program (NSTP).
The National Service Training Program was a compromise, neutral ground for
both supporters and detractors of the ROTC program. Implemented since 2002, the
mandate of RA 9163 entailed compulsory participation of both men and women in all
state universities and colleges, and the time span of two years was reduced to one.
Although ROTC was not abolished, it became optional and became one of the
components of the NSTP. The other components were Civic Welfare Training Service
(CWTS) and Literacy Training Service (LTS), a revised version of the two other
components in the previous NSP.
Graduates of the ROTC automatically went to the Citizen Armed Force, as was
mandated by the AFP Reservist Act or Republic Act No. 7077. Graduates of CWTS and
LTS were then directed to be members of the National Service Reserve Corps, an agency
created specifically for the purpose of organizing the graduates to avail of their services
when the national security is threatened.
In 2003, Caldeo (2005) submitted a Commandant’s Paper entitled The Army
ROTC Program: An Assessment to the Command and General Staff College, Training
and Doctrine Command, Philippine Army. This study evaluated the status of Reserve
Officer Training Corps and provided recommendations to the results borne from the
conduct of the study. One problem pinpointed in this study was the inadequacy of the
number of teachers teaching a horrendous number of students. Another is inadequacy of
funds. Caldeo (2003) recommended the Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) which allows
the students to browse through lectures during their free time, learning at their own pace,
and access information in wider ranges (Abstract).
Another significant study is David’s Master in National Security Administration
thesis in 2005 entitled “The Implication of National Service Training Program (NSTP) to
the Reserve Force Development.” According to this study, there were deliberate efforts
of some schools to channel students in Civic Welfare Training Service and Literacy
Training Service, while others did not offer ROTC as an option at all (p.56).
CWTS and LTS have no central headquarters that monitors
and supervises the activities in these components, only an
office that receives the reports submitted. There is no
monitoring body at national and regional level for CWTS
CWTS and LTS were also, according to popular opinion cited in the study, easier,
less expensive, and less time consuming. And students are less inclined to undergo
military training. These reasons resulted to a deep plunge of enrolment rates in ROTC
since it was made optional. In effect, the pool of Reservists dried up (p.57).
Not only is the Citizen Armed Force losing graduates, the NSRC is acquiring too
many graduates but “there’s no implementation of the NSRC” (p. 59), thus making the
NSTP implementation a failure.
David cites Misajon’s Commandant’s Paper (2004) entitled “Student’s
Assessment of the NSTP-ROTC” for the AFPCGSC last October 2004. Misajon
emphasizes that the youth will most likely be encouraged to join ROTC if they are
surrounded with positive messages about the program (David, 2005, 23).
Program factors are more important considerations for
students than age, gender, year level, and high school
institution, and therefore every attempt must be made to
make serious program improvements that are attuned to
(the) student’s basic needs, wants, and perceptions (p.24).
Calonzo’s thesis (2008) entitled “An Evaluation of the Administration of the
Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Component of National Service Training
Program (NSTP) in Region 3” identified the top ten common problems in the ROTC
students were not given opportunity to choose which NSTP
component to enroll in; non-availability of training support
from the AFP, particularly ammunition, under-qualified
training staff; lack of serious cooperation and support from
school officials, ROTC not being an income generating
option; shortage of training staff; implementation of the
two other NSTP components is relatively easy as compared
to the ROTC training program; the training staff are not
given opportunity to conduct ROTC orientation during
enrolment; poorly manned DMST; inadequate training
facilities, non-availability/shortage of training equipment
and instructional aides; and, too much POI subjects for a
very short period of time (Calonzo, 2008, vii).
A 2001 Issue Paper from the Education Commission of the States entitled
“Learning in Deed” summarized the effects of these inadequacies.
Yet in the rush to impose mandatory service hours, schools
are frequently substituting quantity of hours for quality of
experience. Instead of motivating youth to become good
citizens with a lifelong interest in service, these schools
may inadvertently be doing just the opposite. When service
is imposed from above without youth input and without
adequate structure and support, young people may view
their service experiences with indifference, suspicion or
even hostility. Many young people will lose interest in
community engagement because they have never learned
how to translate concern or frustration with social issues
into productive action (p.8).
Clearly, these studies show that although there have been revisions, the “solution”
has become a “problem” this past decade. Drawing from the caveat of the Education
Commission of the States, unless something is done to correct the process of
implementation, this cycle shall spawn attitudes in the youth that will not benefit the
country and its citizens.
The systems analysis model was adopted in this study to establish its conceptual
framework in order to establish a link of the input to the process, output, and outcome
variables. The input variables, represented by the first box, are focused on the
policies that govern the implementation of the NSTP. Interviews and Questionnaires are
also included as this will serve as basis whether the implementation is really executed
well, meeting its (NSTP) objectives. The process box is focused on the
evaluation/analysis of the given data documents, then analysis of all data gathered related
to program component, program of instruction, monitoring and evaluation, fees and
incentives and organization of the NSTP graduates. This box shall likewise include the
problem/s encountered in the implementation of the Revised IIR of NSTP. The output
process shall then be a proposed action framework that will enhance the implementation
of the NSTP. Then, the outcome box will be the end view of providing quality education
to youth that shall enhance their civic consciousness and defense preparedness. Finally,
the feedback is necessary to provide information on need changes in the inputs systems in
order to produce expected output and processes.
For your Paradign of the study, please follow your Statement of the problem
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework (PLS REVISE)
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOME
OF THE IIR OF
Implementing Rules and
Regulations of RA 9163
EVALUATION of the
IMPLEMENTATION of the
Revised IRR for NSTP
• * PROGRAM COMPONENT
-Maintenance & Provision of
-Clustering & Cross
* PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION
- Conduct of Common Module
- 3 NSTP Components
* MONITORING & EVALUATION
* FEES AND INCENTIVES
* ORGANIZATION OF NSTP
* INTERVIEWS /QUESTIONNAIRES
* PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED IN THE
* IMPLICATION TO EDUCATION
METHODS OF STUDY AND SOURCES OF DATA
This chapter presents the type of research method to be used by the researcher in
an attempt to gather data. The research design and procedures were discussed in this
At this point of writing, no theories have yet been applied as the study revolves on
grounded theories, or theories that describe the phenomenon. Grounded theory is a
“theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered and analyzed through the
research process” (Strauss and Corbin, 1998, p. 12). In other words, the theory results as
an explanation of the study, and the study will not be conducted to prove any theory in
existence. Therefore, any theories that will be included in this research shall be included
after the analysis of the gathered data.
This section presents the methods of research, design, methods of data gathering,
sources of data, and instruments to be used in the interpretation and analysis of the
The Research Design
Because no theories were used to be proven or disputed in this study, the study
shall merely utilize an Evaluation design. The descriptive data for this study were
obtained from the survey questionnaires and interview from persons in authority on
NSTP and who have taken the NSTP that will be analyzed and interpreted to obtain the
assessment of the respondents. This is highly appropriate and will capture more
effectively the answers this study sought to attain. Primary and secondary data will be
used for this purpose. (Please improve or refer to your statistician)
Locale of the Study
This study is conducted in fourteen (14) Higher Education colleges/universities in
in Region 3. Seven (7) schools come from private colleges/universities and seven (7)
come from public or state universities/colleges that will be selected and considered for
the purpose of facilitating the interpretation of data in the conduct of the research study.
Respondents of the Study
A random sampling technique or stratified sampling was used in this study in
assessing current implementation of the National Service Training Program (NSTP).
The respondents of this study are composed of ten (14) NSTP
Implementers/coordinators; Thirty (42) NSTP Teachers/Instructors comprise of ten (14)
ROTC, ten (14) CWTS, and ten (14) LTS; ten (14) School Heads; a total of sixty (140)
students enrolled in every component that is ten (10) students from each component; and
a total of sixty (10) NSTP graduates which is ten (10) graduates from each component.
Table 2 shows the respondents and stakeholders
Table 2: Respondents of the Study
Target Respondents Population
NSTP implementers / coordinator 14
School Administrators 14
NSTP Graduates 140
Since this is an evaluation study please have triangulation of respondents, aside from
implementers, get the same number of administrators as well as 10 clienteles per
university/school. And include them in your table. The panel might not accept only one
side of the evaluation. You could also conduct interviews to further deepen your
Methods of Gathering Data
Primary data consisted of information from interviews with NSTP implementers.
A complimentary survey was conducted and recommendations and suggestions were
solicited from the interviewees as well. Enrollment rates in the three components through
school records were examined.
The instruments used in the collection of data are the survey questionnaire,
interview and the documentary analysis relating to the implementation of the NSTP.
The survey questionnaire reflects the assessment of the respondents that
consisted of three parts: the first part deals on the demographic profile of the respondents.
The second part of the survey questionnaire is the assessment of the
implementation of the NSTP in terms of program component, program of instruction,
monitoring and evaluation, fees and incentives, and organization of the NSTP graduates.
The questionnaire applied the Likert-type with a two-point scale, in which the
respondents were allowed to choose from among a selection of two (2) answers that best
represent their assessment.
And the third part dealt on the problems, issues and concerns in the
implementation of the NSTP and the measures that could be taken to address them.
Data Gathering Procedure
Prior to the conduct of the survey, the researcher wrote a letter to the fourteen (14)
school heads, requesting permission to hand out the questionnaires to the target
respondents involved in the study. The initial draft of the questionnaire was inspected,
evaluated and validated by a test construction expert, a person of authority on survey
questionnaire construction and the adviser as to the appropriateness or suitability of the
items, relevancy and clarity of language.
Construction. The items contained in the survey questionnaires are simple, brief
and clear so that understanding on what is asked cannot be misinterpreted. The researcher
formulated the questionnaire comprehensively to ensure adequate coverage in the field
under investigation. The researcher distributed the questionnaire personally to the
respondents who were given a week to answer the questions. The researcher collated,
tabulated, analyzed and interpreted the data gathered.
Descriptive statistics is used for data analysis.
1. Percentage - is the ratio of the frequency of responses to the total number of
respondents. The formula used to obtain the percentage is as follows:
P = f/n x 100
P = percentage
f = frequency of response
n = number of respondents
2. The Total Weighted Mean (TWM) of the responses is derived from the
assessment of respondents using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
software. The formula is shown:
Xw = ∑ w f
∑ w f = the summation of weighted frequencies
N = summation of observations scale of response
Xw = weighted mean
Assessment on the Implementation of the NSTP
The formula to be used is percentage (%) equals (=) the quotient of observed
frequency (F) and total number of observation (N) (%=F/N).
Mean = Σ X/N where X is the observed measurement and N is the total
(Please include here the scale you will use in the evaluation rating used in your
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data gathered in relation to the specific problems raised.
These data are presented in tables in the succeeding pages that were subjected to analysis
The intent of this study was to add the existing body of knowledge concerning
how NSTP Administrators and students evaluate the revised NSTP IRR among selected
Colleges and Universities in Region III from school year 2010-2011, 2012-2013. The
study also identified the NSTP components used by the respondents to manage and
supervise its conduct or implementation among students. Furthermore, the study
investigated the extent of implementation of the program whether it is well subscribed or
not. Finally, the output would serve as a springboard for the improvement of the existing
Number of students enrolled in the NSTP Program as identified by the respondent-
The selected respondent-administrators from eighteen (18) selected HEIs’ in
Region III are described in terms of the number of students enrolled in CWTS, LTS and
Number of Students enrolled in the NSTP Program in Selected Colleges and
Universities in Region III
The success of the school can be based on student’s population. Hence, in trying
to determine the extent of the implementation of the NSTP IRR, the number of takers was
considered an interesting factor.
Frequency distribution as to the respondents’ number of enrolment per area from
CWTS LTS ROTC SUM
617 121 93 831
2072 506 2578
2989 1806 4795
2492 554 213 3259
482 80 70 632
217 207 424
6405 560 1010 7975
5954 724 1041 7719
5500 1010 6510
23545 1622 25167
9666 2018 1595 13279
1318 368 1686
631 384 1015
2072 506 2578
63960 4264 10224 78448
Table 2 above shows the number of enrolment from school years 2011-12, 2012-
13, 2013-14 across selected Colleges and Universities in Region III. Majority of the first
year college students were mostly enrolled in the CWTS with a total number of 63960
enrollees. CWTS however has obtained the biggest number of enrolment. LTS with a total
number of 4264 enrollees ranked third or last in its enrollees, also, some Colleges and
Universities under study, such as Aurora, Pampanga, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac City
and Bulacan do not have any enrollees on the specified component. This implies that said
schools do not offer all the three components as mandated by the IRR. The students do
have the leeway if they choose to enroll LTS or not. Finally, ROTC component has a total
number of 10224 students enrolled and ranked second in the list. Respondent-private
schools situated in Bulacan, Bataan and Tarlac areas however do not have any enrollees in
The findings revealed that among the three components offered, only CWTS have the
most number of enrollees and all the respondent-schools have their own takers. In both
LTS and ROTC component, some schools do not have takers. It can be concluded that the
NSTP IRR as to the takers have the freedom to determine on what component to take.
Furthermore, the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Law or RA 9163 also
known as-An act establishing the National Service Training Program (NSTP) for tertiary
level students, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 7077 and Presidential Decree
No. 1706, and for other purposes.
It was enacted last January 2002 to amend the Expanded ROTC. This program aimed
to enhance civic consciousness and defense preparedness in the youth by developing the
ethics of service and patriotism while undergoing training in any of its three (3) program
components, specifically designed to enhance the youth’s active contribution to the general
1. The Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the NSTP
1.1 Program Component
The NSTP has three components: the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC),
the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), and the Literacy Training Service (LTS).
Students are required to take two NSTP courses under the component of his/her choice.
Table showing the NSTP Program Component
Statement Administrators Students X VD
1. Program in allowing students to choose
from among the components of NSTP.
2. Program in allowing students to cross-
enroll from/to other schools.
3. Orientation of students before selecting
the NSTP component to pursue.
Data on the varying trend of responses on the program component of the revised IRR
of NSTP are indicative that about 4.63 of the students are allowed to choose from among
the components of NSTP with a verbal description of Very Satisfactory (VS) and a mean
of 4.32. This further implies that the respondents are very satisfied with this program
offering, while in the case of the respondent-administrators who gave a 4.00 mean and a
verbal description of Very Satisfactory (VS) with a weighted mean of 4.32 also shows
that they give leeway or freedom among the NSTP takers on what program to take
without forcing them to enroll in it. This clearly shows that the student-respondents are
free to choose on what program to take to advance their skills and possibly apply the
things learnt in the years to come. On the other hand, administrator-respondents can offer
the kind of component students would intend to take for as long as it would benefit the
recipients most. In the same manner, the students are allowed to cross enroll the program
component in any schools offering such for as long as they would pass and finish the said
program as shown from this table, majority of the student-respondents gave a verbal
description of Very satisfactory and a mean of 4.25.
Schools that do not meet the required number of students to maintain the optional
ROTC and any of the NSTP components, or do not offer the component chosen by the
student shall allow their students to cross-enroll in other schools irrespective of whether
such school is under CHED or TESDA; and in the case the students taking the ROTC
component irrespective of whether the two semesters shall be taken from different
schools whose ROTC is managed by different branches of service of the Armed Forces of
the Philippines (AFP).
On the other hand orientation of students before selecting the NSTP component to
pursue obtained a verbal description of Outstanding (O). This implies that most of the
Administrators and Coordinators of NSTP find this activity very important and it is well
disseminated to the stakeholders. The takers are briefed and oriented on what component
to take. In likewise manner, the different colleges and universities under study give
particular attention in letting the students know what component to pursue. There is and
evidence of thorough preparation and planning on the side of the Administrators to
ensure quality output on the program offered.
This study however, found that there are certain areas to be improved as to the
program component such as mandatory offering of the NSTP to all the takers in order for
them to attain holistic development for the enhancement of their skills. As to the freedom
to cross enroll, a clear cut guidelines should be developed for the schools’ welfare.
Finally, orientation of students undergoing the program should be continuing with
varying activities to be included for the takers to enjoy and at the same time learn how to
go about it and what expectations are to be made.
The National Service Training Program is composed of three different components,
these are: the Civic Welfare Training Service, which is geared towards activities that
have social impact through activities that could contribute to “health, education,
environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and morals of the citizenry”, thus the
CWTS component of the NSTP stressed the importance of youth involvement in broad
programs or activities that will benefit the people. While the CWTS focused on
programs to enhance the living conditions of the people, the Literacy Training Service
has a more limited yet equally useful objective that is to “train students to become
teachers of literacy and numeracy skills to school children, out of school youth, and other
segments of society in need of their service”. LTS thus specializes in the education of the
people, strengthening the education sector to empower the people through education.
Meanwhile, Reserve Officers Training Corps, while deemed equally important by the
NSTP law (it maintained its existence and nature mentioned in RA 7077 having the
primary objective to prepare the youth in national defense, became merely a component
of the program.
The NSTP required male and female students to undergo the program they have
chosen for two (2) semesters or one (1) academic year. Students taking NSTP will get
three (3) units from taking the program; equivalent of 1.5 units every semester. Thus, in
contrast to the mandatory- yet free-ROTC, students will now have to pay for their NSTP.
This included the former cadets of the ROTC who enjoyed the free reservist program.
The law also limited the existence of the ROTC in private and vocational institutions
requiring it to have 350 cadets for it to be called a unit, otherwise- and considering other
factors such as insufficient cadet number, lack of logistics to support ROTC program of
instruction (POI), etc.-cross-enrolling the students to other schools for their NSTP is an
The goal of the law and of the program is to harness the strength and capacity of the
youth to contribute to nation-building, thus the National Service Reserve Force was
created to enlist CWTS and LTS graduates which is also equivalent to the Citizen Armed
Force of the ROTC. In the event that the state will need people for its civic and literacy
activities, it will merely utilize the personnel of the reserve force, the student volunteer
the NSTP-CWTS and the NSTP-LTS has produced. As with the need of the Armed
Forces for additional force for its defense campaigns, it can easily use its body of
reservists in the Reserve Command.
In offering the NSTP whether during the semestral or summer periods, clustering of
affected students from different educational institutions may be done, taking into account
logistics, branch of service and geographical considerations. Schools that do not meet the
required number of students to maintain the optional ROTC and any of the NSTP
components shall allow their students to cross-enroll to other schools irrespective of
whether or not the NSTP components in said schools are being administered by the same
or another branch of service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), CHED and
TESDA to which schools are identified.
To further strengthen ones knowledge as to the components of the NSTP, the
following are briefly discussed: a. Reserve Officer’s Training Corps (ROTC) – refers to
the program component, institutionalized under Section 38 and 39 of Republic Act No.
7077, designed to provide military training to motivate, train, organize and mobilize them
for national defense preparedness. b. Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) – refers to
the program component or activities contributory to the general welfare and the
betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of its facilities,
especially those devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship,
safety, recreation and moral of the citizenry and other social welfare services. c. Literacy
Training Service (LTS) – refers to the program component designed to train the students
to teach literacy and numeracy skills to school children, out-of-school youth and other
segments of society in need of their services. It is indeed necessary on the part of the
takers to become aware of the different components of the NSTP program for them to be
fully equipped and ready to face any challenges that would come their way.
1.2. Program of Instruction Implementation
It is stipulated in Section 39, Article VII, Republic Act 7077 that the program of
instruction shall be prescribed by the Secretary of National Defense and may include
instruction to prepare female students for military service, community service and the
The NSTP curriculum is composed of orientation and discussion of RA 9163,
self-awareness and values development, leadership, community project development
training, community needs assessment, project implementation, monitoring and
Presents the Program of Instruction Implementation of NSTP
Program of Instruction Implementation
1. Undergoing common module phase 4.00 4.82 4.41 VS
2. Presentation of subjects including
citizenship training, disaster-risk
reduction and management,
environmental protection, drug
4.08 4.70 4.39 VS
education, and security concerns.
3. Instructors qualification and
effectiveness in teaching the
content of the program
4.23 4.85 4.54 O
Mean 4.10 4.79 4.45 VS
As can be seen from this table, as to the implementation of the program of
instruction of NSTP, it can be revealed that the administrator and student-respondents
gave a verbal description of Very Satisfactory (4.4) mean in terms of undergoing
common module phase. This implies that they make use of it to enhance the teaching-
learning process based on the program component taught. Furthermore, the common
module phase could really help the takers to be aware of what strand or subject area they
are into. It could also serve as a springboard for the takers and administrators to make
As written in Section 10 as regards to the management of the NSTP Components,
the school authorities shall exercise academic and administrative supervision over the
design, formulation, adoption and implementation of the different NSTP components in
their respective schools; Provided, that in case a CHED- or TESDA-accredited non-
government organization (NGO) has been contracted to formulate and administer a
training module for any of the NSTP components, such academic and administrative
supervision shall be exercised jointly with that accredited NGO; Provided, further, that
such training module shall be accredited by the CHED and TESDA. The CHED and
TESDA regional offices shall oversee and monitor the implementation of the NSTP
under their jurisdiction to determine if the training is being conducted in consonance with
the objectives of this Act. Periodic reports shall be submitted to the CHED, TESDA and
DND in this regard. This explains the importance of using a common module in teaching
the three components, provided that a rigid monitoring and evaluation be conducted by
the NSTP Directors to ensure quality output.
As to the presentation of subjects including citizenship training, disaster-risk
reduction and management, environmental protection, drug education, and security
concerns, a verbal description of Very Satisfactory, and a mean of (4.39) was rated by the
respondents. This clearly shows that the different activities enumerated could really help
the students to be aware of the social responsibilities they need to practice as a way of
becoming responsible and upright citizens. On the other hand, the citizenship training
serve as part of their preparation in case they would encounter calamities, disaster or even
Finally, in terms of instructors’ qualification and effectiveness in teaching the
content of the program, majority of the respondents gave a verbal description of
Outstanding with a mean of (4.54). This explains that the instructors are qualified to
teach NSTP and they are effective in teaching the different concepts on whatever
program component is possibly offered.
To empower the faculty members, however, qualifying course for NSTP
facilitators and coordinators should be attended by them. The impact of this qualifying
course may be seen in the increased capacity of the faculty members in implementing
NSTP. These faculty members should be selected to further attend training course and at
the same time serve as resource expert in the group. Among the special training courses
that could be attended may include the following: granting of proposal writing in
research, writing for publication, safety and disaster preparedness, and enhancing
partnership with GO/CSO/NGO. As to the instructional delivery, instrument to evaluate
NSTP faculty performance must be developed for approval and implementation.
In sum, as to the implementation of the program of instruction, a need to improve
the module phase should be considered if it is necessary to revise the content to become
relevant to the changing times could be highly solicited. Same with the different socio-
cultural, and environmental concerns, activities under this should jive with the needs of
the youth at present and how these things could help them to become responsible, God-
fearing and upright citizens of the country. It can be noted however, that most of the
instructors were given necessary trainings and were oriented that’s why they are highly
qualified to handle the program and are effective as to their manner of teaching.
1.3. Monitoring and Evaluation
This part describes the process of monitoring and its sister process, evaluation; what
is to be done and how to do it. As well as showing the skills needed by the takers, it
looks at monitoring from a wider perspective, including but not limited to the roles
of the NSTP organizers and implementers.
Presents the Program Monitoring and Evaluation of NSTP
Program Monitoring and Evaluation
1. ROTC Annual Administrative and
4.54 4.07 4.31 VS
2. CWTS Annual Evaluation 1.0 1.0 1.0 P
3. LTS Annual Evaluation 1.0 1.0 1.0 F
Mean 2.18 2.02 2.10 S
This table shows the program monitoring and evaluation of NSTP. The result
implies that as to ROTC Annual Administrative and Tactical Inspection descriptive rating
of Very Satisfactory and a mean of (4.31) was given by the respondents. In terms of
CWTS Annual evaluation, a Fair descriptive rating and a mean of (1.0) was given.
The data shows that the ROTC Annual Administrative and Tactical Inspection
Evaluation was rated the highest, this explains that the takers and implementers of this
component see to it that the program is properly implemented, executed and conducted.
However, there is a dire need for the Administrators and NSTP Heads and Coordinators
to upgrade their administrative functions and find ways on how to elevated and make the
tactical inspection appealing to the takers.
On the other hand, some improvements could still be made to properly monitor
and evaluate both the conduct of CWTS Annual Evaluation for it was rated Poor,
together with LTS which was rated fair. To improve on these specified components, a
thorough planning, deliberation, preparation of the evaluation scheme and methods
should be decided upon by the implementers of the two components prior to its
The long term success of NSTP requires a periodic examination of its programs
and organizational structure in the light of challenging and changing need of the students
and the community.
1.4 Fees and Incentives
As to the Fees and Incentives, the Basic tuition fees with fifty percent discount
(50% per unit) is given to each taker aside from giving Special Scholarship Program from
CHED and TESDA funds, Health and Accident group insurance by the Colleges and
Universities offering such program.
Presents the Fees and Incentives of NSTP
Fees and Incentives
1. NSTP tuition and other fees
3.92 4.07 4.00 VS
2. Honoring and allowing incentives for
1.0 1.0 1.0 P
3. Recognition of NSTP recipients 4.23 3.99 4.11 S
Mean 3.05 3.02 3.04 S
The results imply that the NSTP tuition and other fee was given a descriptive
rating of Very Satisfactory and a mean of (4.0). The respondents are satisfied with the
standardization of fees including the 50% per unit discount which is given to the takers of
The CMO no. 5 s.2003 clearly states that “NSTP fees collected shall constitute a
Trust Fund, 70% of which shall be exclusively used for the operation of the program.
The remaining 30% retained by the school shall serve as contingency funds especially in
unprogrammed activities not originally included in the Program of Expenditures prepared
by the ROTC Commandant or NSTP Coordinator and approved by the school head. The
remaining fund balance shall be carried over to the next semester.
As to the allowing of the giving of incentives to NSTP students, a descriptive
rating of Poor and a mean of (1.0) was obtained. This shows that there should be a
maximization and provision of incentives to deserving students especially poor ones.
Making it as one of its top priorities
In terms of the recognition of awardees a satisfactory descriptive rating and a
mean of (4.11) was rated by the respondents. The HEIs’ and the government should
work together to give honor and recognition to the awardees especially to those who are
deserving and serve as exemplars to other students.
Section 9, on Scholarships explains that there is hereby created a Special
Scholarship Program for qualified students taking the NSTP which shall be administered
by the CHED and TESDA. Funds for this purpose shall be included in the annual regular
appropriations of the CHED and TESDA.
1.5 Organization of the NSTP Graduates
National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC) Graduates of the non-ROTC
components are being tapped by the state for literacy and civic welfare activities through
joint efforts of DND, CHED, TESDA in coordination with DILG and DSWD.
Presents the Organization of NSTP Graduates
Organization of NSTP graduates Administrators Students x VD
1. Organization of NSTP graduates as
school based National Service Reserve
1.0 1.0 1.0 P
As seen from this table, the organization of NSTP graduates got a descriptive
rating of Poor with a mean of (1.0). This implies that the graduates who underwent the
NSTP program do not serve as reservists. If there is a need for these graduates to be part
of this advocacy, the School Administrators need to look into this matter. A thorough
participation in the different school based National Service Reserve Corps activities
should be given to them.
Graduates of the ROTC join the Reserve component of the AFP. They are tasked
to provide the base for expansion of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of
war, invasion or rebellion. It gives assistance in relief and rescue during disasters or
calamities. Moreover, it aids in the socio-economic development and in the operation
and maintenance of essential government or private utilities in the furtherance of overall
mission of the AFP.
Implementing Guidelines and Procedures on the Development, Organization,
Training, Administration, Utilization, Mobilization, Operation, Accreditation, Protection
and Funding of the National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC), RA 10121 otherwise known
as the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (PDRRM) Act of 2010 and
Rule 9 of its Implementing Rules and Regulations and Section 11 of RA 9163 otherwise
known as the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001 provides for the
creation of the National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC).
One of the components of the NSRC is the school-based NSRC which is tasked
for the development, organization, training, administration, utilization, mobilization,
operation, accreditation, protection and funding .
The school based NSRC shall be composed of the graduates of the Civic Welfare
Training Service (CWTS) and the Literacy Training Service (LTS) components of the
NSTP who are enrolled and still residing in the same school as students normally in the
second, third, fourth and fifth year in college. Membership shall also include NSTP
graduates who are faculties and employees of the school.
Graduates of the ROTC shall form part of the Citizen’s Armed Force, pursuant to
Republic Act No. 7077.
2. Well subscribed (and not well subscribed) Programs as evaluated by students
This presents the components that are well subscribed or conducted by the
respondents and those which are not.
Compliance to the Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the NSTP
NSTP Programs X VD
Mean 4.23 VS
Program of Instruction Implementation
Mean 4.45 VS
Program of Monitoring and Evaluation
Mean 2.10 F
Fees and Incentives
Mean 3.04 S
Organization of NSTP graduates
Mean 1.0 P
Grand Mean 2.964 S
It can be gleaned from this table, based from the results that out of the five (5)
programs only (2) were considered by the administrator and student-respondents as well-
subscribed, they are: the program components, with a descriptive rating of Very
satisfactory and a mean of (4.23) and a program of instruction implementation, with a
descriptive rating of Very satisfactory and a mean of (4.45).
Not well-subscribed in the NSTP Program and need thorough improvement in
terms of its conduct include the following: Program monitoring and evaluation, with a
descriptive rating of Fair and a mean of (3.04), together with Fees and Incentives, with a
descriptive rating of Satisfactory, (1.0) and organization of NSTP graduates, Poor, (1.0).
The five programs got a grand mean of 2.964 and a descriptive rating of Satisfactory.
The result is a clear indication that more efforts should be exerted by the one handling the
NSTP program together with the military personnel who are the prime movers of this.
As to the well-subscribed programs, continuing activities that could be very
productive and essential on the part of the students should be the top priority. Updated
and value-driven activities should be included in the conduct of such areas while the 3
un-subscribed programs need to be deliberated upon by the implementers and even
student graduates of the NSTP to further improve specifically in terms of monitoring and
evaluation, provision of fees and incentives most especially the organization of NSTP
graduates who could be tapped to serve the country especially during catastrophes,
disasters and the like.
3. Problems, issues and concerns in the implementation of the NSTP and measures
to be taken to address them.
Based from the interviews conducted to both the students and Administrators of the
NSTP, the following insights as to the problems encountered were derived:
ISSUES AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
1. Cooperation and support from school
officials for the implementation of the
ROTC component, the latter being not an
income generating option.
2. Adequacy of training facilities,
classrooms, non-availability/shortage of
training equipment and instructional aid
3. Number of qualified NSTP training
4. Opportunity given to students to 1,3,5,6,7,9,10,13 2,4,8,11,12
choose which NSTP component to enroll. ,14
5. Opportunity given to training staffs to
conduct NSTP orientation during
6. Definite program of instruction for
CWTS and LTS to follow.
7. Availability of training support from
the AFP particularly on ammunition.
8. Implementation of the other two
NSTP components is relatively easy as
compared to the ROTC training program.
9. Manning of Department of Military
Science and Tactics (DMST).
10. Organization in managing non-
ROTC graduates of the NSTP.
11. The 3 components of the NSTP are
offered during enrolment.
12. Maintenance of the ROTC unit in
SUCs and other government supported
13. Permission to cross enroll of NSTP
14. Uniform implementation of the
common module phase.
15. Involvement of other stakeholders in
the conduct of the common module
phase, i.e., subject matter experts from
other government/ private agencies.
16. Compliance with the prescribed
program of instruction for Civic Welfare
Training Service (CWTS) and Literacy
Training Service (LTS).
17. Over all competency of NSTP
18. NSTP evaluation program. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,
19. Management of fees and incentives
for deserving students.
20. Effective program for the
organization of CWTS and LTS
21. Turn- over of NSTP implementers. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,
4. Implications of the study to educational management
As an advocate of this program it is essential that quality instruction be provided,
following the necessary standards, to optimize learning especially the three program
components of NSTP with the government mandate which is considered binding and
legal in nature. Looking into the result, it can be noted that a thorough improvement
should be made such as: improvement on the modular phase use in teaching the three
NSTP components, regular monitoring and evaluation of the program should be evident,
increase in the offering of incentives and scholarship to deserving students and the like.
In addition to the given results, students’ initiatives which are directed by connecting
expertise to the community’s needs should also be taken into consideration. The students
should be trained to be the leading experts in their chosen career while acknowledging
their social obligation. They are brought up to strive for the best in their field in the aim
that their skills and talents would contribute to the upliftment of the society’s condition.
Hence, the students ‘empowerment will serve as a tool in the progress of their lives as
well as those of others. These things would be realized if leadership trainings are well
provided, initiated and implemented.
We often say that some people are good leaders, while others are not. But
what is really our basis for judging one’s capacity for being. Since time immemorial,
man has an awareness and knowledge about security. In ancient era, man has devised
means to protect himself from ferocious animals and harsh conditions. As the society
advanced, they learned to create tools and weapons to safeguard their lives and their
properties. In our country, heroes were born because they strive to save our people from
conquerors. Currently, every country has its own way of defending and maintaining its
human and national security. Students who learn the importance of security would be
enlightened and encouraged to make the community safe and secure.
Through the conduct of the Disaster management activities, students could
probably serve as Ambassadors of goodwill. Philippines is located in the circumpacific
belt of fire and typhoon. This being so, the country has always been subjected to natural
disaster and calamities anytime of the year. In whatever part of the country, we have
been experiencing yearly natural calamities. Floods, typhoons, tornadoes, earthquakes,
drought, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions which have brought incessant miseries to our
people, lost of lives and properties. To enhance the people’s preparedness and ensure
precision and spontaneity in responding to emergencies of catastrophes, the DRRMCs,
together with the concerned agencies and other stakeholders should thoroughly conduct
regular training, mobilization exercises and drills for the members of the NSRC most
particularly for the school-based NSRC. This shall be included in the regular program of
the schools, hence an important concern for school administrators.
A detailed procedure on the administration and implementation of the school-
based NSRC has to be developed also.
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCHOOL/NSTP ADMINISTRATORS
This is a survey to aid the researcher in preparing his project. He would like to
obtain related information. Please answer the questions objectively and completely. There
are no right or wrong answers. He is giving you the assurance that data gathered will be
kept confidential and will be used only as a basis of his research.
Quirino S. Calonzo
Name of School:____________________________________________________
I. Direction: Kindly provide all pertinent information to the items below by checking
(/) the appropriate blanks.
Please specify by checking:
___ School/University Head
___ NSTP Director
___ NSTP Instructors
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 TOTAL
II. Direction: Please indicate your answer in terms of the indicators stated below by
checking the appropriate column which best describes your evaluation using the
5 Strongly Agree (SA)
4 Agree (A)
3 Moderately Agree (MA)
2 Disagree (DA)
1 Strongly Disagree (SD)
A. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Revised NSTP IRR.
I. Kindly give your honest comments on the implementation of the revised IIR of the
NSTP in terms of the following:
1 . Program Component 5 4 3 2 1
Offering of the three (3) NSTP Components upon enrollment
(ROTC, CWTS and LTS).
For state universities and colleges, maintenance of the ROTC
Is clustering of schools for the purpose of obtaining the sufficient
number of ROTC Cadets being practiced?
Do the schools allow cross-enrollment for NSTP?
2. Program of Instruction Implementation
Conduct of the common module phase being properly implemented.
The POI for each component (ROTC, CWTS and LTS) being strictly
observed and implemented?
3. Evaluation is being conducted at the end of the school year
ROTC Annual Administrative and Tactical
CWTS annual evaluation
LTS annual evaluation
4. Efficient Management of fees and incentives for deserving
5. Availability of an effective organization for the non-ROTC
graduates of the NSTP.
Program of Instruction Implementation:
a. Common module Phase in terms of POI implementation, qualification of
instructors and the attainment of its purpose of developing common level of national
service training competence.
Monitoring and evaluation:
a. ROTC annual administrative and tactical inspection.
b. NSTP Annual Evaluation.
Fees and Incentives:
a. Management of NSTP fees / trust fund.
b. Incentives for qualified students.
Organization of NSTP Graduates:
a. School based NSRC Organization
b. Community based NSRC Organization
Gaps in the Implementation of the revised NSTP IRR.
Recommended actions / measures to address the problems.
IV. Check if the identified programs are well subscribed by your and institution and leave
the given program blank if not, instead write on the spaces provided the reasons for such.
NSTP Programs (Well- (Not subscribed)
subscribed) Write the reason/s why
A. Program Component
1. Offering of the three (3) NSTP
Components upon enrollment
(ROTC, CWTS and LTS).
2. For state universities and colleges,
maintenance of the ROTC
3. Is clustering of schools for the
purpose of obtaining the sufficient
number of ROTC Cadets being
4. Do the schools allow cross-
enrollment for NSTP?
5. The students are allowed to
select which component to pursue
after the common module shall have
B. Program of Instruction
1. Is the conduct of the
common module phase
2. Is the POI for each
component being strictly
ROTC - - -
CWTS - - -
LTS - - - -
C. Annual evaluation
ROTC - - -
CWTS - - -
LTS - - - -
D. Management of fees in
accordance with its intended purpose
and allocation of incentives for
E. Availability of an effective
organization for non-ROTC
graduates of the NSTP
V. Written below are the problems, issues and concerns in the implementation of the
NSTP. Please rank the following from 1-10 according to how these problems, issues and
concerns affect you in the implementation of NSTP.
A. Problems encountered in the implementation of NSTP.
______ Lack of serious cooperation and support from school officials for the
of the ROTC component, the latter being not an income generating option.
______ Inadequate training facilities, non-availability/shortage of training equipment and
______ Shortage of qualified NSTP training staff.
______ Students are not given the opportunity to choose which NSTP component to
______The training staffs are not given opportunity to conduct NSTP orientation during
______ No definite program of instruction for CWTS and LTS to follow.
______ Non-availability of training support from the AFP particularly on ammunition.
______ Implementation of the other two NSTP components is relatively easy as
the ROTC training program.
______ Poorly manned Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST).
______ No organization to manage non-ROTC graduates of the NSTP.
B. Current Issues and Concerns in the implementation of NSTP.
______The 3 components of the NSTP are not offered during enrolment.
______Non-maintenance of the ROTC unit in SUCs and other government supported
______The NSTP students are not permitted to cross enroll.