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•Strong   English       syllablesPronunciation                •Weak                 syllables
baiSERgaLLEta                  GUAgua          This is also            true of          many other          languages
It isnecessary   How these            weak sylables            are            pronounced            Where they            ...
Which is very          important inStress   deciding wheter           a syllable is         strong or weak
ElisionIntonation
We find the            vowel in a weak                                   “data”            syllable tends to              ...
Stress   Strongsyllables are  stressed    Weaksyllables are unstressed
The vowel Ə(“schwa”)A close front unroundedvowel in the general area ofi:, I, symbolised iA close back rounded vowelinthe ...
 happy          /betƏ/ Better        /hæpi/ thank you   /Ɵæɳk ju/
 Open      /ƏƱpƏn/ Sharpen   /ʃɒ:pƏn/
 “photograph”   /fƏƱtƏgrɒ:f/ “radio”        /reIdiƏƱ/ “influence”     /InfluƏns/
 “architect”   /a:kItekt/
PHONOLOGYTAMARA CABRERAGENNY NAZARENOVANESSA SISALEMA     4th «B»
THE VOWEL(“ SCHWA”)
The most           frequently        occurring vowel           in English                   It is generallyIs always      ...
Examples-   halfway-   between-   close-   open              Note.- Not all weak syllables contain                       ...
Learners of English need to             learn where ə is appropriate                  and where it is not    We have to us...
 Spelt with “ a”; strong  pronunciation would  have æ
“ attend” /ətend/“ barracks” /bærəks/“ character” /kærətə/
Spelt with «ar»; strong pronunciation would have ɑ:
“pɑrticular” /pətɪkjələ /“monɑrchy” /mɒnəki /“molɑr” /məʊlə /
Adjectives endings spelt “ ate”; strong pronunciation would have eɪ
“ intimɑte” /ɪntɪmət/ “accurɑte” /ækjərət/“desolɑte” /desələt/ (althoughthere are exceptions to this:“private” is usually ...
Spelt with “o”; strong pronunciation would have ɒ or əʊ
“tomorrow” /təmɒrəʊ/“potato” /pəteɪtəʊ/“carrot” /kærət/
Spelt with “or”; strong pronunciation would have ɔ:
“forget” /fəget/“ambassador” /æmbæsədə/“opportunity” /ɒpətʃu:nəti/
“settlement” /setəlmənt / “violet” /vaɪələt/ “postment” /pəʊstmən/
   Spelt with “er”, strong    pronunciation would have ɜ:
 “perhaps”  /pəhæps/ “stronger” /strɒŋgə/ “superman” /su:pəmæn/
 Spelt      with “u”; strong pronunciation would have ʌ
 “autumn” /ɔ:təm/ “support” / səpɔ:t/ “halibut” /hælɪbət/
 Spelt with “ough” ( there are many pronunciations for the letter- sequence “ough”)
 “thorough”    /θʌrə/ “borough”    /bʌrə/
 Spelt      with “ou”; strong pronunciation might have ɑʊ
 “gracious”    /greɪʃəs/“   callous”    /kæləs/
One close frontWeak syllables: They are equal                  Other close back                  rounded
Strong syllables:  Easy to  distinguishFOR                   FOR
Example:“beat” [bi:t]                We can                distinguis“bit”   [bIt]   h sounds
“easy” [i:zI]                 We can´t                 distinguis“busy” [bIzi:]   h sounds
Vowels in Questions:They sound like [i:] and[u:] when they precedeanother vowel.
For BBC  pronunciation:Within strong syllables sound[i:] is NEUTRALIZED inweak syllables.
Possibilities, using    our symbols:“easy”           “busy”[i:zi:           [bIzi:]][i:zI]           [bIzI]
We find i occuring:
Words in the final  position “y” or “ey”  after one or more  consont letter.<happy> [hᴂpi            ]<valley> [vᴂli      ...
In morpheme-final position when such words have suffixes beginning with vowels.<happier> [hᴂpi ]              ə<easier>   ...
In the prefix such as those   spelt „re‟, „pre‟, „de‟; if it   precedes a vowel and is   untressed. <react>               ...
In the suffixes :„iate‟, „ious‟,   when they have two   syllables<appreciate> [əpri:ʃieI t]<hilarious> [hileəriəs]
In the following wordswhen unstressed:„he‟, „she‟, „we‟, „me‟, „be‟and the word „the‟ when itprecedes a vowel.
With [i] the sound is short  close front unrounded  vowel.<enough>           [Inᴧf]
In weak syllables we found[u:].      „you‟, „to‟, „into‟, „do‟When they are untressedare not immediatlypreciding a consona...
This vowel is also found   before another vowel   withing a word.<evacuation>[ivᴂkjueiʃṇ]<influenza> [influenzə]
Syllabic l
Small vertical                   l stands as the     mark (,) to  Syllables in                     peak of the   which no ...
If the preceding consonant is alveolar , the articulatory movement         from the preceding consonant to the syllabic l ...
letters                     followed                      le     with non-alveolar consonant preceding:    „couple‟ k...
words usually lose their final letter „e‟          when s suffix beginning with a vowel is            attached ,but the l ...
„coddling‟(derive    Show a contrast                  d from the verb     between syllabic                      „coddle‟) ...
syllabic words spelt, at the end , with              one or more consonants letters                   followed by „al‟ or ...
• A close back rounded vowelBBC ACCENT   instead (e.g. bottle‟ bɒtu)
it is not obligatory to           pronounce syllabic        l, əl may used instead:          „missal‟ or m ɪ s ə lnote!
Therefore
   In many accents of the type called “rhotic”   In american accents, the syllabic r is very common .   Examples : the ...
   It isn t unusual to find two syllabic consonants    together.       Examples:         National         Literal     ...
   This about preliminary notions without a full    explanation.   Familiar with the differences between stressed and   ...
Introduction of the “schwa” vowel has beendeliberaty delayed until this chapter, since theauthor wanted it to be presented...
This chapter is in a sense a crucial point in the course. Although the segmental material of thepreceding chapters is impo...
The following sentences have been partially trancribed, butthe vowels have been left blanj. Fill in the vowels, takig care...
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
Strong and weak syllables
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Strong and weak syllables

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Strong and weak syllables

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  1. 1. •Strong English syllablesPronunciation •Weak syllables
  2. 2. baiSERgaLLEta GUAgua This is also true of many other languages
  3. 3. It isnecessary How these weak sylables are pronounced Where they occur in English
  4. 4. Which is very important inStress deciding wheter a syllable is strong or weak
  5. 5. ElisionIntonation
  6. 6. We find the vowel in a weak “data” syllable tends to be shorter, of /deΙtƏ/ Syllable lower intensityConsonant The weak syllable contains “bottle” /bɒtl/ no vowel at all
  7. 7. Stress Strongsyllables are stressed Weaksyllables are unstressed
  8. 8. The vowel Ə(“schwa”)A close front unroundedvowel in the general area ofi:, I, symbolised iA close back rounded vowelinthe general area ofu:, Ʊ, symbolised u
  9. 9.  happy /betƏ/ Better /hæpi/ thank you /Ɵæɳk ju/
  10. 10.  Open /ƏƱpƏn/ Sharpen /ʃɒ:pƏn/
  11. 11.  “photograph” /fƏƱtƏgrɒ:f/ “radio” /reIdiƏƱ/ “influence” /InfluƏns/
  12. 12.  “architect” /a:kItekt/
  13. 13. PHONOLOGYTAMARA CABRERAGENNY NAZARENOVANESSA SISALEMA 4th «B»
  14. 14. THE VOWEL(“ SCHWA”)
  15. 15. The most frequently occurring vowel in English It is generallyIs always described asassociated lax-that is, notwhit weak articulated syllables with much energy
  16. 16. Examples- halfway- between- close- open Note.- Not all weak syllables contain ə, though many do.
  17. 17. Learners of English need to learn where ə is appropriate and where it is not We have to use information that We must considertraditional phonemic spelling theory.
  18. 18.  Spelt with “ a”; strong pronunciation would have æ
  19. 19. “ attend” /ətend/“ barracks” /bærəks/“ character” /kærətə/
  20. 20. Spelt with «ar»; strong pronunciation would have ɑ:
  21. 21. “pɑrticular” /pətɪkjələ /“monɑrchy” /mɒnəki /“molɑr” /məʊlə /
  22. 22. Adjectives endings spelt “ ate”; strong pronunciation would have eɪ
  23. 23. “ intimɑte” /ɪntɪmət/ “accurɑte” /ækjərət/“desolɑte” /desələt/ (althoughthere are exceptions to this:“private” is usually /praɪvɪt/)
  24. 24. Spelt with “o”; strong pronunciation would have ɒ or əʊ
  25. 25. “tomorrow” /təmɒrəʊ/“potato” /pəteɪtəʊ/“carrot” /kærət/
  26. 26. Spelt with “or”; strong pronunciation would have ɔ:
  27. 27. “forget” /fəget/“ambassador” /æmbæsədə/“opportunity” /ɒpətʃu:nəti/
  28. 28. “settlement” /setəlmənt / “violet” /vaɪələt/ “postment” /pəʊstmən/
  29. 29.  Spelt with “er”, strong pronunciation would have ɜ:
  30. 30.  “perhaps” /pəhæps/ “stronger” /strɒŋgə/ “superman” /su:pəmæn/
  31. 31.  Spelt with “u”; strong pronunciation would have ʌ
  32. 32.  “autumn” /ɔ:təm/ “support” / səpɔ:t/ “halibut” /hælɪbət/
  33. 33.  Spelt with “ough” ( there are many pronunciations for the letter- sequence “ough”)
  34. 34.  “thorough” /θʌrə/ “borough” /bʌrə/
  35. 35.  Spelt with “ou”; strong pronunciation might have ɑʊ
  36. 36.  “gracious” /greɪʃəs/“ callous” /kæləs/
  37. 37. One close frontWeak syllables: They are equal Other close back rounded
  38. 38. Strong syllables: Easy to distinguishFOR FOR
  39. 39. Example:“beat” [bi:t] We can distinguis“bit” [bIt] h sounds
  40. 40. “easy” [i:zI] We can´t distinguis“busy” [bIzi:] h sounds
  41. 41. Vowels in Questions:They sound like [i:] and[u:] when they precedeanother vowel.
  42. 42. For BBC pronunciation:Within strong syllables sound[i:] is NEUTRALIZED inweak syllables.
  43. 43. Possibilities, using our symbols:“easy” “busy”[i:zi: [bIzi:]][i:zI] [bIzI]
  44. 44. We find i occuring:
  45. 45. Words in the final position “y” or “ey” after one or more consont letter.<happy> [hᴂpi ]<valley> [vᴂli ]
  46. 46. In morpheme-final position when such words have suffixes beginning with vowels.<happier> [hᴂpi ] ə<easier> [i:ziə]
  47. 47. In the prefix such as those spelt „re‟, „pre‟, „de‟; if it precedes a vowel and is untressed. <react> [riᴂkt ] <create> [krieit]<deodorant> [diə dərənt]
  48. 48. In the suffixes :„iate‟, „ious‟, when they have two syllables<appreciate> [əpri:ʃieI t]<hilarious> [hileəriəs]
  49. 49. In the following wordswhen unstressed:„he‟, „she‟, „we‟, „me‟, „be‟and the word „the‟ when itprecedes a vowel.
  50. 50. With [i] the sound is short close front unrounded vowel.<enough> [Inᴧf]
  51. 51. In weak syllables we found[u:]. „you‟, „to‟, „into‟, „do‟When they are untressedare not immediatlypreciding a consonant,„through‟ [θru:]
  52. 52. This vowel is also found before another vowel withing a word.<evacuation>[ivᴂkjueiʃṇ]<influenza> [influenzə]
  53. 53. Syllabic l
  54. 54. Small vertical l stands as the mark (,) to Syllables in peak of the which no indicate that a syllable insteadvowel is found. consonant is of the vowel. syllabic.
  55. 55. If the preceding consonant is alveolar , the articulatory movement from the preceding consonant to the syllabic l is quite simple. with alveolar consonant preceding: „cattle‟ kæt l̥ „bottle‟ b ɒ t l̥ „wrestle‟ rɛs l̥ „muddle‟ m ʌ d l̥
  56. 56. letters followed  le with non-alveolar consonant preceding: „couple‟ k ʌp l̥ „struggle‟ strʌg l̥ „trouble‟ trʌb l̥ „knuckle‟ nʌk l̥
  57. 57. words usually lose their final letter „e‟ when s suffix beginning with a vowel is attached ,but the l usually remains syllabic. „bottle‟ - „bottling‟ bɑt l̥ - bɑt l̥ ɪ ŋ „muddle‟ – „muddling‟ m ʌ d l̥ - m ʌ d l̥ ɪ ŋ „struggle‟ – struggling strʌg l̥ - strʌg l̥ ɪ ŋ
  58. 58. „coddling‟(derive Show a contrast d from the verb between syllabic „coddle‟) and non- syllabicDon‟t have the l: syllabic l „codling‟(meanin „coddling‟ kɒdl̥ɪŋ g “small cod", derived by „codling‟ kɒdlɪŋ adding the suffix „ling‟ to „cod‟.
  59. 59. syllabic words spelt, at the end , with one or more consonants letters followed by „al‟ or „el‟.„panel‟ p æ n l̥„petal‟ pet l̥„kernel‟ k ɜ ː nl̥„pedal‟ ped l̥„parcel‟ p ɑ ːsl̥„Babel‟ be ɪ b l̥„papal‟ pe ɪ p l̥„ducal‟ djuːkl̥
  60. 60. • A close back rounded vowelBBC ACCENT instead (e.g. bottle‟ bɒtu)
  61. 61. it is not obligatory to pronounce syllabic l, əl may used instead: „missal‟ or m ɪ s ə lnote!
  62. 62. Therefore
  63. 63.  In many accents of the type called “rhotic” In american accents, the syllabic r is very common . Examples : the word “particular”  Americans  BBC pronunciation  Future  Teacher  Never
  64. 64.  It isn t unusual to find two syllabic consonants together.  Examples:  National  Literal  Visionary  Veteran  In BBC the “schwa” vowel is very very weak.
  65. 65.  This about preliminary notions without a full explanation. Familiar with the differences between stressed and unstressed and nature of the “schwa” In the same way with “i” , ”u” Logman pronunciation dictionary The cambrige english pronouncing dictionary
  66. 66. Introduction of the “schwa” vowel has beendeliberaty delayed until this chapter, since theauthor wanted it to be presented in the contextof weak syllables in general. Since studentssould by now be comporatively well informedabout basic segmental phonetics, it is veryimportant that their production and recognitionof this vowel should be good before moving onto the following chapters.
  67. 67. This chapter is in a sense a crucial point in the course. Although the segmental material of thepreceding chapters is important as a foundation, the strog/weak syllable distinction and the overallprosodic characteristics of words and sentences areessential to intelligibility. Most of the remaining chapterss of the course are corcened with such matters.
  68. 68. The following sentences have been partially trancribed, butthe vowels have been left blanj. Fill in the vowels, takig care to identify wich vowels are weak; put no vowel at all if you think a syllabic consonant is appropiate, but put a syllabic mark beneath the syllabic consonant.
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