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  • 1. Tweeting with the audience Audience research and participation using Twitter @ruthdeller / @RadShef) @sheffieldhallamuni, @AHRC funded PhD candidate #meccsa2011
  • 2.
    • What is Twitter?
    • Theoretical context
    • Twitter and current affairs
    • Participation and interaction
    • Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Implications for media audience research- particularly for those interested in "old" media
    Tweeting with the audience
  • 3. What is Twitter?
    • Social networking service
    • 140 character updates
    • Following and being followed
    • Key question 'What's happening?'
  • 4. What is Twitter?
  • 5. What is Twitter?
  • 6. What is Twitter?
  • 7. Theoretical issues
    • Audience ‘activity’
    • Convergence – cross-media platforms, mobile media etc
    • ‘ Produsage’ / Citizen journalism
    • Star/celebrity studies
    • Fan studies
    • Online community studies
    • Media in everyday life
  • 8. Tweeting current affairs
    • Iranian elections: Green profile pictures (avatars), setting location as Tehran.
    • UK and US elections: Used as methods of interacting with politicians and media outlets, used as sources for news.
    • Stephen Gately, Dunblane, Trafigura etc - outrage and action.
  • 9. #welovethenhs
  • 10. Tweeting current affairs
    • High-profile 'opinion leaders'
    • (Re-)Circulation of links
    • Accessibility
    • Immediacy
    • Visibility
    • Public sphere
  • 11. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • ‘ The invention of real-time social networking sites (this means Twitter) has added a whole new dimension to the enjoyment of Big Brother ... now you can hold a conversation with anyone you want while it's on and enjoy real-time tweeted commentary from celebs, pundits and randoms. Or, indeed, be one such commentator' (Longridge, 2010: 146).
  • 12. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • What has been your favourite Twitter experience?
      • ‘ The group experience of tweeting about The X Factor on a Saturday night. It’s like having a lot of friends round and laughing’ (Mark Gatiss)
    • What’s the appeal of Twitter for you?
      • ‘ It makes shows like The X Factor and The Apprentice even more fun. Everyone can join in as it goes out’ (Gareth Roberts)
    • Cook (2011: 63)
  • 13. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • ‘ Liveness – that is, live transmission – guarantees a potential connection to our shared social realities as they are happening…‘Liveness’ naturalises the idea that, through the media, we achieve a shared attention to the realities that matter for us as a society. This is the idea of the media as social frame, the myth of the mediated centre. It is because of this underlying idea (suggesting society as a common space focused around a ‘shared’ ritual centre) that watching something ‘live’ makes the difference it does: otherwise why should we care that others are watching the same image as us, and (more or less) when we are?’ (Couldry, 2003: 97-99)
  • 14. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • Whenever telly or radio is on, wherever in the world, someone is tweeting.
    • Trending topics can identify 'watercooler' television/radio, not just highly rated shows.
    • Those involved in the programmes often 'tweet along', asking or answering questions, providing commentary or links to additional resources.
    • Celebrities and public figures join in the conversation.
  • 15. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
  • 16. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
  • 17. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • Too tired for Newswipe. Have to iPlayer it. Off to bed with a hot water bottle.
    • Band practice means late home. Going to miss the start of #TBOC [#TBOC = Tower Block of Commons , a Channel 4 'life swap' series where MPs lived on council estates]
    • Ok folks...what are we watching tonight?? If you provide a solid argument, I could be persuaded to DVR 'LOST' & watch it later...
    • What should I watch 90120 or vampire dairies?
    • #tboc or #glee?
  • 18. Tweeting TV and radio audiences
    • ‘ Spoilers’
    • Hashtags to indicate series (e.g. #bb11 #bb12)
    • Trending is to be celebrated
    • Trending also causes British users to comment on what ‘America’ thinks:
      • ppl in America might think WTF is Jedward :)
      • It's funny. all american/people not in britain, are like.. "Jedward? What the hell? Edward and Jacob? Pathetic!"
  • 19. Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Eight-part series of single documentaries on Channel 4, summer 2009.
    • First documentary, 'How to Find God' was made by Jon Ronson and focussed on the Alpha course.
    • Ronson (@jonronson) is very active on Twitter and had tweeted about the programme during its production. He was online during and after its showing and invited questions.
  • 20. Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Monitored Twitter for three hours before, during and after broadcast.
    • Searched for key terms and saved copies of tweets.
    • Invited people tweeting to an exit survey (week 1) and to a live chat or forum (weeks 2-8).
  • 21. ‘ How to Find God’
    • 829 unique tweets during the period
    • Documentary maker Jon Ronson (@jonronson) was online throughout answering questions.
    • 447 tweets were either retweets or questions to Ronson (or replies to questions)
    • Exit survey RTed by Ronson and some other users; 80 replies in first two hours after broadcast.
  • 22. Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Monitored several keywords, including alpha, c4, channel4, Channel 4, Channel Four, Revelations, How to Find God, Jon Ronson and @jonronson. A similar process was used each week.
    • Tweets counted and categorised into types (e.g. 'am watching', opinions, links, @replies) and content (e.g. personal experience, statement of beliefs, commentary).
  • 23. ‘ How to Find God’
    • "Accidentally". @jonronson you crafty peice of work! #alpha
    • @jonronson Ed sums up why I don't take Communion when Mam drags me to Mass back home. Tongues is just weird altogether #alpha
    • @jonronson Sorry I'm late to the Alpha twitter party, was it uncomfortable waiting to see if anyone spoke in tongues? BTW Excellent film.
  • 24. ‘ How to Find God’
    • About to sit down and enjoy @jonronson 's alpha course film on channel 4!
    • Documentary about Alpha Course on C4. If only good things came out of religion (and mild indoctrination), maybe it wouldn't make me so angry.
    • Watching a programme on the Alpha Course. Always wanted to go on it to further my knowledge but I'm scared of who it could make me become.
  • 25. Different perspectives
    • lol @ muslim school. muslim bitches be crazy. its funny when thr R 2 of them talking to the camera with head scarfs i cant tell whos talking.
    • Both mums have good attitude towards their daughters and reason behind decision for Muslim school is interesting
  • 26. Different perspectives
    • Why is it when religious commentators mention the atheist bus campaign, they never mention religious ads telling people they'll go to hell.
    • is watching religious "thinkers" spout meaningless bullshit on some daft programme on C4.
    • Is finding channel 4's Revelations: how do you know God exists? so helpful and wishes everyone could watch it.
  • 27. Humour
    • Watching Channel 4 doc about spiritualists. One of them's reading a newspaper called Psychic News. Obviously its for not very good psychics.
    • going to watch a tele programme about talking to the dead . Bit like when my missus talks to me.
    • Watching a programe on exhumation - just put me off my banana!
    • QOTD from 'The Exhumer' on Chan4 "I didn't know which grave she was in so I said I'd do a little digging".
  • 28. Personal experience
    • Tonight's "Revelations" (on C4+1 in 10mins if you aren't watching it now) is about the Spiritualist Church. My family was involved; bizarre.
    • Watched programme about religious divorces within the Orthodox Jewish community. Got progressively angrier and remembered why I walked away.
  • 29. The ‘mundane’
    • why am i watching "Divorce Jewish Style" rofll./ gotta have a bath like, but thats effort mannn.
    • soo hungry, gonna watch jewish divorce programme.
  • 30. Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Quantitative and qualitative data that shows:
      • Which programmes/topics were discussed most, and how they were discussed.
      • Something (not always much) about the types of people involved in discussion
      • Some level of comparison between whether tweets are individual statements or discussion/interaction
      • How the presence of Ronson on Twitter impacted the discussion of his programme
  • 31. Tweeting 'Revelations'
    • Quantitative and qualitative data that shows:
      • Audiences ‘relating’ to texts
      • Variety of readings/understandings
      • Media in an ‘everyday’ / mundane context
      • Use of humour or seriousness in relation to different topics
  • 32. Tweeting with the audience
    • Twitter useful as a platform to explore issues of:
      • Fandom and fan activity (Beliebers)
      • Interactivity and participatory cultures
      • Convergence between media forms and texts
      • The relationship between the old 'industry', 'texts' and 'audiences'
      • 'Liveness'
      • Nationhood, regionality, race, gender and other identity issues
  • 33. Tweeting with the audience
    • Twitter useful as a platform to explore issues of:
      • Advertising / promotion
      • Market dominance
      • Relationship between social media / new media forms
      • Linguistics
  • 34. Tweeting with the audience
    • Twitter offers a variety of ways we can explore and understand (some types of) media audiences.
    • We need to consider our own position as participant observers.
    • Ethics - AOIR guidelines?
    • Alongside other technologies and social media outlets, poses a range of questions for our thinking about media in the 21st century.
  • 35. References
    • Cook, B (2011), ’40 people every Doctor Who fan should follow on Twitter’ Doctor Who Magazine , issue 430, pp.60-63.
    • Couldry, N (2003), Media Rituals: A Critical Approach , London: Routledge.
    • Longridge, C (2010), 'Big Brother preview', heat , 19-25 June 2010, p. 146.