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Bureaucracy handouts Document Transcript

  • 2. 7/29/2012is the collective organizationalstructure, procedures, protocols, andset of regulations in place to manageactivity, usually in large organizationsand government. It is represented bystandardized procedure (rule-following)that guides the execution of most or allprocesses within the body; formaldivision of powers; hierarchy; andrelationships, intended to anticipateneeds and improve efficiency.A bureaucracy traditionally does notcreate policy but, rather, enacts it.Law, policy and regulation normallyoriginates from a leadership, whichcreates the bureaucracy to put theminto practice. In reality, theinterpretation and execution of policy,etc. can lead to informal influence. 2
  • 3. 7/29/2012Four structural concepts are central to anydefinition of bureaucracy:1. a well-defined division of administrative labor among persons and offices,2. a personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers,3. a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors, and4. formal and informal networks that connect organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of cooperation.1. A formal hierarchical structure2. Management by rules3. Organization by functional specialty4. An “up-focused” or “in-focused” mission5. Purposely impersonal6. Employment based on technical qualifications 3
  • 4. 7/29/2012 Governments Armed forces Corporations Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) Hospitals Courts Ministries Social clubs Sports Leagues Professional associations Academic institutions Perhaps the early example of a bureaucrat is the scribe, who first arose as a professional on the early cities of Sumer. The Sumerian script was so complicated that it required specialists who has trained for their entire lives in the discipline of writing to manipulate it. In later, larger empires like Achaemenid Persia, bureaucracies quickly expanded as government expanded and increased its functions. 4
  • 5. 7/29/2012 The most modernesque of all ancient bureaucracies, however, was the Chinese bureaucracy. During the chaos of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, Confucius recognized the need for a stable system of administrators to lend good governance even when the leaders were inept. Modern bureaucracies arose as government of states grew larger during the modern period, and especially following the Industrial Revolution. Along with this expansion, though, came the recognition of the corruption and nepotism often inherent with the managerial system, leading to civil service reform on the large scale in many countries towards the end of the 19th century. 5
  • 6. 7/29/2012II. BUREAUCRACY IN THE PHILIPPINES BUREAUCRACY IN THE PHILIPPINES Bureaucracy refers to administrative instrument or organization which exists in each modern political community for the attainment of the community’s social objectives (public policies). Broadly viewed, the bureaucracy is equivalent to the entire governmental institution. More restrictively interpreted, the following current usage, it refers to the civil service. 6
  • 7. 7/29/2012IMPORTANT PHASES IN THE EVOLUTION OFTHE BUREAUCRACY IN THE PHILIPPINESA. The Pre-Spanish period – a period of cultural inadequacy, during which the social and economic foundations for bureaucratic organization and bureaucratic action had not been developed.B. The Spanish Regime centralized the political life of the numerous native communities in the archipelago.  Introduced a system of public revenues and public expenditures  Introduced a social institution: the bureaucracy The paramount, and ultimately fatal, defect of the Spanish bureaucracy, was the fact that the private interests and personal behavior of its members effectively subverted the declared principles of the colonial administration.… EVOLUTION OF THE BUREAUCRACY IN THEPHILIPPINES (continuation)C. The Philippine Revolution of 1896 – an attempt by the leaders of the Filipinos to practice the principles of government which the Spanish regime consistently professed but could not execute.D. The American Regime continued what the Philippine Revolution started. Thorough reorganization of the bureaucracy was in fact easily accomplished.  There was much room for innovation  For the first time, the principle that public office was a public trust was practiced The principal concern of the American colonial administration was the protection of the civil service from the spoils system of party politics, and not the training of Filipinos for technical and administrative positions. 7
  • 8. 7/29/2012… EVOLUTION OF THE BUREAUCRACY IN THEPHILIPPINES (continuation)D. Japanese Wartime Occupation – conditions during this time disrupted and corrupted the bureaucracy.E. The Philippine Republic, 1946-1972  A strong president, a bicameral legislature and an independent judiciary comprised the tripartite democratic structure ordained by the Philippine Constitution of 1935, and carried over into the new Philippine Republic of 1946.  The US continued to intervene in Philippine affairs. The bureaucracy assumed the major responsibility for these programs; the civil service continued to regard itself as an arsenal of means and not the articulator of values.  The Philippine civil service could be characterized as highly trained and professionalized even though it continued to be inefficient and ineffective.CHARACTERISTICS OF PHILIPPINE BUREAUCRACY1. Vulnerability to Nepotism2. Perpetuation of the Spoils System3. Apathetic Public Reaction to Bureaucratic Misconduct4. Availability of External Peaceful Means of Correcting Bureaucratic Weaknesses5. Survival of Historical Experience6. Non-special Typing of Bureaucracies7. Lack of Independence from Politics8. An Instrument of Social Change and Innovation 8
  • 9. 7/29/2012III. BUREAUCRACY FOR DEMOCRACY  The inevitable friction between the new political leadership and the holdovers of the past government, especially the permanent bureaucracy. Nevertheless, the success or failure of the new ruling group rests, to a significant extent, on how this underestimated relationship with the career service is resolved. 9
  • 10. 7/29/2012Two Main Forms of the Struggle:1. Executive Ascendancy (or Bureaucratic Subordination) The political leadership bases its claim to supremacy on the mandate of God or of the people, or on some notion of the public interest. This might be legitimated by elections, force, or de facto acceptance by the citizenry. Under the liberal model, control runs through a single line from the supreme authority through its representatives (the political leadership) to the bureaucracy. Where power is derived from the people, this is called “overhead democracy”.2. Bureaucratic Sublation of, or Co-equality with, the Executive The bureaucracy of any country is not merely an implementing mechanism and have power apart from that delegated by the political leadership. A bureaucracy that recognized its power may attempt to be on an equal footing with the executive by expecting its ready-made policy proposals to be accepted without question and its demands for recognition and benefits supported generously by its formal superiors. 10
  • 11. 7/29/2012The basic distinguishing factor of the democratic-authoritarian axis is power concentration.1. Democracy – Power is supposed to reside in the citizenry in a democracy. Those designated as “power-holders” are accountable to the people and govern in their name. Power is thus distributed in a democracy; those who want to exercise power compete freely and openly for it. Transfer of power to others outside the incumbent’s circle is supposed to take place peacefully and according to accepted rules.2. Authoritarianism – While democracy tends toward openness and alternation, authoritarianism “is excluding”, concentrating power in one person or clique. The government is inaccessible to groups outside of the dominant clique except when it mobilizes the citizenry for its own ends. Power relations are organized in favor of the executive. Authoritarianism puts repression in the front of the cart, relying on state violence to control dissent. Such display of state power is justified in the name of stability and order, which in that system are values prized over individual liberty. 11
  • 12. 7/29/2012 Administrative development recognizes the civil service as a political body which not only has its own values and commitments but also acts on them. However, not all of its political activities are necessarily developmental: it is developed only to the extent that it husbands its resources and actively seeks to bring what it considers to be the public good. Administrative development must also involve the delicate job for maintaining the balance of power between bureaucracy and other political actors. Normally, this would refer control by the political leadership which is its legal and institutional superior. is the turnover of power which is peaceful and without any untoward incident. The civil service was transferred from one president to the next with little upheaval.The first move of the political leadership is to deal with its bureaucracy,and the usual first option is to try to change it.Each president put his stamp on the bureaucracy through Personnel and organizational changes (the executive appointed agency heads and aides) Summarily remove political transients and casuals (the vacancies created become convenient openings for followers of the new gods) Other recourse was to restructure the bureaucracy (created offices directly under their supervision to identify what would be their main thrusts) Reorganization commissions (to inject some order into the government corporate sector) 12
  • 13. 7/29/2012The bureaucracy has its own means of fighting back. First, it draws on its institutional memory and expertise to make itself useful and indispensable to the new team The bureaucracy may use the same sources of its strength against fledging leaders (the higher civil service may not provide the political leadership the information it needed for policy formulation) A bureaucracy may become more active in looking out for itself (Other civil servants find in the entry of a new regime the opportunity to legislate proposals to protect their turf and enlarge their powers) Holding back on performance may also be seen as another bureaucratic strategyREFLECTING DEMOCRACY Undemocratic means for democratic ends Many leadership taking over from defeated democrats or delegitimated dictators have used short cuts to improve the bureaucracy. Clear guidelines, procedures in good-faith, a just and effective appeal machinery, and fair compensation packages can help to quiet the critics and validate a government’s claim to democracy. Social justice for the rank-and-file and for the poor As the state authoritatively allocates values in society, so does it create and maintain an internal structure of rewards and benefits to the people in the government service. An executive that takes power-pledging justice to everyone is expected not to exploit its partners in the endeavor. 13
  • 14. 7/29/2012REFLECTING DEMOCRACY (continuation) Dispersing power A democracy by definition is a government that disperses power, or more accurately, one that encourages, nurtures and allows many people to wield power.The advocate of bureaucracy find in its increasing strength vis-à-vis theleadership a hope that it can serve as guardian of the public interest.The model is the bureaucratic reformer who charges forth to bringdemocracy to the people – with or against the leadership.However, this reformist bureaucracy stance presents certain danger:1. Weakening the link between the leadership and the bureaucracy will not necessarily push the latter to seek guidance from popular groups.2. The implicit assumption seems to be that the bureaucracy can lead in the transformation of society because of its expertise and good knowledge of development issues.3. The problem of accountability is not solved by allowing one group to make unrestrained decisions, no matter how well meaning. 14
  • 15. 7/29/2012The bureaucracy is a problem-solving system; ithas a whole arsenal of technology for everyimaginable problem. Its development alongtechnical lines has been the usual prescription ofadministrative reformers.The best bureaucracy is one whoseexpertise is utilized and tamed forhigher democratic purposes.The best imaginable system is onewhere an executive with the will tosubstantiate democracy is assisted bya bureaucracy that believes in thisgoal and does all it can to achieve it.Therefore it must develop thedemocratic means that will enable thebureaucracy to fulfill its mission, evenas the latter from its own view tries tomodify its policies. 15