"There are dull teachers,dull textbooks, dull films, but no dull subjects." - Anonymous
Focus Questions:• What guiding principles must be observed in the selection and organization of content?• What is the structure of the subject matter that we teach?• How can students be helped in the construction of a more enriched knowledge-base?• What strategies can be employed for teaching conceptual understanding, thinking skills in the different levels, and values?
Introduction What knowledge is truly essential and enduring? What is worth teaching and learning? Our leaders in the basic education level came up with the Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELCs) and Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLCs) in 2001. The "intended" content of what we teach is laid down in such document. This means that we are not entirely free in the selection of our content. They are a "given." But how they are organized and presented in the classroom, ultimately depends on you. Here are some principles to guide you.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content 1. One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of content: Validity – Teaching the content that we ought to teach according to national standards explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum; it also means teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives of the course as laid down in the basic education curriculum. (see figure)
Significance – What we teach should respond to theneeds and interests of the learners, hence meaningfuland significant. Adapted from Fink, L.D. (2003). Creating Significant Learning Experiences, Jossey-Bass.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of ContentBalance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values. The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective lesson content. A balanced content is something that is not too easy to bore the above average student, neither not too difficult to turn off the average. It is something that challenges the student. To observe the principle of balance, no topic must be extensively discussed at the expense of other topics.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Self-sufficiency – Content fully covers the essentials. Learning content is not "mile-wide-and-inch-deep." The essentials are sufficiently covered and are treated in depth. This is a case of "less is more." Interest – Teacher considers the interest of the learners, their developmental stages and cultural and ethnic background.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Utility – Will this content be of use to the learners? It is not meant only to be memorized for test and grade purposes. What is learned has a function even after examinations are over. Feasibility – The content is feasible in the sense that the essential content can be covered in the amount of time available for instruction. A guaranteed and a viable curriculum is the first in the school- related factors that has the greatest impact on student achievement. (Marzano, 2003)
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content It is observed that there is so much content to cover within the school year, so much so that teachers tend to rush towards the end of the school year, do superficial teaching and contribute to non-mastery of content. This is probably one reason why the least mastered competencies in national examinations given to pupils and students are those competencies which are found at the end of the Philippine Elementary/Secondary Learning Competencies (PELC/PSLC).
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content 2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts. We cant do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledge base and by working out a process of conceptual understanding. Here are a few ways cited by cognitive psychologists (Ormrod, 2000) by which you can help your students:
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content • Providing opportunities for experimentation – our so-called experiments in the science classes are more of this sort - following a cook book recipe where students are made to follow step-by-step procedure to end up confirming a law that has already been experimented on and discovered by great scientists ahead of us instead of the students coming up with their own procedure and end discovering something new.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content After teaching your students how to cook a recipe following the procedures laid down in a cookbook, allow them to experiment with mix of ingredients.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content• Presenting the ideas of others – While it is beneficial for you to encourage your students to discover principles for themselves, it will not jeopardize your students if you present the ideas of others who worked hard over the years to explain phenomena.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content• Emphasizing conceptual understanding – Many a time, our teaching is devoted only to memorization of isolated facts for purposes of examinations and grade. When we teach facts only, the tendency is we are able to cover more for your students to commit to memory and for you to cover in a test but our teaching ends up skin-deep or superficial, thus meaningless. If we emphasize conceptual understanding, the emphasis goes beyond facts. We integrate and correlate facts, concepts, and values in a meaningful manner.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content The many facts become integrated into a less number of concepts, yet more meaningful and consequently easier to recall. When we stress on conceptual teaching, we are occupied with less, but we are able to teach more substantially. It is a case of "less is more!" This is precisely the emphasis of the Basic Education Curriculum.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Example: What Do Mommies Do? -responsibility -love of family -cooking -nutrition -health -measurement -recreation and play
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Here are some specific strategies that can help you develop conceptual understanding in your students: (Ormrod, 2000) Organize units around a few core ideas and themes. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Explore each topic in depth – for example, by considering many examples, examining cause-effect relationships, and discovering how specific details relate to more general principles.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Explain how new ideas relate to students own experiences and to things they have previously learned. Computers in Health Care
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Show students – through the things we say, the assignments we give, and the criteria we use to evaluate learning – that conceptual understanding of subject matter is far more important than knowledge of isolated facts.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Ask students to teach to others what they have learned – a task that encourages them to focus on main ideas and pull them together in a way that makes sense.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Promoting dialogue – when we encourage our students to talk about what they learn, they are given the opportunity to reflect, elaborate on, clarify further and master what they have learned.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Using authentic activities – incorporate your lessons into "real world" activities. Instead of simply asking students to work on some items on subtraction, simulate a "sari-sari" store and apply subtraction skills.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill, and affective elements. While our subject matter content comes in three domains, these three domains should not be treated as though there was a clear dividing line among them. When our point of emphasis is the cognitive aspect, it does not mean that we exclude skills. In the first place, our teaching of facts, concepts, principles, theories and laws necessitate the skill of seeing the relationships among these in order to see meaning.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Likewise, when our subject matter is focused on the thinking and manipulative skills, our lesson content also has cognitive content. More so with the teaching of values, for values have definitely a cognitive basis. If the values taught are imbibed by the students, these are expressed in their daily behavior (skill). The cognitive lesson may be used as a vehicle in the teaching of skills and values.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content In short, subject matter content is an integration of facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories, and laws, thinking skills, manipulative skills, values and attitudes.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content The Structure of Subject Matter Content Our subject matter content includes cognitive, skill, and affective components. The cognitive component is concerned with facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories, and laws. The skill component refers to thinking skills as well as manipulative skills while the affective component is the realm of values and attitudes.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentCognitive (Ormrod, 2000)• Fact – an idea or action that can be verified Example: Names and dates of important activities, population of the Philippines.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Facts are the basic unit of cognitive subject matter content. From facts, we go higher to concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories and laws. It is, therefore, necessary that the facts that we begin with are updated and accurate.• Concept – a categorization of events, places, people, ideas Example: The concept furniture includes objects as chairs, tables, beds, and desks. (see next slide)
Example: The concept swim encompasses different actions like breast stroke, crawl, and butterfly that involve propelling oneself through water.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content• Principle – relationship(s) between and among facts and concepts. These are arrived at when similar research studies yield similar results time after time. Example: The number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children.
Findings:Since, as we shall see, there are marked negative effects on IQ of increasingsibling size, it is possible that IQ, as well as the dilution of materialresources among many children, affects the drop-out rates among those fromlarge families.Thus, we find that large families have been a continuing drag on thesocietys effort to provide openness in graded schooling, and an increasingdrag on our ability to provide equal opportunity at the college level. http://www.escholarship.org/editions/view? docId=ft6489p0rr&chunk.id=d0e1227&toc.depth=1&toc.id=d0e1227&brand=eschol
The Structure of Subject Matter Content• Hypothesis – educated guesses about relationships (principles) Example: For lower division undergraduate students, study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension. Hard work and determination are more important than test scores. OR http://newsroom.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/display.cgi?id=1329
The Structure of Subject Matter Content• Theories – set of facts, concepts and principles that describe possible underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human learning, development, and behavior. They explain why these principles are true. Examples: Piagets theory on cognitive development (see slide), Kohlbergs theory on moral development. Piaget Kohlberg
Piaget’s Cognitive Development applied in learning
Example: Piagets Theory on Cognitive DevelopmentUse of visual aids in learning.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentLearners seem to acquire general belief system –personal theories – about how the world operates. Bythe time they go to school, children have their ownpersonal theories about things and happenings in theworld. These personal beliefs may not necessarily beaccurate beliefs. Even the author of this book thoughtthat every time she swallowed a santol seed, the seedwould germinate in her stomach and its branches andleaves would grow out of her ears, nose and mouth.Therefore, much is demanded of you as a teacher inorder to promote effective construction of knowledgeand eliminate misconceptions.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content• Laws – firmly established, thoroughly tested principle or theory. Examples: Thorndikes law of effect, law on the conservation of matter and energy, the law of supply and demand. Law of Effect: Responses followed by a satisfying state of affairs (trial and error) were gradually stamped in (developed) as habits; responses followed by an annoying state of affairs were gradually stamped out as habits (eliminated from the animals behavioral repertoire). Thorndike
Law on the Conservation of Matter and Energy http://www.icr.org/law-conservation/One of most basic laws of science is the Law of the Conservation of Energy.Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be changed from one form toanother.Energy is not currently being created. The universe could not have created itselfusing natural processes because nature did not exist before the universe came intoexistence. Something beyond nature must have created all the energy and matterthat is observed today. Present measures of energy are immeasurably enormous,indicating a power source so great that "infinite" is the best word we have todescribe it.The logical conclusion is that our supernatural Creator with infinite powercreated the universe. There is no energy source capable to originate what weobserve today.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentSkills• Thinking Skills – These refer to the skills beyond the recall and comprehension. They are skills concerned with the application of what was learned, (in problem- solving or in real life) synthesis, evaluation and critical and creative thinking.
Divergent thinking – this includes fluent thinking,original thinking, flexible thinking, and elaborativethinking:
The Structure of Subject Matter Contentfluent thinking – is characterized by the generation of lots of ideas. Thought flow is rapid. It is thinking of the most possible ideas.
The Structure of Subject Matter Contentflexible thinking – is characterized by a variety ofthoughts in the kinds of ideas generated. Differentideas from those usually presented flow fromflexible thinkers. Unscrambling the letters
The Structure of Subject Matter Contentoriginal thinking – is thinking that differs from whats gone before. Thought production is away from the obvious and is different from the norm.
The Structure of Subject Matter Contentelaborative thinking – embellishes on previous ideas or plans. (Torres, 1994) It uses prior knowledge to expand and add upon things and ideas.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentConvergent thinking – it is narrowing down from many possible thoughts to end up on a single best thought or an answer to a problem.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Problem solving – it is made easier when the problem is well-defined. "The proper definition of a problem is already half the solution." It is doubly difficult when the problem is ill-defined. When it is ill-defined, then the first thing to teach our students is to better define the problem. Here are some techniques (Ormrod, 2000):- Break large problems into well-defined ones- Distinguish information needed- Identify techniques to find needed information
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Problems can be solved by using an algorithm ora heuristic strategy. Solving a problem by the use ofan algorithm means following specific, step-by-stepinstructions. An example is when you assemble thedismantled parts of a new toy by following the "howto assemble" instructions. Fortunately orunfortunately, not all problems are solved by the useof algorithms. When there is no algorithm forsolving a problem, we use heuristics, generalproblem-solving strategy, for a solution. These areinformal, intuitive, speculative strategies thatsometimes lead to an effective solution andsometimes do not.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content How can we help our students acquire effectiveproblem-solving strategies? Ormrod (2000) cites anumber situations in which they can be used. - Provide worked-out examples of algorithms being applied. - Help students understand why particular algorithms are relevant and effective in certain situations. - When a students application of algorithm yields an incorrect answer, look closely at the specific steps the student has taken until the trouble spot is located.
Example of Heuristics -- levels of influence, contexts, concepts, constituents and dimensions
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentFor teaching heuristics:- Give students practice in defining ill-defined problems.- Teach heuristics that students can use where no algorithms apply. For teaching both algorithm and heuristics – Teach problem-solving strategies within the context of specific subject areas (not as a topic separate from academic content) – Provide scaffolding for difficult problems – for example by breaking them into smaller and simpler problem, giving hints about possible strategies, or providing partial solutions.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Have students solve problems in small groups,sharing ideas about problem-solving strategies,modelling various approaches for one another, anddiscussing the merits of each approach. Problem solvinginvolves both divergent and convergent thinking.Divergent thinking enables you to generate a diverseassortment of possible solutions to a problem. From thediverse possible solutions, you arrive at the best possibleanswer.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Metaphoric thinking – This type of thinking uses analogic thinking, a figure of speech where a word is used in a manner different from its ordinary designation to suggest or imply a parallelism or similarity. Example: Teaching is lighting a candle. The learners mind is a "blank slate." This may also be called analogic thinking.
An analogy is simply a comparison between two objects or concepts. Example: A plane flies like a bird.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Critical thinking - It involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth. (Beyer, 1985) It takes a variety of forms – verbal reasoning, argument analysis, hypothesis testing, and decision making.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentVerbal reasoning – an example is evaluating thepersuasive techniques found in oral or written language.You employ this when you evaluate the reliability andthe truth of advertisements that bombard you everyday. Synonyms Distil means the same as A. strengthen B. weaken C. purify D. blend Answer: C. purify Antonyms Cheerful is the opposite of A. cool B. pessimistic C. happy D. blithe Answer: B. pessimistic Missing word tests The columnist knew that the events that ________ yesterday ________ decisive. A. occur&was B. unfolded&was C. unfolded&were D. occurred&was E. none of the above
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentArgument analysis – You are engaged in this criticalthinking process when you discriminate between reasonsthat do and do not support a particular conclusion.Example: The ground is wet so it must have rained lastnight.When you analyse the given argument and determinewhether or not the reason, "it must have rained last night"logically support or does not logically support theargument.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentHypothesis testing – It is evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions. A question you will ask when you are engaged in critical thinking as you are engaged in hypothesis testing is: Did I make use of an appropriate method to measure a particular outcome?
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentDecision making – we are engaged in critical thinking when we weigh the pros and cons of each proposed alternative approach.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Creative thinking - This type of thinking involves "producing something that is both original and worthwhile. (Sternberg, 2003) It is original thinking, one type of divergent thinking. It is the process of bringing something new into birth. It is seeing new relationships and the use of imagination and inventiveness.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentWhat creative thinking behaviors should bedeveloped?Awareness – The ability to notice the attributes ofthings in the environment so as to build a knowledgebase that is the beginning of all other forms ofcreative thinking. A portrayal of Awareness
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentCuriosity – The ability and inclination to wonder about things and mentally explore the new, novel, unique ideas.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Imagination – The ability to speculate about things that are not necessarily based on reality.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentFluency – The ability to produce a large quantity ofideas.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentFlexibility – The ability to look at things from severaldifferent perspectives or view points. The Internet today
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentOriginality – The ability to produce new, novel, uniqueideas.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentElaboration – the ability to add on to an idea; to give details; build groups of related ideas or expand on ideas. (see example on next slide)
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentPerseverance - The ability to keep trying to find ananswer; to see a task through completion.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content• Manipulative Skills – There are courses that are dominantly skill-oriented like Computer, Home Economics and Technology, Physical Education, Music and the like. In the biological and physical sciences manipulative skills such as focusing the microscope, mounting specimens on the slide, operating simple machines and other scientific gadgets, mixing chemicals are also taught.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentThe learning of these manipulative skills begin withnaive manipulation and ends up in expert and precisemanipulation.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentInteractive attitudes and values In the three-level approach to teaching, values are at the apex of the triangle. It is because it is in the teaching of values that the teaching of facts, skills and concepts become connected to the life of the students, thus acquiring meaning. Without the value- level of teaching, we contribute to the development of persons who have big heads but tiny hearts. We contribute to the formation of "intellectual giants" but emotional dwarfs.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentShall we teach values? Can values be taught? Many say "NO," rather values are caught. The author, however, would dare say "YES!" Values are taught and caught! Due to the belief that values cannot be taught, many teachers relegate values in the background. Values can be taught, because like any subject matter, they too have a cognitive dimension, in addition to the affective and behavioral dimension. (Aquino, 1990)
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentThe cognitive dimension – When we teach the value of honesty we ask the following questions: What is meant by honesty? Why do I have to be honest? The affective dimension – You have to feel something towards honesty. You have to be moved towards honesty as preferable to dishonesty. The behavioral dimension – You lead an honest life.
The Structure of Subject Matter ContentHow can we teach values? By deutero-learning – Your student learns by being exposed to the situation, by acquainting himself with a setting, by following models, pursuing inspirations and copying behavior. YOUR CRITICAL ROLE AS MODELS IN AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM CANNOT BE OVEREMPHASIZED. By positively reinforcing good behavior. By teaching the cognitive component of values in the classroom.
The Department of Education Culture and Sports(DECS) provides and promotes values education at allthree levels of the educational system for thedevelopment of the human person committed to thebuilding "of a just and humane society" and anindependent and democratic nation. Reference: http://valueseducation.net/
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMValues Education as a part of the school curriculum isthe process by which values are formed in the learnerunder the guidance of the teacher and as he interactswith this environment. But it involves not just any kindof teaching-learning process.First of all, the subject matter itself, values, has directand immediate relevance to the personal life of thelearner.Second, the process is not just cognitive but involvesall the faculties of the learner. The teacher must appealnot only to the mind but the hearts as well, in fact, thetotal human person. Reference: http://valueseducation.net/
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMThird, one learns values the way children learn manythings from their parents. Children identify withparents, and this identification becomes the vehiclefor the transmission of learning, be it language or thevalues of thrift and hard work. Hence, the teacher’spersonal values play an important role in valueslearning.
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM Maximiliano Rebollo, O.P. Moral Education in the School (2000):The term moral education signifies the development of man in his operational aspect, tendencies, affections, conduct. Some refer to moral education as the education of the will.Moral education aims to develop in man a firm conviction of the worthiness of moral behavior, a sense of moral responsibility. It aims to bring man’s act to perfection by the acquisition of the art of living known as virtue.The objective of moral education is to make the will embrace the good proposed by right reason. Moral education adjusts human conduct to the fundamental principle of morality – the good is to be done, while evil is to be avoided.
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMAmparo S. Lardizabal and Ma. Cecilia F. Gonzales (1999) Learning values through: Role-Models Songs Prayers Bible Stories Proverbs Parables Fables Animal Stories Poems Nature Stories Fairy Tales Biographies Legends Anecdotes Myths Psalms
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMRole model:A standard to be imitated such as parents Poem: or teachers. A piece of literary work containing beautiful thoughts expressed inThey learn courtesy, cleanliness, good beautiful language. grooming, concern for the welfare of others, and civic-mindedness. Work (Flordeliza Regala Paredes)Prayer: Work while there’s time,A spiritual communication with God. Work while there’s strength Work while you’re youngThanksgiving Prayer And you’ll never be poor.Proverb: Play will make you enjoyA wise saying. Work will help you mature, Work, play, and enjoy,The early bird catches the worm. Life’s best ways of taking wrinkles away.Fable: Fairy Tale:A short story, usually about animals, that A story about fairies, giants, and magic teaches a moral lesson. deeds that are not true. It is an unbelievable tale that is allegoricalThe Lion and the Mouse or symbolical. The Sleeping Beauty
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMLegend: Song:A story handed down from A song is a piece of music, usuallygeneration to generation, of a sung. It is poetry or verse setwonderful event, popularly believed to musical notes. It is aas having a historical basis, although melodious lyric or ballad.not verifiable. Legends may dealwith the origin of a place, plant, Planting Ricename, saint, or phenomenon.Why the Cashew Nut Is Outside the Bible Story:Fruit A narration of connected events. It is a series of happenings that have a plot. It is shorter than aMyth: novel. It may be true or false,A traditional or fictitious story and may be in prose or poetry.usually about superhuman beings or Bible stories have valuesthe creation of the world. It is an worth emulating.invented or imaginary story that hasno basis in fact. Daniel in the Lion’s DenThe Origin of Night and Day
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMParable: Nature Story:A short story that teaches a lesson. It Stories about the things in theis usually a simple narrative and does environment, such as trees,not have as many events as the usual plants, rivers, mountains, seas,story. Usually allegorical which lakes, insects, birds, and othermeans that people, things, and events living things that are nothave other meanings. Jesus usually classified as animals. Naturetaught in parable. covers the physical universe. Some nature stories containThe Good Samaritan values. The Fir Tree and the BrambleAnimal Story: (Aesop’s Fables)Stories in which animals arepersonified. They act and talk like Biography:people. Children love animals A written account of a person’s life.stories especially if they own pets. It is a life history.The Two Frogs Albert Einstein (Theory of Relativity)
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMAnecdote: 4 Yea, though I walk through the valleyA short account of a particular incident. It of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil,is an interesting narrative, which may be for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thyfunny or serious. An anecdote is a useful staff, they comfort me.tool that emphasizes an important point. 5 Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou hast anointed my head with oil; my cupPsalm: runneth over.A sacred song or poem. It is a hymn sung 6 Surely goodness and mercy shall followwith the accompaniment of a harp. It is a me all the days of my life; and I shallsong of religious worship. The Old dwell in the house of The Lord (HaShem)Testament contains many psalms. for ever. (The American-Israeli CooperativePsalm 23 – The Lord Is My Shepherd Enterprise)1 A Psalm of David. The Lord (HaShem)is my shepherd; I shall not want.2 He maketh me to lie down in greenpastures; He leadeth me beside the stillwaters.3 He restoreth my soul; He guideth me instraight paths for His names sake.
THE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMYour value formation in essence is atraining of the intellect and will. Thisincludes training the intellect in itspower to form ideas, judge and The Teaching Professionreason out and training the will to be Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.strong to desire and act on that which Brenda B. Corpuz, Ph.D.is good. A life of virtue strengthens Avelina T. Llagas, Ed.D.the will to desire and act on what is Gloria G. Salandanan, Ph.D.virtuous but a life of vice weakens 2006 Lorimar Publishing Co., Inc.the will to cling and act on that Quezon City, Philippineswhich is good.In Max Scheler’s hierarchy of valuesteaches us that the lowest values arethose that have something to do withpleasure while the highest are thosethat pertain to the God (for thosewho believe in God). You live lifewell if you do not distort thehierarchy of values, i.e. you properlysubordinate values in accordance toScheler’s hierarchy.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Let us teach the content that: • Is aligned with the goals and objectives of the basic education curriculum. • Responds to the needs of the learner. • Includes cognitive skill and affective elements. • Fully and deeply covers the essentials to avoid the "mile-wide-and-inch-deep" impression. • That is of use to the learners. • That is viable and feasible.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Facts are basic in the structure of cognitive subject matter. But content must go beyond facts. Working out a process of conceptual understanding means teaching and learning beyond facts. This can be done by the use of the thematic or the integrated approach. Subject matter content integrates the cognitive, skill, and affective components. The cognitive content includes facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories and laws. The skill component dwells on thinking skills and manipulative skills.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content The thinking skills include: • Divergent thinking • Convergent thinking • Problem solving • Metaphoric thinking • Critical thinking • Creative thinking
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content Divergent thinking Critical thinking comes includes: in varied forms:• Fluent thinking • Verbal reasoning• Flexible thinking • Argument analysis• Original thinking • Hypothesis testing• Elaborative thinking • Decision making Problem solving involves either an algorithmic or a heuristic strategy.
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content For creative thinking we must develop: • Awareness • Curiosity • Imagination • Fluency • Flexibility • Originality • Elaboration • Perseverance
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content The affective component is concerned with values and attitudes. When we teach values, we connect facts, skills, and concepts to the life of students. Values can be taught. They are both taught and caught. Aesop’s Fables
To view and download a copy of the presentation, go to:http://www.scribd.com/doc/8671407/Selection-and-Organization-of-Content or, go to www.scribd.com and search “rica web” then click people. Some of the tables, photos, and graphs were obtained from other Internet sources.
Principles of Teaching 1 By Brenda B. Corpuz, Ph.D. Gloria G. Salandanan, Ph.D. 2007 Lorimar Publishing Inc. QC, Philippines Prepared by: RAA TCP1 Dec 2008 Thank you