Western mindanao cultures

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  • 1. Western Mindanao Cultures
  • 2. The Bajaus
    • For most of their history they have been seafaring people
    • They are also known as sea gypseas
    • They particularly travel along the Sulu Sea, some of the most dangerous waters constantly facing piracy
  • 3.
    • Some live on house boats
    • Some live on the shorelines in house of stilts
  • 4.
    • Many families either share a house boat or a house on the shore
    • They combine efforts in order to share food and other resources. 
  • 5.
    • They make their living from fishing
    • Their migration has been attributed in part to their pursuit of trade, particularly in a sea cucumber species called the trepang
  • 6.
    • The Badjao are colorful, spirited, and musical people
    • They often wear colorful clothing due to beliefs that they are of a royal descent
  • 7.
    • At weddings, it is common for the bride to wear many bright colors and will receive many water buffalo as dowry
    • Arranged marriages are quite common within the indigenous tribe
    • Marriage by kidnap and elopement are also still quite frequent
  • 8.
    • Almost all Bajau today claim to be Sunni Muslim
    • Yet many - predominantly the seafaring, nomadic Bajau - retain spiritually based religious practices that pre-date any "major" religion. In their religion designated spirit mediums communicate with the spirit world in ritual ceremonies of celebration, worship and exorcism - in which, for example, spirit boats are sailed into the open seas to cast the offending spirit away from their community. They also worship the God of the sea, Omboh Dilaut .
  • 9. The Yakans
    • They are known to be the original inhabitants of Basilan
    • They are known descendants of Dyaks of Borneo because of similarities in the physical features
  • 10.
    • They are known as industrious soil tillers
    • Their main source of livelihood are farming, matweaving and clothweaving
  • 11.
    • They use colorful clothing
    • Among their favorite colors are purple, turquoise, red, green, yellow and black
  • 12.
    • Their outfit are made of tight fitting pants and long-sleeved blouses
    • The male Yakans wrap their heads with a piece of cloth
    • Ten or more meters of cloth are also used as a wrap around the waist
  • 13.
    • The houses of Yakans are made of light materials like bamboo and nipa palms
    • Posts are high and stairs are made of bamboo
    • The houses are without bedrooms
  • 14.
    • Marriage is a very colorful celebration that takes place in the residence of both the groom and the bride
    • Wedding is held in the afternoon where an entourage of the groom goes to the house of the bride
  • 15.
    • The sound of gongs and kulintangan coupled with the burst of firecrackers are heard on the way to the bride’s house
    • The imam solemnizes the wedding
  • 16.  
  • 17. The Subanen
    • They are known as river dwellers
    • The term Subanen came from the word Suba which means an inlet or recess in a shore
  • 18.
    • The history of the Subanen tribe was handed down from generation to generation through word of mouth by their leaders called Timuay
  • 19.
    • Subanens still preserve the marriage practices in their families
    • Polygamy used to be favored
    • Marriage with a Subanoen woman could only be sought after thoughtful consideration of feelings
  • 20.
    • They also practice buya, a parentally-arranged marriage
    • Marriage is celebrated in the house of the girl
  • 21.
    • The groom and the bride are dressed in their most colorful costumes
    • The datu or gbalyan puts his hand on the head of each and gives words of advice
    • The grooms right hand and foot are placed over the bride’s, indicating that the groom has power over the bride
    • The datu kills a chicken and smears them both with blood to wash away sins and make them pleasing before the Magbabaya
    • The couple sits together to drink the pangasi
  • 22. Their Dances
    • A wedding dance
  • 23.
    • A festive dance
  • 24.
    • A war dance
  • 25.
    • A harvest dance
  • 26. Extended Family
    • Married children stay with parents until they are ready to be independent
    • They practice hereditary succession
    • Royal titles are conferred only on members of royalty who are respected leaders of the community
  • 27. Period of Conception
    • Best food
    • Best clothes
    • Best treatment
    • - All ingredients for the child’s adult life
  • 28. Baptism
    • The ritual is called daga
    • The child is placed in the center of the house together with the priest
    • Family forms a circle to be witnesses
    • Chicken is killed to smear with its blood the child’s hands and feet
    • The child is lifted up to the heavenly father and songs or praises of thanksgiving for the child’s birth, success and happiness are sung
  • 29. Death Ceremony
    • The dead person must be equipped with everything he needs in his new destination
    • He is buried with complete set of clothings, beddings, chinawares and everything he might need
    • In the midst of the gbalyan’s prayer the surroundings is filled with scent of incense, a symbol of thanksgiving for the person’s beautiful life on earth and the happy turnover of his being into the new life
  • 30. The Tausugs
    • Jolo is the home of the Tausugs
    • Tausug comes from the word “tau” which means “man” and “sug” which means “land”
    • Tausugs are muslims and practice the tenets of Islam
  • 31.
    • They have many different native attires for different occasions
  • 32.
    • One characteristic of the Tausug is preservation of the family reputation and will never commit an act of cowardice that will blemish on the family’s name
  • 33.
    • “ You can never expect a Tausug to run from a good fight”
    • They believe that running away is shameful especially when other members of the family are involved
  • 34.
    • Marriage to the Tausugs is for extended kinship relations
    • Courtship rarely happens, in fact, it is not allowed except during engagement period or after marriage
    • They observe parental arrangement
  • 35.
    • A wedding celebration
  • 36.
    • Tausugs are polygamous
    • Men are allowed to have more than one wife and two or more families who share a common male/husband may live together as one household
    • Co-wives must learn to get along and yet share what is due them and their children
  • 37. Paggunting
    • Tausug baptism
    • The child clad in best garment is brought to the group of Imams standing in circle
    • A few strands of hair are dipped in a container of the water of butong
    • The child’s mouth is smeared with sugar
    • Candle is lit at the beginning of the rite and is then blown off after
  • 38. The Burial Practice
    • When the warmth is gone, the corpse is sponged in cold water
    • The bathing is done by religious persons
    • The bathing is done in silence
    • The water used is fresh and perfumed with betel nut flowers, kamanyan or insence, and sandalwood
    • The corpse is wiped and then perfumed and placed in a shroud
  • 39.
    • The shroud is made of three pieces of white cloth in accordance with the length of the corpse
    • It is wrapped in a lying position with hands placed on its chest, the right over the left
    • The coffin is made of wood and has no lid
    • Grave is dug in proportion to the length of the corpse
    • It follows a north-south directio and is 6-9 feet deep and it is closed with slabs of board about 2-inch thick, 1 foot wide and 3-4 feet long
    • Grave markers for males are rounded and flat for females
  • 40.
    • Pangalay dance
  • 41.
    • Traditional food
  • 42.
    • Arts
  • 43.
    • Tausug weapons
  • 44.
    • Chewing (betel nut) for the Muslims serves the same purpose as smoking, to while away time, to entertain visitors while food is being prepared, or to just keep oneself busy
  • 45.
    • Blackening of teeth using coconut water, bolo/iron/metal, and talisay leaves
  • 46.  
  • 47.
    • Beautifying teeth- covering teeth with gold
  • 48. The Samal
    • also known as Sama Banguingui, Sama Bangingi’, Bangingi, and Samal Banguingui, is a distinct ethno-linguistic group dispersed throughout the Greater Sulu Archipelago and southern and western coastal regions of the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao.
  • 49. Samal Kids
  • 50.
    • A Samal community
  • 51.
    • Samal village
  • 52. Clothing
  • 53.
    • Samal Crafts
  • 54.  
  • 55. Dances
  • 56. The Zamboangueno
    • They are a product of Spanich colonization in Southern Philippines
    • The youngest of all cultural groups in Western Mindanao
  • 57.
    • The Fort Pilar- Fuerza real de San Jose (June 23,1635)
    • Interracial marriages between Spaniards and natives took place during its construction; this resulted to new breed of Filipinos and new Philippine language
  • 58.
    • The workforce consisted of 300 Spanish soldiers, 1,000 laborers from Ilo-ilo, and 500 natives
  • 59.
    • Origin of Zamboanguenos passed on through oral tradition- Jambangan
    • Spanish Officer’s version
  • 60. Chabacano
    • This is the lane of the Zamboanguenos
    • A conglomeration of 70% Spanish and 30% mixture of native dialects such as Samal, Tausug, Cebuano and Ilonggo
  • 61.
    • Zamboanguenos are generally fair skinned …mestizas and mestizos
  • 62. Origin of Zamboanga
    • City of Flowers
    • Samuang
    • Jambangan
  • 63.
    • Asia’s Latin City
  • 64. Characteristics of Zamboanguenos
    • Kinship family system
    • Love for one’s cultural heritage
    • Propensity for extravagance
    • Fiestas and siesta
    • Aristocratic behavior
  • 65. Social Life
    • Revolves around religious practices
    • Bantayanon, fiestas and fondas
    • Baile-valse,regodon, paso doble
  • 66. Religion
    • Catholic faith
    • Devotion toward Jesus through songs
    • That the catholic faith is the true religion
    • Devotional hymns to the Blessed Virgin Mary-Himno en honor dela Virgen del Pilar
    • Villancicos/ Christmas Carols
    • Fiestas- vispera , diana ,mass, sports, procession or parade, and feasting
  • 67. Zamboanga Food
  • 68.  
  • 69.  
  • 70.
    • Zamboanguenos constitute an authentic and distinct cultural group for two reasons:
    • Claim to a distinct dialect
    • Undeniable vestiges of Spanish occupation- physical features of the mestizos, spanish folk lit, songs, dances, fiestas and Roman Catholicism