“ Political” comes from the Greek word “polis” (city; sovereign state)
“ Science” comes from Latin word “scire” ( to know )
In simple terms:
- Political Science is the systematic study of the state and government
As a science of politics…deals with basic knowledge and understanding of the state, and the principles and ideals underlying its organization and activities.
It’s concerned with the association of human being into the body politic
It deals with the relations among men and groups, relations of men and groups to the state itself, and relations of the state to other states
Scope of Political Science
Why should a student study political science?
Education for citizenship
Essential parts of liberal education
Knowledge and understanding of government
Concepts of State and Government
What is a State
It is a community of persons (1) more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory (2), having a government (3) of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control (4 ).
Origin of States
Divine right theory – state as a divine creation and the ruler is ordained by God.
Necessity or force theory- great warriors imposing will upon the weak
Paternalistic theory- enlargement of a family which remained under the authority of the father and mother
Social contract theory- voluntary compact among the people to form a society and organize government for the common good
State vs. Nation
political vs. ethnic concept
Independence vs. lack thereof
State consisting of more than one nation and vice-versa
State vs. Government
Government is only an agent of the state
State cannot exist without government
Government may change but the State remains the same
Why must there be government?
Purpose and necessity of government:
Advancement of public welfare-protection and security of people; preservation of the state
Consequence of absence- anarchy
Forms of Government
As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers:
As to the extent of powers exercised by central or national government:
As to the relationship between executive and legislative branches of government: