Members of an oligarchy are strongly motivated to maintain their leadership roles, privileges, and power
Case in point: Conflict theorists on the longevity of union leaders, who are not always responsive to the needs and demands of membership, and seem more concerned with maintaining their position and power.
A formal organization ( i.e. government agencies, corps etc ) and voluntary association ( i.e. Girl/Boy Scouts of the Phils, frats ) are not mutually exclusive; large voluntary associations have similar structures with profit-making corps and certain formal such as YMCA have characteristics usually found in voluntary assocs.
May be an establishment of additional goals or expansion of traditional objectives
Takes place when an org expands its purposes brought by social and economic conditions that threaten its survival… an example is YMCA which originally catered to young men who are Christians/protestants, later accomodated women, Lutherans, Catholics, Jews and “unchurched”