Bureaucratic Process
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  • 1. Bureaucratization Process
  • 2.
    • It refers to a process by which group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
  • 3.
    • Bureaucratization takes place mainly in large organization , but also within small- group settings.
  • 4. Oligarchy: Rule by a Few
    • Iron Law of Oligarchy ( by Robert Michels ) describes how even in a democratic organization will eventually develop into bureaucracy ruled by a few
  • 5.
    • Members of an oligarchy are strongly motivated to maintain their leadership roles, privileges, and power
    • Case in point: Conflict theorists on the longevity of union leaders, who are not always responsive to the needs and demands of membership, and seem more concerned with maintaining their position and power.
  • 6. Bureaucracy and Organizational Culture
    • Scientific Management Approach
    • - workers motivated by economic
    • rewards
    • -here, management attempts to
    • achieve maximum efficiency
    • through:
    • 1.Scientific planning
    • 2.Established performance
    • Standard
    • 3.Careful supervision of workers
    • and production
    • Human Relations Approach
    • - emphasizes role of people,
    • communication and participation
    • in a bureaucracy…importance of
    • informal groups of workers
    • -planning based on the human
    • relations…worker’s feelings,
    • frustrations, and emotional need
    • for satisfaction
  • 7.
    • Limit to workers’
    • productivity is physical
    • According to Hawthorne’s
    • studies show role of social factors
    • to workers’ productivity
  • 8. New avenues in today’s research:
    • Proportion of women and minority groups in high-level management positions is still much lower than might be expected
    • A company’s power structure is only partly reflected in its formal org. charts; in practice, core groups tend to emerge to dominate the decision-making process
  • 9. Voluntary Associations
    • Are organizations established on the basis of common interest, whose members volunteer or even pay or participate
    • Examples:
  • 10.
    • A formal organization ( i.e. government agencies, corps etc ) and voluntary association ( i.e. Girl/Boy Scouts of the Phils, frats ) are not mutually exclusive; large voluntary associations have similar structures with profit-making corps and certain formal such as YMCA have characteristics usually found in voluntary assocs.
  • 11.
    • From a conflict perspective, women are seen to perform a substantial amount of volunteer work …volunteerism is something viewed as “women’s work”
  • 12. Organizational Change
    • Most obvious change is personnel
    • An organizations goals may also change over time:
    • Goal multiplication
    • Goal succession
  • 13. Goal Multiplication
    • May be an establishment of additional goals or expansion of traditional objectives
    • Takes place when an org expands its purposes brought by social and economic conditions that threaten its survival… an example is YMCA which originally catered to young men who are Christians/protestants, later accomodated women, Lutherans, Catholics, Jews and “unchurched”
  • 14. Goal Succession
    • Occurs when a group or org has either realized or been denied its goal
    • Sociologist Peter Blau noted that orgs do not necessarily behave in rigid manner when their goals are achieved or become irrelevant… they shift to new objectives
  • 15. Nothing follows….