On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
Firs t, de finitio n o f Inte rnatio nal Re latio ns :
It is the study of the interactions among
the various actors that participate in
international politics including states,
international organizations, non-
governmental organizations, subnational
organizations, and individuals.
3 Major Approaches….
Traditional Approaches: Diplomatic
History and Philosophy
- History provides a crucial
background for the study IR
- Philosophy ( classic and modern )
focuses on state and leaders which
are the building blocks of IR
Contributions of Philosophers to
Plato – a Greek political philosopher
who argues that life force in man is
intelligent. Only a few can have an
insight into what is good; society
should admit to the authority of
these philosopher-kings. Many of
these ideas developed in The
Aristotle- Greek philosopher who
addresses the problem of order in
individual greek city- states. The first
to use the comparative method of
research, observing multiple points
in time suggesting explanations for
the patterns found.
St. Thomas Aquainas- an Italian
theorist who wrote during the height
of feudal Europe. In Treatise of the
Laws, develops the framework of
natural law-a fusion of classical
philosophy, Christian theology, and
Roman law. Natural law is followed
by man instinctively and releases
man’s good tendencies.
Thomas Hobbes- an English
philosopher who in Leviathan
describes life in a state of nature as
solitary, selfish, and brutish.
Individuals and society can escape
from the state of nature through a
unitary state, the leviathan.
Jean Jacques Rousseau – a French
philosopher whose ideas were tested
by French revolution. In Discourse on
the origin of Inequality, describes the
state of nature in both national and
international society. Argues that the
solution to the state of nature is the
social contract…where general will is
Immanuel Kant- a German
philosopher key to the idealist or
utopian school of thought. In Idea
for a universal History and Perpetual
Peace, advocates a world federation
of republics bound by rule of law.
- Proposes that individuals, both alone
and in groups, act in patterned ways.
- The task of behavioral scientists is to
suggest plausible hypotheses
regarding those patterned actions,
and to systematically and empirically
Alternative “ Critical” Approaches
- Postmodernism; Feminism
- Believes there is no objective reality;
deconstructs major concepts; shows