Projects and vision of DeltaSync, floating urban developments

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Overview of the vision, projects and people of DeltaSync. At DeltaSync we work on developing floating cities. For private and public organizations we deliver knowledge, creativity and results in practice. Examples are technology integration, design, implementation, planning, business cases and strategy of floating urban developments.

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Projects and vision of DeltaSync, floating urban developments

  1. 1. Corporate profile INTRODUCTION DeltaSync is a leading specialist in the field of floa- ting urbanization. We provide consulting and design services and innovative solutions for delta areas. As an interdisciplinary think tank, we develop and implement flood proofing strategies. By taking an integrated approach, that combines ana- lysis, design and realisation, DeltaSync acts as a cata- lyst of visionary plans. Ideas or strategies are quickly taken to the next level, by providing technically fea- sible and aesthetically, economically and socially res- ponsible solutions. In relation to this, sustainable de- velopment is a key aspect on all scales, from a single building to a complete city. Currently, for the first time in human history the amount of people that live in urban areas is larger than the amount that live in rural areas. The degree of ur- banization is expected to rise further towards 70% in the 21st century. This growth will for a considerable part take place in low-lying deltas that are vulnera- ble to flooding and climate change. Already there is a shortage of space and cities rely completely on exter- nal sources for food, water and energy. With the incre- asing scarcity of resources there is a growing need for cities to be more self-sufficient. Therefore there is a great need for new sustainable flood-proof concepts for urbanization of delta areas. Constructing floating buildings is a promising solution. It enables multi-functional use of space in densely po- pulated areas, without further increasing flood risk. A good example of such a concept is the floating city. This concept can only be developed by investigating different scale levels in conjunction, ranging from buil- ding level, neighbourhood level to city level. To ensure that it is actually implemented, it is important that the feasibility, spatial integration and social aspects are fully included in the analysis and design. mission DeltaSync’s mission is to design and develop the first self-sufficient floating city in the world. The realization of the Floating Pavilion in Rotterdam, the largest public floating building in the Netherlands, is the first milesto- ne towards achieving this mission. vision Corporate VALUES DeltaSync reflects the following values: • Sustainability DeltaSync recognizes its responsibility towards our planet and acknowledges that preservation of the world’s resources and ecosystems for present and fu- ture generations is of major importance. Sustainability is therefore an integral part of all projects. DeltaSync strives to create a balance between the needs of the users and the environment and develops innovative techniques and concepts to provide buildings with lo- cal water and energy resources. • Creativity and Innovation Creativity and innovation play an important role in the company. Innovation and the search for new unex- pected solutions are important drivers in DeltaSync’s work. Problems are analyzed from different view- points and the solutions integrate water management, sustainable development, architecture and spatial planning into multidisciplinary proposals. • Collaboration DeltaSync believes in collaboration between resear- chers, designers, entrepreneurs and government agencies to obtain new insights and solutions in or- der to contribute to the challenges cities in delta areas are facing. In an early stage partners are involved and consortia are formed. Within these partnerships, inte- grated and multidisciplinary knowledge is developed. FLOATING URBANIZATION: • Is a unique and promising growth market • Creates new space in densely populated areas • Combines urban development and water retention • Is a safe and climate proof solution • Offers urban flexibility and movable buildings • Is easily combined with sustainable technology such as light weight construction and self-sufficient systems 2
  2. 2. KNOWLeDge AND eXpeRTISe DeltaSync has specialized in all aspects of floating ur- banization. The past years we have developed speci- alist knowledge in several areas. We excel in the inte- gration of water management, design and technology. Examples of our expertise with respect to floating construction and flood proof development are the fol- lowing: Technology and engineering • Floating and flood proof construction • Structural design • Building technology • Water management Architecture and design • Architectural design • Strategic visions • Spatial integration • Concept development Socio-economic • Feasibility and business cases • Legal aspects, legislation and regulation • Collective private commissioning environmental • Energy and water supply • Sustainable development • Water and mobility Similar to other design and consultancy firms, we pro- vide design and consultancy services of good quality at a competitive price. DeltaSync distinguishes itself by an integrated approach in which analysis, design and implementation are combined. At an early stage, we engage in conversation with all stakeholders inclu- ding local authorities, water authorities and utilities. This approach avoids unnecessary delays and guaran- tees the feasibility of our innovative solutions. AppROACH DeltaSync’s core qualities are the ability to initiate and realise complex projects, specialist knowledge and an integrated approach to analysis, design and social pro- cesses. This enables us to come to surprising and in- novative, but also feasible solutions. Many of our pro- jects are self-initiated. The most notable example is the Floating Pavilion in Rotterdam: an iconic project in the field of climate adaptation, which is currently being used as the National Water Centre. CORe QUALITIeS 3
  3. 3. Floating City FUTURe vISION The Floating City is a concept for sustainable, in- novative urbanization in a densely occupied delta area. It is a climate robust solution for urban de- velopment. In contrast to conventional urbaniza- tion, the Floating City can cope with water level fluctuations. Thus, it is a city without flood risk. In this project special attention was paid to themes of sustainability and mobility. The project received the first prize in the international Royal Haskoning Delta Competition. CLIENT: Royal Haskoning Deltacompetition LOCATION: IJmeer, NL DESIGN: 2006 The Floating City is combined with the construction of a floating highway between Amsterdam and Almere. Part of the building, which is located beneath the water surface, serves as parking space. The Floating City is self-sufficient in terms of water and energy supply. Water is either collected through rain water harvesting or can be drawn from the large reservoir on which the city floats. Positioning the city on a large body of water also provides opportunities for implementing thermal energy storage systems. 4
  4. 4. Floating Pavilion Rotterdam Initiated by DeltaSync, the Floating Pavilion is in- tended as a pilot for building on water and a first step towards floating urbanization. The urban de- velopment of unprotected areas outside the dikes is of major importance to the city of Rotterdam. With this project the municipality of Rotterdam takes a pioneering role in climate adaptation and delta technology. Rotterdam has started the (re)development of the City Ports, consisting of 1600 ha of unprotected land and water. The Floating Pavilion demonstrates how cities can pro-actively adapt to the effects of climate change. It has been located in the Rijnhaven until 2015 and afterwards will be floated towards another loca- tion. The building is used as exhibition and conference space and hosts the National Water Centre. CLIENT: Municipality of Rotterdam LOCATION: Rotterdam, NL PARTNER: PDA DESIGN: 2009 REALISATION: 2010 5
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  6. 6. Indoor climate concept The floating pavilion features a demand-driven cli- mate system: at every moment in time the climate conditioning is carefully matched to the function and number of people of each space. A lot of energy and material is saved by putting it only where it’s needed. Solar transmission is regulated by applying reflective printing to the foil. To prevent over-heating in summer, large parts of the top and bottom of the domes can be opened to create a stack effect, which provides a re- freshing breeze without using mechanical ventilation. Cooling with solar heat Vital parts of the building, such as the auditorium, are situated within an insulated inner shell. In this area ad- ditional measures have been taken to achieve an ener- gy efficient indoor climate. Solar heat is used to cool. This sounds contradictory, but it relies on a common process used by our skin to cool our body: transpira- tion. The evaporation of liquid on the surface of our skin extracts heat from our body. In the floating pavi- lion the ventilation air is dried by a sorption material. When water is added it evaporates and cools down the air. It is then regenerated by heat from solar col- lectors. Obviously, during cold days the solar panels are used as a regular heating device. ‘Cathedral effect’ Phase Change Material (PCM) are a high-tech substi- tute for thick masonry walls. Similar to the heavy walls of an old church, that remains cool on a summer day, PCM’s provide a latent heat store. The difference is that the energy is absorbed by the material changing from one phase to another. This energy-intensive pro- cess results in a lightweight alternative to its ancient predecessor. 7
  7. 7. Floating villas Harnaschpolder, Delft For two private customers a design has been made for a floating villa in the Harnaschpolder in Delft. The villas conform to the objectives of the clients and at the same time seek mutual similarity. Living on water appeals to the imagination. No less than 30% of the Dutch population regards this new residential concept as a serious option. The ‘waterhome’ is rapidly developing into a mature house typology, with all con- veniences you would find in a conventional house and a unique location on the water. The relation between the villas and the water are a key aspect of the design, both visually and physically. The ter- races are right near the water and in one of the villas the water even enters the building in the form of a pool and cascade. Another aspect that is especially important for water homes is privacy. The water doesn’t allow one to put up simple fences or plant trees. Therefore, privacy has been an integral part of the design. CLIENT: private individual LOCATION: Delft, NL DESIGN: 2010 8
  8. 8. Floating homes Harnaschpolder, Delft The city of Delft is developing floating houses in the new neighbourhood Harnaschpolder. Floating buildings are still a unique construction method and even more so in the Harnaschpolder, where private individuals are collectively building their own dream house. Six sustainable waterhomes will be developed in a water retention area. The municipality of Delft cooperates with DeltaSync and future residents in the development and rea- lisation of this project. Collective private development is an alternative to large scale real estate development. The involvement of the future residents in the development stimulates quality and variety in urban development plans. In this project DeltaSync has been hired to assist the future residents in the design, and to advice on sustainability and technical floating construction issues. A strategy has been developed with building principles and res- traints, subdivision plans and solutions for access and parking. Cooperation between the different stakehol- ders and the enormous commitment of the future re- sidents was crucial. CLIENT: Municipality of Delft LOCATION: Delft, NL DESIGN: 2010 Preliminary design studies 9
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  10. 10. Blue Revolution With the predicted scarcity of water, fossil fuel and food resources, the necessity to develop floating cities is greater than ever before. The current food crisis - almost 1 billion people suffer famine today - shows that world food production systems have trouble keeping up with rapid increase of global po- pulation and prosperity. Agricultural productivity is lagging because prime resources, water, phosphates and fossil fuels, are under pressure. At the same time increased urbanization will swallow up nearly a fifth of the fertile croplands by the end of this century. Food scarcity is, above all, a land scarcity issue. If part of the future urbanization and food demand can be met by relocating it on the oceans, a sustainable solution can be offered. Floating food cities even have several additi- onal benefits. Nutrients that are wasted by conventional cities can be reused to grow algae, fish and crops on water. The risk of flooding will be averted and oppor- tunities are created to apply new technologies of water and energy production. Especially now, in times of crises, a new and convin- cing perspective that enables us to correct the errors of cities on land is vital. In order to create cities where people can live truely more sustainable and with a clear conscience. 11
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  12. 12. Seasteading Implementation Plan ReSeARCH AND pReLImINARy DeSIgN During this project DeltaSync developed a concept implementation strategy, a preliminary design and cost calculation model for The Seasteading Institute. The Seasteading Institute is working on enabling seastead- ing communities - floating cities - which will allow the next generation of pioneers to peacefully test new ideas for government. The implementation strategy consist- ed of a growth strategy, an estimation of the degree of independence, an overview of the required location characteristics, a location analysis and a cost calcula- CLIENT: The Seasteading Institute, USA (CA) LOCATION: Anywhere Growth strategy tion model. This calculation model integrated not only the costs for a floating platform but also included a com- parison between the use of conventional energy and water supply and the use of alternative energy like solar power and rainwater. The preliminary design included a multi-layerapproachintegratingspatiallayout,movabil- ity, seakeeping, comfort and structural characteristics. 13
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  14. 14. Rijnhavenpark ROTTeRDAm In cooperation with the INHolland University of Applied Sciences, DeltaSync developed a master- plan for redevelopment of the ‘Rijnhaven’ harbor in Rotterdam. A floating park, consisting of islands that host a great variety of functions: flexible office space, sport facilities, a swimming pool, a floating market, restaurants and a theatre. The ambition is to create a future proof concept for floating recreation. Local inhabitants, companies and students are in- volved in the realization of this plan. They will take part in management, programming and development, which adds to the sense of community. The floating is- lands are constructed from economically standardized elements. The fact that the islands are floating gives the opportunity to create a flexible urban plan, which can be realized in several phases and can be adapted to future developments. CLIENT: Stichting Rijnhavenpark / INHolland LOCATION: Rijnhaven, Rotterdam, NL DESIGN: 2010 The project will generate extra jobs, will stimulate entrepreneurship and a wide variety of study and research topics for students of the universities in the area. The ambition of the Rijnhavenpark is to create an inspiring and future urban concept that enhances the reputation of Rotterdam as an innovative, sustainable, vibrant and livable city. 15
  15. 15. Floating district pAmpUSHAveN, ALmeRe The objective of the study is a floating district in Al- mere pampushaven. This area is available now as a temporary exposition of a floating district. Floating- Life has been granted use of pampushaven area for 10 years. After this period various parts of the expo can be dismantled and moved elsewhere. Pampushaven area is reserved for 10 years, as a tes- ting ground for sustainable floating development. The project aims at exploring new spatial possibilities of this new kind of urbanization and investigate techno- logies that enable flexible and self-sufficient cities in the future. In order to close the metabolic cycle of the district, the use of natural resources and waste pro- duction is minimized. CLIENT: FloatingLife LOCATION: Pampushaven, Almere, NL DESIGN: 2011 16
  16. 16. Roadshow Water management in the city of the future The Roadshow ‘Water Management in the City of the Future’ has been developed by DeltaSync in collaboration with Tauw and Deltares as part of the Living with Water program. The roadshow is an interactive workshop where professionals are challenged to think about future roles and tasks in the realisation of innovations in the watercity of the future. The roadshow has already been organised at various water boards, a municipality and a housing associa- tion. Topics of the roadshow include: decentralized concepts of water management, water as an energy source, and water proof urban development. The roadshow consists of the following components 1. Innovative concepts of urban watermanagement 2. New tasks and new roles of water management organisations 3. Benchmark transition potential 4.Drawingupguidingprinciplesforthetransitiontomore sustainable water management UrbanWaterScan FLOOD PROOF URBAN DEVELOPMENT The hustle and bustle of everyday life and the rise of the 24-hour economy creates a growing need for space, peace and quiet. This leads to the de- parture of certain income groups out of the cities to regain rural life near nature and water. Cities suffer from a decrease in population diversity. An attractive proposition that cities can offer is the combination of living quality similar to the countryside and a short distance to the city. In order to determine what possibilities exist in regaining population diversi- fication for cities, DeltaSync developed the UrbanWa- terScan. This tool gives insight into the qualities and preconditions that must be met in order to transform these city locations into suitable water living areas. Various aspects are studied, such as future flood pre- dictions and scenarios, water storage demands and fuctional and spatial qualities. In commission of the municipality of Arnhem 8 loca- tions have been examined to determine the top three suitable locations for urban development on water. CLIENTS: Waterboard De Dommel Waterboard Rivierenland Waterboard Rijnland Waterkader Haaglanden Eigen Haard LOCATION: Anywhere CLIENTS: Municipality of Arnhem LOCATION: Arnhem 17
  17. 17. In cooperation with a private investor new con- cepts for sustainable floating neighbourhoods have been designed. The aim was to develop inspiring visions for future floating homes and take the next step towards floating developments that are more cost efficient but at the same time energy efficient and aesthetically pleasing. In this project an ensemble of five terraced floating homes was designed. The radial layout provides op- timal orientation towards sunlight, while at the same time privacy is realised. An important objective of the design was to create more comfort than current floa- ting homes. The large platform prevents oscillation on the water and the submerged part of the floating structure is used as a parking area. This enables resi- dents to park right at their home. Easy Water Living DeveLOpmeNT CLIENT: private individual LOCATION: generic DESIGN: 2010 18
  18. 18. Floating Utility Unit DeveLOpmeNT Living on water offers great opportunities for flexi- ble and sustainable housing, but utilities are cur- rently a major obstacle in large scale floating urban developments. A question that remains is how to supply these neighbourhoods with water, electricity and communication network facilities. The floating utility unit provides a flexible framework for delive- ring local utility services, and at same time provides floating infrastructure. The Floating Utility Unit is not to be regarded as a de- finitive product. It is rather a toolbox that can be utili- zed at different locations with specific demands. The consideration of sustainable technology and feasibility is used as a basic principle. A business enterprise or foundation exploits the Utility Units, so that from a user perspective there is hardly any difference with regular public utilities. This system features plug’n’play connections and integrated piping and cables provides a flexible solution to utility services for floating urba- nization. CLIENT: Housing Experiments Steering Group (SEV) LOCATION: generic DESIGN: 2008 19
  19. 19. With a multidisciplinary team of students and pro- fessionals of DWA, Edifico and RoseliekvanderVel- den, DeltaSync designed a self-sustaining floating house. This design was an entry in the design com- petition ‘Duurzaam drijvend wonen’ from stadsdeel Oost-Watergraafsmeer, Amsterdam. The floating house is inspired by the symbiotic relation between tree and fungus. The house is constructed of two parts: the backbone as the tree and the capsules as the fungus. The backbone supports the capsules and transports ‘nutrients’ such as energy, water and waste. Through symbiosis they form a comfortable living environment. The backbone is the core of the house; all fixed func- tions and installations are located here. The shape of the backbone is optimised for wind and solar energy production. The windmill for example produces twice as much energy as in a normal situation. The house can be turned so the orientation will always be optimal for energy production. The capsules provide free and adaptable space. The backbone, capsules and floaters are modulAIR, so the house can adapt to changing needs of the inhabi- tants. The house is built completely from flexible and demountable parts. Occupants will become co-owner of a company, ‘Rent to Recycle’, where the parts are manufactured and repaired collectively. This will en- sure that every part will return to its cycle at the end of its lifespan. ModulAIR visiON floor plan CLIENT: Stadsdeel Oost-Watergraafsmeer LOCATION: Amsterdam, NL DESIGN: 2010 20
  20. 20. FloodProBE ReSeARCH FloodproBe is a european research project with the objective of providing cost-effective solutions for flood risk reduction in urban areas. FloodproBe aims to develop technologies, methods and tools for flood risk assessment and for the practical adapta- tion of new and existing buildings, infrastructure and flood defences. This will lead to a better un- derstanding of vulnerability, flood resilience and defence performance. This research supports implementation of the Floods Directive through the development of more effective flood risk management strategies. The work is being undertaken in close partnership with industry, and is utilising pilot sites across Europe, to help provide prac- tical industry guidance and cost effective construction solutions. The objectives and principal aims are to improve me- thods for assessing the vulnerability to flooding of the urban environment, especially by extending conven- tional methods with the ability to assess indirect im- pacts of damage to networks and assets with a high value density. Better understanding and assessment methods of ur- ban flood defence performance will help to develop suitable protection measures and to increase the cost- effectiveness of future investments. New construction technologies and concepts are developed and tested and the results are to be disseminated to support im- plementation of the EU Flood Directive. CLIENT: European Union, KP7 PROJECT: 2009-2012 21
  21. 21. Multifunctional use is often mentioned as a pro- mising solution to realise water retention space in densely populated delta areas. DeltaSync has re- searched the possibilities for multifunctional use in Rijnenburg, close to Utrecht, for the Water board De Stichtse Rijnlanden. In this project, the possibilities to combine water re- tention with other functions, such as recreation and housing, were explored. A specific topic is the reali- sation of floodproof buildings. A spatial plan is made with different types of floodproof housing types. The economical and management feasibility was also in- vestigated. Rijnenburg WATER AND AREA DEVELOPMENT CLIENT: Water board De Stichtse Rijnlanden LOCATION: Rijnenburg, NL PROJECT: 2011 FLOATING FLOATING IN PEAT ON STILTS ECO DWELLING MOUND DRY FLOODPROOFING FLOOD SHELTER22
  22. 22. Water & Mobility RESEARCH The ‘Water and mobility’ study investigated the possible contribution of urban water systems in im- proving accessibility of historic city centres of delta cities in the Netherlands. Many cities suffer from severe accessibility problems and heavy congestion. Expanding the road infrastruc- ture needs space which is often scarce. The existing water system offers flexible possibilities to improve the accessibility of cities. In the Netherlands, water was the most important mode of transportation un- til the 19th century. In that period, the train became more important and many canals were filled in, be- cause of hygienic problems and water pollution. Ho- wever, in many cities the main water infrastructure is still present. In addition, many Dutch cities have plans to restore the historic water systems. In eight Dutch cities the feasibility of using the urban water system for mobility was studied. This was done in a co-creation approach with the local municipal go- vernments and included expert interviews and design workshops. The historic use of water for mobility was studied by evaluation of historic documents. Subse- quently, the current use of the water system was eva- luated and current water retention and accessibility problems were analysed. Future possibilities to utilize water systems for better accessibility were developed by a ‘research by design.’ method. This included tech- nical feasibility studies and spatial designs of several alternatives. Finally, general conclusions were made and the applicability of the results was evaluated. CLIENT: The Netherlands Architecture Fund LOCATIONS: 8 Dutch cities PROJECT: 2009 23
  23. 23. LocationScan Floating Icon CITY PORTS, Rotterdam In preparation of the development of the Floating Pavilion in Rotterdam a study was conducted on the relevant spatial, technical and policy aspects with regard to floating construction. Furthermore, the City Ports area in Rotterdam was investigated, in order to find the most suitable location for a floa- ting demonstration project. The LocationScan has been executed in two phases. In the first phase, a shortlist of possible locations has been made through a study on boundary conditions in the City Ports area. This encompasses physical (depth, waves) and juridical (ownership, regulations) bounda- ry condition. In the second phase the most suitable locations were determined by applying criteria and a functional analysis of the planning area. CLIENT: Municipality of Rotterdam Project: 2008 NEN Advice In 2009 the Netherlands Standardization Institute (NEN) initiated a project that aims at developing new building standards for floating buildings. The new NTA (Industry Technical Agreement) will fo- cus on aspects such as structural stability, draught, canting, accessibility, fire protection and mooring facilities. DeltaSync is one of the two design firms that are par- ticipating in this project and acts as a consultant and sounding board concerning floating construction. The initiative was started to help solve issues in current regulation and legislation. In 2011 the final NTA for floating structures will be finalized and published. The aim is twofold: to define boundary conditions where necessary, but also try and find opportunities to ex- tend the limits of current legislation. CLIENT: Netherlands Standardisation Institute (NEN) Periode: 2010-2011 24
  24. 24. Collective Commission HARNASCHpOLDeR, DeLFT The city of Delft is planning to develop floating hou- ses in the Harnaschpolder, a new neighbourhood close to Den Hoorn. Six houses will be realized in a water retention area. The municipality of Delft coo- perates with DeltaSync and future residents in the design and realisation of this project. Collective private development is an alternative to large scale real estate development. The involvement of the future residents in the development stimulates quality and variety in urban development plans. In this project DeltaSync has been hired to assist the future residents in the design, and to advice on sustainability and technical floating construction issues. A strategy has been developed with building principles and res- traints, subdivision plans and solutions for access and parking. Tasks: • Process management: develop phasing and time schedule of the project, identifying and engaging key stakeholders, communication with future residents • Consultancy: technical advice on floating structures, construction costs, sustainability, financing and per- mits, water quality issues and utilities. • Co-creation: assisting residents in the design and de- velopment of their personal floating house. • Design competition: organization of design contest for students from regional educational institutions. CLIENT: Municipality of Delft TIMEFRAME: 2009-2012 Innovative Water Management TeCHNOpOLIS, DeLFT Science park Technopolis in Delft aims to attract the top businesses, focussing on innovative the- mes such as energy, water, climate and delta tech- nology. Consequently it is of great importance to make these themes visible in the area. DeltaSync conducted an exploratory study on the potential contribution of innovative water management to Technopolis. The report includes innovations to use water for mo- bility, as energy source and for floating urbanization. Sustainable urban water management strategies were proposed that will contribute to a more sustainable water system and the international prestige of Tech- nopolis as a frontrunner on climate adaptation, sustai- nability and water management. CLIENT: Science Port Holland PROJECT: 2010 25
  25. 25. KARINA CZApIeWSKA DIReCTOR pROJeCT DeveLOpmeNT Karina Czapiewska is a specialist in the field of multidisciplinary area development, pro- ject management and sustainable develop- ment. She graduated at the faculty of Archi- tectureatDelftUniversityofTechnologywith a minor in Sustainable Development (TIDO) and is responsible for business development, sales and consultancy on feasibility studies, flood proof area development and living on water. Since she first learned about the pos- sibility of floating cities in during her study she committed herself to realize the first self supporting floating city in the world. RUTgeR De gRAAF mANAgINg DIReCTOR Rutger de graaf is civil engineer and specialist in the field of floating urbanisation and sustainabili- ty. He graduated cum laude at the faculty of Civil engineering of Delft University of Technology. In 2009 he finished his phD thesis (cum laude) on innovations in urban water management to reduce the vulnerability of cities. He holds a position as professor Adaptive Construction at the Rotterdam University of Applied Science. At the company he focuses on water management, strategy, innovation and sustainable urbaniza- tion combined with floating constructions. BART ROeFFeN CReATIve DIReCTOR As principle architect Bart Roeffen was in charge of the design and construction supervision of the Floating pavilion in Rot- terdam. This is considered to be one of the leading floating projects and a milestone in the technological development of floating urbanization. Advanced 3D technology was adopted in order to translate spatial concepts into reality and optimize complex shapes. Roeffen is driven to innovate con- struction industry in terms of production and sustainable development. BARBARA DAL BO’ ZANON ARCHITeCT AND ReSeARCHeR Barbara Dal Bo’ Zanon graduated at Univer- sity IUAv of venice with master degree in ‘Sustainable Architecture’. After her gradu- ation she joined DeltaSync’s team, first as an intern, and later as employee. She worked on a project for a floating district in Almere pampushaven. Her design approach is sus- tainability driven, developing the project from the definition of its goals, analyzing local resources and considering the project’s impacts and mitigations. 2626
  26. 26. Op vrijdagnacht 26 juni is op het Delft- seplein, bij het Centraal Station, een jonge vrouw aangerand en mishandeld. Rond kwart over één loopt zij achter het Nationale Nederlanden gebouw langs. Twee mannen komen haar tegemoet en een van de mannen spreidt zijn armen, grijpt haar vast en betast haar. De vrouw verzet zich en krijgt daarop een kop- stoot. Ze slaat tegen de grond. De twee- de man trekt de dader vervolgens mee in de richting van het Centraal Station. Van de dader zijn camerabeelden gemaakt, die worden getoond in de uitzending. Brandactie De brandweermannen van kazerne Baan hebben een bijzonder klusje: ze gaan rookmelders uitdelen bij huurwo- ningen in het Oude Noorden. Het is onderdeel van een grote preventiecam- pagne in de wijk. Bewoners krijgen rookmelders en met brandweermannen maken ze een rondje door de woning om mogelijke brandonveilige situaties vast te stellen. met de flow.’ Beiden hebben al veel verschillende banen en opleidingen ge- probeerd, ze herkennen het probleem dat veel jongeren hebben om school of werk te vinden. Erik: ‘Het is wel moei- lijk, maar je moet er gewoon voor vechten. Het komt echt niet zomaar uit TV Veilig: aanranding en brandactie TV Veilig wordt elke dinsdag uitge- zonden om 17.35 uur op TV Rijn- mond en wordt om het uur herhaald. Bekijk de uitzendingen ook op www.veilig.mediarotterdam.nl. Zeker in tijden van crisis is het voor jongeren belangrijk om met een diploma de arbeidsmarkt op te gaan. Gemeente, bedrijfsleven en onderwijs hebben daarom de handen ineen geslagen. Met het Akkoord van Rotterdam wordt een groot aantal maatregelen ingezet om de economische crisis te bestrijden. Dit moet de stad de komende jaren zo’n 1.500 extra banen en 2.000 stage- en leer- werkplaatsen opleveren. Kijk ook op: www.akkoordvanrotterdam.nl. In de komende uitzending vanTV Veilig onder meer aandacht voor een aanranding en mishandeling van een jonge vrouw. In de Rijnhaven komt komend jaar een opvallend nieuw bouw- werk: een complex van drie drij- vende halve bollen. Het krijgt een hoogte van 12 meter, een totaal vloeroppervlak van vier tennisbanen en is in zijn geheel verplaatsbaar. De eerste vijf jaar zal het klimaatbestendige pavil- joen dienstdoen als expositie- en ontvangstruimte. Wethouder Bolsius (Haven, Finan- ciën, Buitenruimte en Organisatie) is trots op de plannen: ‘Het paviljoen wordt een nieuw drijvend icoon v oor de stad, 't is klimaatbestendig, innova- tief, duurzaam en flexibel. Een eerste klinkend resultaat van onze ambities op het gebied van drijvend bouwen.’ In het paviljoen komt naast een expo- sitieruimte een ontvangstruimte, zegt Bolsius. ‘En wellicht breiden we het in de toekomst verder uit met nog meer modules.’ Het paviljoen verenigt de Rotterdamse doelen om de uitstoot van het broei- kasgas CO2 te halveren en om de stad ook in de toekomst klimaatbestendig te houden. Het gebouw is door zijn opvallende vorm zeer herkenbaar en kan vanaf de Erasmusbrug gezien worden. Het paviljoen zuivert zijn ei- gen toiletwater. Wat er dan overblijft, kan worden geloosd in het oppervlak- tewater. Bijzonder is ook het folie waarmee de koepels worden bekleed. dit zogenaamde EFTE-folie is 100 keer lichter dan glas, wat het heel ge- schikt maakt voor drijvende gebou- wen. Het drijvend paviljoen is een ontwerp van Deltasync/PublicDomain Architecten en wordt gebouwd door Dura Vermeer. Het zal worden opgele- verd in mei 2010. Drijvende stadswijken Het drijvend paviljoen is het eerste re- sultaat van Rotterdam Climate Proof (onderdeel van Rotterdam Climate Initiative) om klimaatbestendig te bouwen in buitendijkse gebieden. De gemeente heeft plannen voor het bou- wen van drijvende stadswijken in het Stadshavensgebien. Mensen zullen in deze wijken op het water wonen, boodschappen doen, werken en rec- reëren. Meer informatie en foto-impressies op www.rotterdamclimateinitiative.nl. hanteren om problemen van jongeren te signaleren. Op deze manier kunnen hulpverleners sneller ingrijpen en adequate hulp bieden. Donderdag acht oktober onderteken- den zestien gemeenten en twintig re- gionale instellingen het SISA-conve- nant. Dankzij de verwijsindex ‘SISA’, wat staat voor Stadsregionaal Instru- ment Sluitend Aanpak, blijven jonge- ren beter in beeld en kunnen hulpver- leners over de gemeentegrenzen heen signaleren, informeren en activiteiten op elkaar afstemmen. Hele regio SISA is al sinds 1999 in Rotterdam actief. In 2008 leverde dit ruim 2000 cases op waarbij intensief werd sa- mengewerkt om adequate hulp te bie- den aan kinderen en hun ouders. Nu tot Spijkenisse. ‘Om jongeren goed te kunnen helpen, is een soepele samen- werking noodzakelijk tussen alle par- tijen in de jeugdketen. Het is belang- rijk dat instanties en professionals elkaar weten te vinden’, zo zegt de Rotterdamse wethouder Peter Lamers, tevens portefeuillehouder stadsregio- nale jeugdzorg. Ieder Kind Wint De samenwerking is een onderdeel van het programma ‘Ieder Kind Wint’. Dit programma brengt gemeenten en instanties samen om de hulp en zorg aan kinderen te verbeteren. Door pro- blemen sneller te signaleren kan eer- der worden ingegrepen en kan ook sneller de juiste zorg aan kinderen worden geboden. Kijk voor meer informatie op www.iederkindwint.nl. Drijvend icoon voor de stad in Rijnhaven Their concept for a Floating City is based on their housing project built on the IJmeer between Amsterdam and Almere in 2007. It won first prize in the Delta Competition, an international prize awarded by the engineering firm of Royal Haskoning for a sustainable solution to the prob- lems caused by climate change in densely populated areas. The Floating City is a futuristic- looking concept that represents sustainable, innovative urban development in densely popu- lated areas. It is adapted to climate change and presents various technologies for sustain- able living, which means that it not only offers solutions for the results of climate change but also for the causes. In an environmen- tally friendly manner, the Floating City will make use of both surface water and rainwater, as well as wind and sun energy. The water offers possibilities for decentralized energy facilities. With the help of heat pumps, the surface water creates the heating and cooling functions. Deltasync is working with the Stichting Experimenten Volkshuisvesting (SEV) to supply clean drinking water and produce electricity and ‘self-sufficient, floating energy units’, for a certain number of the homes. Floating water homes in watery areas should be easy to link to similar energy facilities. Shanghai World Expo With its floating buildings, Deltasync wants to add a new dimension to the area of urban planning. “Building on water, with its multiple land use, offers not only extra capacity but also flexibility in the construction process,” notes Maarten Kuijper of Deltasync. “A floating home is easier to move than a building that is anchored to the ground.” The plans not only call for homes to be built on a stable floating construction, but also roads, bridges, parking lots and even a complete football stadium. Kuijper explained, “By utilizing floating technolo- gies you remain flexible so that you can start out small and then easily add to that to produce a neighborhood, district or city.” As part of a pilot program for sustainable urban development, Deltasync developed a Floating Pavilion for the Shanghai World Expo 2010. The building, the floating VIP Haven, is, for the most part, self-sufficient, sustain- able and creates new space for the Shanghai metropolis. The design has a distinctive architec- tonic form. The pavilion consists of five bubble-shaped domes which house a large auditorium, a 3D-cinema, an exhibition space and a sky bar, situated on top of the highest sphere. The design makes extensive use of advanced technologies in the areas of climate design, con- struction and recycling. “The sphere is a natural form with an optimal relationship between total surface area and volume, which delivers energy savings, creates an optimal interior climate and offers stability on the water. The cover of the interior sphere further enhances the desired effects,” Kuijper commented. After the World Expo the build- ing can easily be moved and reused. It may actually end up in Rotterdam’s Harbor district. Rotterdam’s harbors Rotterdam has the ambition to become the Clean Tech Delta of Europe. At the end of 2008, the city launched its plans for sus- tainable innovations and floating buildings, complete with an innovative Climate Campus, a research institute de energy and water m The city expects tha ments will be paid b because people from rest of the world are requesting the incre edge and informatio tions of the world’s in low-lying delta r solutions to the pro produces are big bu indeed. Just like ma harbor cities, many are moving out of t harbor districts. The of the Tweede Maa mouth of the Maas trans-shipment com related industries fu sea. This means mo new homes and offi old harbor districts. 2025 call for the co some 5,000 new ho harbor district area some 16 square hec tonic tour d the situatio also making tions. Crane crane platfo lition in 199 rior and int identified th they design that appear The building’s indoor climate is regulated by a dou controlled glazing, whilst openings in the floor and provide ventilation. In the summer, Crane Track is c the colder months, the relatively warm water from system. In 2008, The Crane Track won the MIPIM Gr Special Jury award, the ULI European Award for Exc Global Award for Excellence. The Award is acknowle platform in the area of land use. Deltasync developed a Floating Pavilion for the Shanghai World Expo 2010. Photo:deltasYnc HOLLAND REAL ESTATE YEARBOOK 20098 deTECHNOLOGIEkrant2 Lezersservice de Technologiekrant 0900 0401 357 (15 cent/min) Redactie-adres Postbus 256, 1110 AG Diemen tel. 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Waar er nog verplichtingen zijn tot het betalen van auteursrecht is de uitgever bereid daar alsnog aan te voldoen. • ISSN 1872-0773 Nederland bestaat voor ongeveer 18 % uit water. ‘Dat is een enorme oppervlakte die nu niet volledig wordt benut’, vindt ir. Bart Roeffen van DeltaSync. Volgens de bouw- kundig ingenieur is dat een gemiste kans, omdat ons land chronisch last heeft van een gebrek aan woonruim- te en tegelijkertijd al het water een plek moet zien te geven. De stijgende zeespiegel en de bodemdaling maken dit probleem alleen maar inge- wikkelder. ‘Om ook in de toekomst veilig te kunnen blijven wonen, is drijvend bouwen een mooie oplos- sing’, redeneert de creatief directeur van het jonge be- drijf uit Delft. In 2006 won Deltasync een prijsvraag van ingenieursbureau Royal Haskoning met het idee voor een drijvende stad, die niet simpelweg uit afzonderlijke waterwoningen zou bestaan, maar uit grote drijfelementen met plaats voor ongeveer zestig woningen. DeltaSync mag nu een proeve van bekwaamheid afleggen achter het terrein van de voormalige Rot- terdamse Droogdok Maatschappij. Hier bouwt het bedrijf een drijvend paviljoen: een tentoonstellings- ruimte, congresgebouw met verga- derzalen, auditorium en openbaar stadsplein in één. Volgens Roeffen is het de eerste keer dat zo’n groot gebouw van 24 bij 46 m op het wa- ter verrijst. Het stadsplein komt nog eens op een apart eiland van 24 bij 24 m. ‘Dit is de eerste stap naar een grotere drijvende stadsuitbreiding’, meent Roeffen. ‘Rotterdam wil zijn havens inrichten met drijvende ge- bouwen. In de Heijse haven aan de Maas doen we de eerste test om te kijken of dat idee levensvatbaar is.’ De jonge ondernemers van het in 2006 opgerichte bedrijf zijn ver- plicht om hun twee eilanden met de wal te verbinden. Het stadsplein wordt zelfs verankerd aan twee Drijvend bouwen is alternatief voor verstedelijking deltagebieden Rotterdam op de Maas meerpalen in het water, omdat het Nederlandse Bouwbesluit dezelfde regels aan waterwoningen stelt als aan huizen op het land. Over drie maanden moet het paviljoen al klaar zijn na amper een bouwproces van een jaar. Als het project in Rot- terdam succesvol uitpakt, dan wil DeltaSync ook het open water be- bouwen. Roeffen fantaseert al over een zelfvoorzienende stad met een eigen riolering, drinkwater, energie- voorziening en drijvende wegen. Polderbaan Maar dr.ir. Jan van Kessel ziet een dergelijke stad niet zo snel in Ne- derland ontstaan. Hij promoveerde begin februari aan de TU Delft op een rekenmodel om grote drijvende constructies op zee te bouwen. ‘We zijn een baggerland dat niets liever dan land opspuit’, legt de scheeps- bouwkundig ingenieur uit, ‘en we zijn geneigd om een techniek te kiezen die we goed kennen.’Toch onderzocht hij of de 3,8 km lange en 160 m brede Polderbaan, de langste landingsbaan van Schiphol, ook drijvend kan worden uitgevoerd. Tot nu toe was zo’n lengte ondenkbaar, omdat de landings- baan doormidden zou breken door de kracht van de gol- ven op zee. Van Kessel bedacht dat luchtkus- sens deze buiging wel eens zouden kunnen verminderen. De drijvende Polderbaan kreeg daarom de vorm van een omgekeerde schoenendoos, met wanden van 65 m lang die in het water lagen. De luchtkussens onder de 25 m dikke stalen bodem van de doos zorgen dan voor het drijfvermogen. Bovendien vangt de lucht in de kussens de golven in het water op, waardoor de druk op de landingsbaan constant blijft. De promovendus kreeg gelijk: met een luchtkussen blijkt het buigmo- ment 64 % kleiner. Toch is zo’n sta- len Polderbaan nog niet reëel. Vol- gens Van Kessels berekeningen gaat namelijk niet de baan zelf, maar de bodem onder de wanden scheuren. ‘Met meer staal, hoogtesterktestaal of een andere opstelling van de luchtkussens zou het wel haalbaar zijn’, denkt de kersverse promo- vendus, die inmiddels productont- wikkelaar is bij het offshorebedrijf GustoMSC in Schiedam, ‘maar ik heb alleen een rekenmodel gemaakt voor toekomstige constructies en geen ontwerpen getest.’ Luchtkussens blijken niet nodig in rustig water, zoals in Rotterdam, waar de buigmomenten met een normale constructie op te vangen zijn. Het systeem dat DeltaSync gebruikt is Flexbase, voortgekomen uit een samenwerking tussen Dura Vermeer en Unidek. EPS-blokken worden op het water met elkaar verbonden, zodat een drijvende werkvloer ontstaat. Na dit twee à drie lagen herhaald te hebben, komt vervolgens een laag met uitsparin- gen, zodat een grid ontstaat. Dit wordt volgestort met beton, omdat EPS alleen niet stevig genoeg is. Ten slotte komt aan de zijkanten een be- schermlaag van prefabbeton en aan de bovenkant een betonnen vloer. Het paviljoen, een geodetische koe- pelconstructie, wordt bekleed met twee à drie lagen ETFE-folie, een transparante dunne kunststof die in gewicht maar een honderdste weegt vergeleken met glas. Door tussen de lagen folie lucht te pompen ontstaat een waterdicht en isolerend geheel. Een drijvende stad is dus minder futuristisch dan op het eerste gezicht lijkt. Binnenkort wordt het paviljoen van DeltaSync op de World Expo 2010 in Shanghai gepresenteerd als mogelijke oplossing voor de toene- mende verstedelijking in kwetsbare deltagebieden, waar in 2030 de helft van de wereldbevolking woont. www.deltasync.nl Bouwen op open water is de droom van DeltaSync, dat in mei een drijvend paviljoen in de Rot- terdamse haven oplevert. Dr.ir. Jan van Kessel, productontwik- kelaar bij GustoMSC, ziet nog niet zo snel drijvende steden ver- schijnen.‘Maar met hoogtesterk- testaal en luchtkussens moet dat haalbaar zijn.’ - Desiree Hoving - DHV SANITEERT 80 STEDEN INDONESIË DHV en de Indonesische doch- ter PT MLD hebben een contract ondertekend voor de sanitatie van tachtig steden. Het ingeni- eursbureau gaat strategieën ont- wikkelen en ontwerpstudies opstellen voor de afvalwaterbe- handeling, ontwatering en ver- werking van huisvuil. DHV is ook betrokken bij de uitvoering. Het project is onderdeel van het Accelerated Sanitation Develop- ment Program van de Indonesi- sche overheid voor 330 steden, dat is begroot op ongeveer 3,7 miljard euro. Het contract levert DHV tien miljoen euro op. Volgens projectleider Jan Oo- men is de sanitatie hard nodig. ‘Indonesië kent rond de 230 mil- joen inwoners. Slechts 1 % daar- van is aangesloten op riolering en 4 % heeft geen betrouwbaar functionerend privé- of open- baar toilet tot zijn beschikking.’ www.dhv.com Slechts 1 % van de 230 miljoen inwoners van Indonesië is aan- gesloten op riolering. SHELL GAAT IN BIOBRANDSTOFFEN Shell heeft in principe een sa- menwerkingsovereenkomst gesloten met het Braziliaanse Cosan, een van de grootste pro- ducenten van biobrandstoffen ter wereld. Het olieconcern in- vesteert de komende jaren 1,2 miljard euro in de nieuwe on- derneming, waaronder ook de 2740 benzinestations van Shell vallen. De joint venture krijgt een marktaandeel van 9,3 % in de Braziliaanse ethanolmarkt. Cosan verwerkt rietsuiker tot ethanol, dat wordt gemengd met benzine. Shell wil biome- thanol uit de stengels halen, dat in tegenstelling tot suiker niet tot voedsel wordt verwerkt. www.shell.com DeltaSync bouwt achter de voormalige Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij een drijvend paviljoen. Drijvende constructie op zee van dr.ir. Jan van Kessel. In the Media SUNDAY TIMES ONLINE WW For all the latest green business news go to thesundaytimes.co.uk/ business F or Ellen and Robert Stravers, living in a floating house is like being on a perma- nent holiday. They live in an arc of 57 floatinghomes,aroundaninlet just southeast of Amsterdam. A boat moored outside their three-storey house lets them sail into the city. “In the summer there is a swimming club, and last winter people were skating,” said Robert, a retired pharma- cist, sitting at a long wooden table in the couple’s light, airy living room. “Aboutonceamonth, there’s a storm. The doors swing open and shut — I like that,” Robert said. But most of the time the house is perfectly stable. About 300 water houses have popped up in the Netherlands in the past few years, mostly alongsidethe tens ofthousands of houseboats that have been a staple of the country’s canal system for the past century. It is estimated that another 2,000 floating homes are likely to be built over the next five years. With 40% of its land below sealevel,theNetherlandsispar- ticularly at risk from rising sea levels and growing populations that in the coming decades will cram a lot more people into a lot less space that has an inc- sage around the world and reckon that Britain, too, could eventually have a number of floating settlements. “Initially, we want to extend existing cities into the water,” said Bart Roeffen at Delta Sync, a specialist firm of architects in Delft. “But my dream is to realise an entire floating city. The Maldives is slowly being submerged and with this tech- nology we could make new islands and combine them with artificial coral reefs.” Roeffen, 30, has just com- pleted one of his biggest water- based projects to date, a floatingpavilionhedesignedin the Rijnhaven, a harbour near the centre of Rotterdam. The three-dome structure is 12 metres high with enough floorspace to cover four tennis courts. It’s the biggest floating building in Holland so far, and is thought to be the biggest in the world. The pavilion is an experi- ment to address the engi- neering challenges involved in building large floating struc- tures that don’t sink. It has attractedarchitects fromacross the world who want to follow Holland’s lead. It is based on the geodesic structure popularised by the American engineer Richard Buckminster Fuller and com- meated cells and is topped off with a layer of pure concrete. The technology is develop- ing and allowing architects to get more ambitious with their plans. Koen Olthuis, chief architect at Waterstudio, based in Rijswijk, a small town in the province of South Holland, is working on plans for a floating golf course and a floating mosque in the Maldives. He is also developing a city for 120,000 people in southern China. About a quarter of the population will be housed in floatingbuildings, making itby far the biggest floatingbuilding project to date. Back home, Olthuis is plan- ning a 2,500 metre by 500 metre floating complex in South Hol- land, in which half the build- ings will float and the rest will be built on stilts or artificial islands. At the centre of the complex will be the Citadel, the world’s first floating apartment block, with 60 luxury flats, a car park and a floating road to the land. “The reason it’s half and half is to do with perception,” said Olthuis, who recently pub- lished Float, a book about water-based architecture. “To a Dutch guy, a floating house means a houseboat lying on the canals of Amsterdam. But if they see a combination, they see there is no difference between a building on land or a building on water and so they are happy to move in,” he said. “You have to stay close to the normal concept people have of acity.Nobodybelievesinafloat- ings in Britain, although there areahandfulofboat-basedcom- munities, one of the largest of which is the Downings Roads Moorings on the Thames, 400 metres east of Tower Bridge. Nicholas Lacey, an architect who set up the 100-person, 40-vessel community of house- boats and garden barges, thinks there is a place for floating buildings in Britain. “Manybits of water are suitable for floating structures and it makes economic sense because they can be cost-effective. There is scope for large scale floating structures in parts of London Docklands,” he said. In a report this year, a steering group comprising top architects, civil engineers, city designers, planners, devel- opers, policymakers, ecologists and futurologists went much further about the need for Britain to gear up architec- turally to combat rising sea levels, increasingly frequent and intense storms, a growing population, and the fact that the south of England is slowly sinking. In the Facing Up to Rising Sea Levels report, Ruth Reed, president of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), declared these conditions posed an “extreme threat” and warned that we needed to act now to avoid the certainty of “mass disruption” to our coastal communities. The report identifies Ports- mouthandHull—25milesfrom the North Sea and bisected by theRiverHull—asbeingpoten- tially the greatest beneficiaries of floating buildings. For Hull, the report suggests that a network of static plat- forms and floating structures could be built on the river around a decommissioned North Sea oil rig and old navy vessels to produce a mix of resi- dential, recreational and com- mercial sites. For Portsmouth, a series of interconnected piers — hosting houses, companies and recre- ational spaces — could be used as a framework for additional clusters of floating communi- ties in the sheltered waters of the local harbours. “Liverpool, Glasgow, Lowes- toft, a lot of East Anglia — large parts of Britain could benefit from floating architecture,” said Dickon Robinson, chairman of Building Futures, a RIBA think tank, and a former development director at PeabodyTrust,London’slargest housing association. Britain’s floating architec- ture enthusiasts know they have an uphill task to persuade the many stakeholders — such as investors, local authorities and property developers — to work more closely and to increase their planning horizon from about 15 years to more like 100 years. Caroline Spelman, the envi- ronment secretary, said that at present Britain had no plans to promote floating buildings, but added that “we are always interested to see what other countries are looking at to pre- pare themselves for climate change”. Britain is clearly not ready for this revolution, but advo- cates of floating architecture hope that, by drawing atten- tion to future problems and the part that water-based buildings can play in the solution, they have made a valuable start. Ultimately it boils down to consumer demand, which is expected to change slowly as land fills up, floods become increasingly common, floating architecture develops and people get used to the idea. ‘‘ Floating base Polystyrene construction guarantees buoyancy Heat from the river Energy is extracted from river water using heat pumps Cooling Heat from the sun is absorbed by solar collectors Lightweight materials The dome facade is made of lightweight, durable foil Vegetaton wall Plants help regulate humidity and aid noise insulation madeisfacadedomeThe foildurablelightweight,of foildurablelightweight,of Waste treatment Reclaimed water from filtration system is used for toilets Ridingthetide Dutch architects have designed a new generation of floating buildings Microclimate concept Temperatures can be changed and regulated between the domes Robert and Ellen Stravers, pictured with their daughter Mijke, live in a floating home near Amsterdam THE plains of southern Spain provide a cautionary tale for Britain’s burgeoning low-carbon industry. Spain is the largest solar power producer in the world thanks to a generous tariff regime set by the government years ago, when the economy was booming. With the recession, the government has pushed through a series of unpopular measures. The latest, due to be passed in the next few days, is a drastic cut in solar payouts. Investors, who stand to lose hundreds of millions, are furious. The Spanish subsidies are not unique. This month the UK government introduced a package of subsidies that it says will fuel a £200 billion “green” makeover of the power system. All of these measures have been taken against the backdrop of binding pollution reduction targets, which were enshrined in the United Nations’ Kyoto Protocol. These were supposed to be renewed last year at the Copenhagen climate conference. After those talks disappointed, hopes shifted to the latest talks, held at the start of this month in Cancun, Mexico. Those, too, failed to deliver. The Kyoto agreement lapses at the end of 2012. The Cancun failure has led some countries to question the wisdom of pushing ahead with costly, taxpayer-funded green programmes, while others remain on the sidelines. Critically, neither America nor China, which together account for two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions, are signatories to Kyoto and both face fierce domestic opposition to signing up to costs of complying with emissions rules. Mark Lewis, a carbon analyst at Deutsche Bank, said: “We do not see any prospect of a second international commitment period being in place by January 1, 2013. Indeed, we think it is now likely to take some years for a new legally binding global deal to be negotiated.” That is likely to slow the progress of the conversion to new low-carbon forms of energy such as wind, biomass and solar. Lewis added: “We do not think there will be sufficient appetite among European Union member states for raising the EU’s 2020 emissions-reduction target to 30% [as previously proposed] over the next 12 months.” Which brings us back to the Spanish situation. Every form of low-carbon power is more expensive than dirty fossil-fuel plants. Thus governments around Europe, which has led the way by putting in place tough targets and penalties if they are missed, have introduced subsidies to convince firms to invest in expensive new plants. Offshore wind power, for example, costs three times as much as a gas-fired plant capable of producing the same amount of electricity. Yet with the global climate deal sputtering, the danger for investors is that they may plough billions into an industry propped up by public subsidies that, if the situation requires, can later be pulled. That is the lesson investors in Spain’s solar market now face. There was one silver lining at Cancun for Britain’s green investors. One of the few deals that was agreed there will see the creation of a $100 billion superfund to transfer low-carbon technologies to developing countries. Last year the British government predicted that the green revolution would produce 400,000 jobs and help lead the country out of recession. So far, few of the promised jobs have materialised. A formalised fund to funnel green technology and industry abroad would certainly help. Not surprisingly, there is still a way to go before it becomes reality. Michael Wilkins, at Standard & Poor’s, the credit rating agency, said: “We understand that the source of these funds has still not been determined. Equally unclear is the method by which to engage Beat the floods, build a house on the water Greenhouse stand-off hits investors WE DO NOT SEE ANY PROSPECT OF A SECOND INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENT BY 2013 Danny Fortson Dutch architects are trying to drum up interest in buoyant homes, reports Tom Bawden ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT thesundaytimes.co.uk/environment 26.12.10 7 with arbon Bank, see any econd commitment place by Indeed, we likely to take ew legally to be slow the conversion forms of wind, Lewis think sufficient European states for 2020 emissions-reduction target previously next 12 back to situation. low-carbon expensive fossil-fuel plants. around led the place penalties have subsidies to invest in plants. power, for three times as-fired plant producing the electricity. global sputtering, the investors is that billions propped up that, if requires, can solar silver for investors. deals that will see 100 billion transfer technologies to F or Ellen and Robert Stravers, living in a floating house is like being on a perma- nent holiday. They live in an arc of 57 floatinghomes,aroundaninlet just southeast of Amsterdam. A boat moored outside their three-storey house lets them sail into the city. “In the summer there is a swimming club, and last winter people were skating,” said Robert, a retired pharma- cist, sitting at a long wooden sage around the world and reckon that Britain, too, could eventually have a number of floating settlements. “Initially, we want to extend existing cities into the water,” said Bart Roeffen at Delta Sync, a specialist firm of architects in Delft. “But my dream is to realise an entire floating city. The Maldives is slowly being submerged and with this tech- nology we could make new islands and combine them with artificial coral reefs.” Roeffen, 30, has just com- Rijswijk, a small town in the province of South Holland, is working on plans for a floatinga floatinga f golf course and a floating mosque in the Maldives. He is also developing a city for 120,000 people in southern China. About a quarter of the population will be housed in floatingbuildings, making itby far the biggest floatingbuilding project to date. Back home, Olthuis is plan- ning a 2,500 metre by 500 metre floating complex in South Hol- land, in which half the build- 40-vessel community of house- boats and garden barges, thinks there is a place for floating buildings in Britain. “Manybits of water are suitable for floating structures and it makes economic sense because they can be cost-effective. There is scope for large scale floating structures in parts of London Docklands,” he said. In a report this year, a steering group comprising top architects, civil engineers, city designers, planners, devel- opers, policymakers, ecologists tially the greatest beneficiaries of floating buildings. For Hull, the report suggests that a network of static plat- forms and floating structures could be built on the river around a decommissioned North Sea oil rig and old navy vessels to produce a mix of resi- dential, recreational and com- mercial sites. For Portsmouth, a series of interconnected piers — hosting houses, companies and recre- ational spaces — could be used as a frameworka frameworka f for additional Caroline Spelman, the envi- ronment secretary, said that at present Britain had no plans to promote floating buildings, but added that “we are always interested to see what other countries are looking at to pre- pare themselves for climate change”. Britain is clearly not ready for this revolution, but advo- cates of floatingf floatingf f architecture hope that, by drawing atten- tion to future problems and the part that water-based buildings can play in the solution, they Lezersservice de Technologiekrant 0900 0401 357 (15 cent/min) Redactie-adres Postbus 256, 1110 AG Diemen tel. 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Indien u op deze informatie geen prijs stelt dan kunt u een brief sturen naar: Veen Magazines, Postbus 11249, 3004 EE Rotterdam Uitgever: Willem de Kok • Marketing & Sales: Leo Schaap • Advertenties: advertenties@veenmagazines.nl of bel 020-5310 938 en vraag naar: Alex Sieval, Henk Holtman, Redouan Azzahhafi, Sandra Broerse • De Technologiekrant is een uitgave van Veen Magazines, onderdeel van NDC|VBK uitgevers, verschijnt tweewekelijks en wordt verspreid onder ingenieurs in Nederland. © Copyright 2010 • Niets uit deze uitgave mag worden verveelvoudigd en/of openbaar gemaakt door middel van druk, fotokopie, microfilm of welke andere wijze dan ook zonder voorafgaande schriftelijke toestemming van de uitgever. Niet in alle gevallen is na kunnen gaan of er op de illustraties in dit nummer nog copyright rust. Waar er nog verplichtingen zijn tot het betalen van auteursrecht is de uitgever bereid daar alsnog aan te voldoen. • ISSN 1872-0773 directeur van het jonge be drijf uit Delft. In 2006 won Deltasync een prijsvraag van ingenieursbureau Royal Haskoning met het idee voor een drijvende stad, die niet simpelweg uit afzonderlijke waterwoningen zou bestaan, maar uit grote drijfelementen met plaats voor ongeveer zestig woningen. DeltaSync mag nu een proeve van bekwaamheid afleggen achter het terrein van de voormalige Rot- terdamse Droogdok Maatschappij. Hier bouwt het bedrijf een drijvend paviljoen: een tentoonstellings- ruimte, congresgebouw met verga- derzalen, auditorium en openbaar stadsplein in één. Volgens Roeffen is het de eerste keer dat zo’n groot gebouw van 24 bij 46 m op het wa- ter verrijst. Het stadsplein komt nog eens op een apart eiland van 24 bij 24 m. ‘Dit is de eerste stap naar een grotere drijvende stadsuitbreiding’, meent Roeffen. ‘Rotterdam wil zijn havens inrichten met drijvende ge- bouwen. In de Heijse haven aan de Maas doen we de eerste test om te kijken of dat idee levensvatbaar is.’kijken of dat idee levensvatbaar is.’ De jonge ondernemers van het in 2006 opgerichte bedrijf zijn ver-2006 opgerichte bedrijf zijn ver-2006 opgerichte bedrijf zijn ver plicht om hun twee eilanden met de wal te verbinden. Het stadsplein wordt zelfs verankerd aan tweewordt zelfs verankerd aan twee meerpalen in het water, omdat het Nederlandse Bouwbesluit dezelfde regels aan waterwoningen stelt als aan huizen op het land. Over drie maanden moet het paviljoen al klaar zijn na amper een bouwproces van een jaar. Als het project in Rot- terdam succesvol uitpakt, dan wil DeltaSync ook het open water be- bouwen. Roeffen fantaseert al over een zelfvoorzienende stad met een eigen riolering, drinkwater, energie- voorziening en drijvende wegen. Polderbaan Maar dr.ir. Jan van Kessel ziet een dergelijke stad niet zo snel in Ne- derland ontstaan. Hij promoveerde begin februari aan de TU Delft op een rekenmodel om grote drijvende constructies op zee te bouwen. ‘We zijn een baggerland dat niets liever dan land opspuit’, legt de scheeps- bouwkundig ingenieur uit, ‘en webouwkundig ingenieur uit, ‘en we zijn geneigd om een techniek te kiezen die we goed kennen.’Toch onderzocht hij of de 3,8 km lange en 160 m brede Polderbaan, de langste landingsbaan van Schiphol,langste landingsbaan van Schiphol, lengte ondenkbaar, omdat de landings- baan doormidden zou breken door de kracht van de gol- ven op zee. Van Kessel bedacht dat luchtkus- sens deze buiging wel eens zouden kunnen verminderen. De drijvende Polderbaan kreeg daarom de vorm van een omgekeerde schoenendoos, met wanden van 65 m lang die in het water lagen. De luchtkussens onder de 25 m dikke stalen bodem van de doos zorgen dan voor het drijfvermogen. Bovendien vangt de lucht in de kussens de golven in het water op, waardoor de druk op de landingsbaan constant blijft. De promovendus kreeg gelijk: met een luchtkussen blijkt het buigmo- ment 64 % kleiner. Toch is zo’n sta- len Polderbaan nog niet reëel. Vol- gens Van Kessels berekeningen gaat namelijk niet de baan zelf, maar de bodem onder de wanden scheuren. ‘Met meer staal, hoogtesterktestaal of een andere opstelling van de luchtkussens zou het wel haalbaar zijn’, denkt de kersverse promozijn’, denkt de kersverse promo- vendus, die inmiddels productont- wikkelaar is bij het offshorebedrijf GustoMSC in Schiedam, ‘maar ik heb alleen een rekenmodel gemaakt voor toekomstige constructies envoor toekomstige constructies en Slechts 1 % van de 230 miljoen inwoners van Indonesië is aan- gesloten op riolering. SHELL GAAT IN BIOBRANDSTOFFEN Shell heeft in principe een sa- menwerkingsovereenkomst gesloten met het Braziliaanse Cosan, een van de grootste pro- ducenten van biobrandstoffen ter wereld. Het olieconcern in- vesteert de komende jaren 1,2 miljard euro in de nieuwe on- derneming, waaronder ook de 2740 benzinestations van Shell vallen. De joint venture krijgt een marktaandeel van 9,3 % in de Braziliaanse ethanolmarkt. Cosan verwerkt rietsuiker tot ethanol, dat wordt gemengd met benzine. Shell wil biome- thanol uit de stengels halen, dat in tegenstelling tot suiker niet tot voedsel wordt verwerkt. www.shell.com Drijvende constructie op zee van dr.ir. Jan van Kessel. 27
  27. 27. For additional information, please contact: DeltaSync BV Molengraaffsingel 12-14 2629 JD Delft The Netherlands T +31 (0)15 256 1872 F +31 (0)15 744 0102 E info@deltasync.nl Contact

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