Innovations for floodproof ecocities: technology, design and governance

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Cities in delta areas are threatened by the impacts of climate change, urbanization and land subsidence. In this presentation, the concept of ‘Flood-proof Ecocity’ has been introduced to cope with the …

Cities in delta areas are threatened by the impacts of climate change, urbanization and land subsidence. In this presentation, the concept of ‘Flood-proof Ecocity’ has been introduced to cope with the expected challenges and to summarize recent debates about future water cities. In a ‘Flood-proof Ecocity’ urban water systems are used as a source of energy, nutrients and local water supply. There is an important role for citizens as co-producers of the urban space. Citizens will also be involved in local water supply and energy production. Surface water in Flood-proof Ecocities is used for a wide variety of functions including floating buildings and water-based urban transport. The water manager is involved from the beginning of spatial developments. To adapt cities to extreme weather events and flood risk, flood control is integrated with urban development and urban renewal. Next to technical and design elements, this presentation has presented multiple building blocks that are needed for the governance of Flood-proof Ecocities. Important elements include: improving stakeholder receptivity, improving the competitiveness of innovations, creating a commercial markets for innovations, introducing new institutional mechanisms and facilitating new roles for citizens, technical professionals and designers.

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  • 1. Designing adaptive citiesInnovations for flood proof eco-cities3 November 2011DeltaSync BV &Rotterdam University of Applied ScienceDr. ir. Rutger de Graaf
  • 2. Deltasync• Specialized in floating urbanization• Real estate, architecture, engineering and water management experts• 4 years experience in an emerging market,• Broad business network: Construction and engineering industry, Municipalities, Project developers• Strategic collaboration Delft University of Technology
  • 3. -Deltasync Clients
  • 4. Outline• Introduction• Vulnerability• Characteristics of flood proof ecocities• Governance of flood proof ecocities
  • 5. Trends
  • 6. Why change? Trends and traditional approach lead to deltas that are: • Increasingly urbanized • Increasingly under sea level • Increasingly dependent on large scale, globalizing networks of energy, water and food supply • Increasingly vulnerable to floods and droughtsGraaf, R.E. de , F.H.M. van de Ven en N.C. van de Giesen (2007), Alternative water management options to reduce vulnerability for climatechange in the Netherlands. Natural Hazards. Nat Hazards (2009) 51, pp 407–422
  • 7. Dutch water vulnerability dilemma Threshold Urbanization Increased Capacity Vulnerable delta flood risk Adaptive Coping Land subsidence Capacity Urbanization Capacity Increased vulnerability Recovery Lock-in Capacity Higher dikes & pumping capacityGraaf, R.E. de , F.H.M. van de Ven en N.C. van de Giesen (2007), Alternative water management options to reduce vulnerability for climatechange in the Netherlands. Natural Hazards. Nat Hazards (2009) 51, pp 407–422
  • 8. The concept of vulnerability Type Time Responsibility orientation Threshold Damage Past Clear Capacity prevention Coping Damage Instant Not clear Capacity reduction Recovery Damage Instant/ Not clear Capacity reaction future Adaptive Damage Future Undefined Capacity anticipationGraaf, R.E. de , F.H.M. van de Ven en N.C. van de Giesen (2007), Alternative water management options to reduce vulnerability for climatechange in the Netherlands. Natural Hazards. Nat Hazards (2009) 51, pp 407–422
  • 9. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 10. Surface water as energy sourceGraaf, R.E. de, F.H.M. van de Ven, I. Miltenburg, G. van Ee, L.C.E. van de Winckel en G. van Wijk (2008), Exploring the Technical and EconomicFeasibility of using the Urban Water System as a Sustainable Energy Source. Thermal Science Vol 12, No 4, pp 35-50
  • 11. Water as heatsource: examples Rathaus Zurich Oldest surface water heatpump system in Europe (1938) • Design capacity 70 kW (heating and cooling) • Current heating capacity: 210 kW • Current cooling capacity 130 kW • Minimal water temperature Limmat 4oC • Maximal watertemperature Limmat 25oC
  • 12. Water as heatsource: examples Den Bosch, heat and cooling from pond on top of parking garage (Essent, energieprojecten.nl)
  • 13. Water as heatsource: examples Den Haag: Heat from the North Sea
  • 14. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 15. The floating City concept
  • 16. Floating buildings in the Netherlands
  • 17. FLOATING PAVILIONPilot project for Floodproof Urbanisation
  • 18. FLOATING PAVILIONConstruction Process
  • 19. Flexibility
  • 20. FLOATING PAVILIONGreen Technology
  • 21. The NEXT STEP towards floating urbanisationState of the art Next steps
  • 22. Floating City Almere
  • 23. Ecology and Urban development
  • 24. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 25. RESEARCHSelf-Sufficient utilities
  • 26. Floating Houses Harnaschpolder
  • 27. Floating Houses Harnaschpolder
  • 28. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 29. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 30. Japan: superlevee Source: MLIT, 2005
  • 31. Floodproofing Hotspots
  • 32. Floodproofing Hotspots Normal situation During a flood
  • 33. Water systems as a source MoreInvolvement functions for of citizens urban water Floodproof Ecocity Integration Initiative for flood control water and urban manager development
  • 34. What is a transition?• Major change in a complex societal system • Water management, energy, transportation• Changes in: • Values and norms • Technology • Legislation • Stakeholders and dominant practices• During a transition a paradigm shift occurs• System innovation rather than system optimization
  • 35. Regime• Regime: dominant cluster of artifacts, institutions, rules and norms assembled and maintained to perform economic and social activities (Nelson and Winter, 1982; Rip and Kemp, 1998; Geels, 2002, Van de Poel, 2003)) Ministry Water boards Defence constructions Municipalities Dunes Building contractors Pumping stations Engineering consultants Actors & Resources Physical Artefacts Immaterial Artefacts Belief systems Laws Water system Value systems Norms Paradigms Discourse Rivers Lakes Pools Groundwater Source: Van der Brugge, 2006
  • 36. Regime• Change programs in complex societal systems are mostly focused on one, sometimes two of the regime’s components Ministry Technology Defence constructions Organization Water boards Municipalities Dunes Building contractors Push Pumping stations Reform Engineering consultants Actors & Resources Physical Artefacts Immaterial Artefacts Belief systems Making Laws Water system Value systems Norms Mono Awareness Paradigms New Laws Discourse Rivers Functional Lakes Campaigns Pools Groundwater Intervention
  • 37. Governance of floodproof ecocities Conventional TransformativeInnovative Showcase Experience, evaluate,demonstration projects improve, replicate. Recognition based on Recognition based on acceptation of provision of useful knowledgeRole of water scientists publications by to solve urgent societal specialised community problems Source of context specificRole of citizens Passive consumer knowledge, co-producer
  • 38. Governance of floodproof ecocities Mainstream Transformative Policy adjusted according toPolicy Uniform policy level of receptivityAccountability Effective execution of Co-responsibility of multipleFrameworks fragmented tasks organisations - Prescribed solutions in - Tendering of completeImplementation Tendering separate pieces development trajectoriesprocedures -Tendering procedures - Selection based on costs, based on lowest costs quality and system impacts.
  • 39. Governance of floodproof ecocities Mainstream Transformative Fulfil procedures, within - Contribution to total systemReward mechanisms budget, within projected performance timeframes - Authority driven - Leadership driven - Responsibility drivenManagement style - System performance driven - Measurable short term - Long term performance targets
  • 40. For more information:DeltaSyncMolengraaffsingel 12-142629 JD DelftNetherlandsDr. ir. Rutger de GraafT: +31 152561872C: +31 616308790www.deltasync.nl