The philippine american war101

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The philippine american war101

  1. 1. The  Philippine–American  War   What  were  the  causes  of  the  conflict?  How  did  the  conflict  impact  American  views  of  imperialism?   What  can  we  learn  from  the  conflict  today?    
  2. 2. What  was  the  Philippine–American  War?  •  The  Philippine-­‐American   War  was  a  li=le-­‐known   imperialis?c  conflict   –  1899-­‐1902   –  The  United  States   –  The  na?ves  of  the   Philippian  Islands  •  Raised  ques?ons  of  the   United  States’   inten?ons  /  methods  in   the  Pacific  
  3. 3. Spanish  Coloniza9on  in  the  Philippians   (1400’s  –  1800’s)  
  4. 4. The  Spanish-­‐American  War  (1898)  
  5. 5. Spanish  American  War’s  Main   Theatre:  Cuba  
  6. 6. How  did  the  US  get  involved  in  the   Philippines?   •  Originally  the  US  saw  the   Philippines  as  a  “2nd   front”  during  the  Spanish-­‐ American  War   –  Tie  up  enemy  troops  /   naval  ships   •  Started  to  see  the   Philippines  as  an  oversees   empire   –  Naval  “coaling  sta?ons”  
  7. 7. Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
  8. 8. BaMle  of  Manila  (1898)  
  9. 9. Commodore  George  Dewey  (1837-­‐1917)   Dewey’s  flagship,  the  USS   Olympia   “You  may  fire  when   ready…”   -­‐Commodore  Dewey  
  10. 10. The  USS  Olympia  Today  in   Philadelphia,  cir  2011  
  11. 11. How  did  the  Filipinos  originally   view  the  Americans?  •  Originally,  the  Filipinos   viewed  the  Americans   as  allies  /  friends   –  Helped  them  in  the  their   revolt  against  the   Spanish  •  Hoped  that  the  US   would  grant  them   independence  when  the   war  was  over  
  12. 12. Who  was  Emilio  Aguinaldo?  •  Emilio  Aguinaldo  was  a  local   leader-­‐turned-­‐revolu?onary   –  1869-­‐1964   –  Founded  the  Filipino  resistance   group,  the  Ka?punan  •  Helped  to  lead  Filipino  resistance   towards  the  Spanish  /  exiled   –  Returned  to  the  Philippines   during  the  Spanish-­‐American   War  w/  the  help  of  the  US  
  13. 13. Aguinaldo  in  the  field  with  his  rebel  fighters  as  they  waged  their  war  against  the  Spanish  with  the  help  of  American  arms  and  supplies,  1898    
  14. 14. How  did  the  Philippine–American   War  start?     •  The  Treaty  of  Paris  (1898)   –  Spain  sells  the  Philippians  to   the  US  for  $20  million     –  Aguinaldo  declared  Filipino   independence   •  President  William   McKinley  ignored   Aguinaldo’s  government   –  Installs  a  US  colonial   government  w/  US  troops  
  15. 15. The  Swearing  in  of  Aguinaldo  as  the  Philippines   first  president,  1898  
  16. 16. Opening  of  the  Filipino  Parliament,  1898  
  17. 17. McKinley’s  Goals  for  the  Philippians   1.  We  can’t  give  the  islands  back  to   Spain  =  “cowardly  &  dishonorable”   2.  Can’t  give  the  islands  away  to   Germany  or  France  =  “bad  business   &  discreditable”   3.  Can’t  give  the  islands  to  the  Filipino   people  =  “unfit  for  self-­‐ government”     “nothing  le6  for  us  to  do  but  to  take   them  all,  and  to  educate  the  Filipinos,   and  upli6  and  civilize  and  ChrisBanize   them”  
  18. 18. The  Philippines  new  Governor-­‐General  
  19. 19. The  Philippines  new  Governor-­‐General  
  20. 20. The  Philippines  new  Governor-­‐General  
  21. 21. The  dispatching  of  American   occupa9on  troops,  1898  
  22. 22. What  were  the  goals  of  both  sides   in  the  conflict?  •  US:   –  Suppress  the  rebellion   quickly   –  Establish  US-­‐dominance   of  the  islands  •  Filipino:   –  Inflict  constant  casual?es   on  US  troops   –  Influence  McKinley’s  re-­‐ elec?on  campaign  (1900)  
  23. 23. How  was  the  conflict  fought?   •  At  first,  Aguinaldo  and   his  followers  waged  a   conven?onal  war     –  Poorly  supplied   –  Li=le  success   •  Ager  McKinley’s  re-­‐ elec?on,  Aguinaldo   declared  a  guerrilla   conflict  
  24. 24. Filipino  Troops  at  the  start  of  the  war,  1898  
  25. 25. The  Elec9on  of  1900  Democrat    &  an9-­‐Imperialist   Republican  President  William   William  Jennings  Bryan   McKinley  
  26. 26. McKinley  Wins!!!!!  
  27. 27. American  troops  in  Manila,  1898  
  28. 28. How  did  US  troops  react  to   figh9ng  in  a  tropical  seang?  •  Many  US  troops  were  not   properly  trained  to  fight  in  a   guerilla  war,  far  from  home   –  Vic?ms  of  ambushes  /  booby   traps   –  Terrorized  by  Filipino  fighters   –  Paranoia  •  Resulted  in  extreme  violence   –  “Free-­‐fire  zones”   –  “reconcentrado”  camps  
  29. 29. LiMle  experience  with  “jungle   figh9ng”,  1898  
  30. 30. “Search  &  Destroy”  raids,  1900  
  31. 31. Filipino  ambushes  /  raids  (1900)  
  32. 32. Filipino  ambushes  /  raids  (1900)  
  33. 33. Filipino  “booby  traps”,  1901  
  34. 34. Torture  and  terrorizing  US  troops,  1900  
  35. 35. American  troops  interac9ng  with  local  na9ves,  1900  
  36. 36. US  troops  “torturing”  Filipino  POWs,  1901  
  37. 37. US  troops  “torturing”  Filipino  POWs,  1901  
  38. 38. Execu9on  of  Filipino  “criminals”  1900  
  39. 39. Executed  Filipino  prisoners,  1901  
  40. 40. “Free  Fire”  Zones,  1901  
  41. 41. “Free  Fire”  Zones,  1901  
  42. 42. US  “reconcentrado”  camps,  1901  
  43. 43. American  war  crimes?  
  44. 44. How  did  the  American  public  react   to  the  war?  •  The  American  public  was   deeply  divided  by  the   conflict  •  Pro-­‐war:   –  “Ways  jus?fy  the  means”  •  An?-­‐war:   –  Waste  of  American  lives   –  Crimes  against  mankind  
  45. 45. American  coffins  returning  home,  1906  
  46. 46. How  did  the  war  eventually  end?   •  In  1901,  Aguinaldo  is   captured  by  US  forces   –  Swears  an  oath  of  loyalty   to  the  US   –  Asked  his  followers  to   surrender   •  Sca=ered  figh?ng  will   con?nue  for  another  10   years  
  47. 47. The  Capture  of  Aguinaldo,  1901    
  48. 48. Surrender  of  many  Filipino  fighters,  1901  
  49. 49. Filipino  More  (Muslim)  fighters  con9nue   the  fight,  1907  
  50. 50. A  Gun  with  More  Stopping  Power   John M. Browning’s Masterpiece - . 45 caliber m1911 Semi-Automatic The sidearm of WWI, WWII, Korea, and Vietnam
  51. 51. What  were  the  results  of  the   Philippine–American  War?    •  The  Philippines  would   remain  a  US  territory  /   naval  base  (1898-­‐1940’s)   –  5,000+  US  casual?es   –  200,000+  Filipino  casual?es  •  Despite  the  issues  of  the   conflict,  the  Philippines   remains  a  strong  ally  of  the   US  today  
  52. 52. US  Troops  in  the  Philippines,  2010  
  53. 53. Amigo  (2011)  

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