Protein Protein is made from small building blocks called amino acids. These amino acids are chemicals that interact in four different types of bonding causing proteins to fold.
Proteins are the parts of cells that can display our traits like skin and hair color. These two examples are traits controlled by the amount of a protein called melanin.
Blood carries oxygen in functional protein sub-units called hemoglobin
DNA and mRNA Made up of Nucleotides: Phosphate, Sugar and Base Contains many genes Present in all animals Made up of Nucleotides: Phosphate, Sugar and Base Acts as a “messenger” between DNA and outside the nucleus to create the functional unit of the cell; Protein.
DNA vs. RNA
Double helix (double stranded)
Deoxyribose Sugar in the backbone
Must remain in the nucleus
Thymine Guanine Cytosine Adenine
Ribose Sugar in the back bone
Can travel in and out of the nucleus
Uracil Guanine Cytosine Adenine
Other important players…
tRNA (aka transfer RNA)- Only 3 nucleotides long, Has an attachment site for a particular amino acid
Ribosome- a special protein that makes other proteins by attaching to mRNA and recruiting tRNA molecules.
Amino Acids- chemicals that link together to make protein, about 20 in your body called “essential amino acids”.
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Step 1: Transcription DNA is unzipped at a certain gene mRNA is built one nucleotide at a time using the DNA as a template mRNA is released back into the nucleus DNA zips back up
Step 2: Translation mRNA leaves the nucleus A ribosome attaches to the mRNA at the first codon The ribosome “reads” the mRNA’s sequence of bases and sends out a signal for tRNA with the opposite matching codon (aka ANTI-CODON) carrying a specific amino acid tRNA leaves the Amino acid attached to the ribosome and goes to search for another amino acid The ribosome moves to the next codon and repeats the process
Step 2: Translation (continued) 6. The ribosome continues building until the end of the mRNA 7. The ribosome then releases the amino acid chain back into the cell where it folds- It is now a protein! 8. The ribosome then releases the mRNA back into the cell 9. mRNA returns to the nucleus where it breaks down into nucleotides and re-starts the process