Oxford (1990) indicated that affective strategies helped cultivate learners’ self-confidence and perseverance and those social strategies encouraged enhanced interaction and more empathetic understanding.
Traone (1981) noted that learning strategies were to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language.
Learning Strategies and Speaking Proficiency Leaning strategies How to cultivate speaking ability Cognitive Strengthening grammatical accuracy. Metacognitive Regulating the cognition to move toward speaking ability. Social /Affective Developing self-confidence. and providing increased interaction and more empathetic understanding.
Participants are randomly selected from low-intermediate Chinese class and high intermediate Chinese class in Chinese Program, Language Center National Chung Hsing University.
Participant’s Personal Background Code X Y Nationality Indonesia Russia Age 24 21 Learning length 1.5 years 1.5 years Occupation student/Interpreter Full-time student Class rank high-intermediate low-intermediate
The researcher designed 12 interview questions according to language learning strategies.
Each strategy was designed for 4 questions and each question was asked one method of language learning applied from strategies.
The Interview Question and Strategy Use Interview Question Strategy use 1 Do you learn Chinese by repetition? Cognitive 2 Do you imitate the way that native speaker speaks Chinese? 3 Do you read out that dialogue? 4 Out of class, do you actively join the activity in which I can practice speak Chinese? Method applied from strategy Strategy 1 Practicing-repeating Cognitive 2 Practicing-formally practicing with sound and speaking system 3 Practicing 4 Practicing-practicing naturalistically
The Interview Question and Strategy Use Interview Question Strategy 5 Do you memorize some useful sentences to use them in conversation? Metacognitive 6 Do you use media to listen to Chinese? 7 Do you preview related date for the coming class? 8 Do you pay attention to the mistakes you made and try your best not to make the same mistakes again? Method applied from strategy Strategy 5 Arranging and planning your learning-finding out about language learning Metacognitive 6 Arranging and planning your learning-seeking practice opportunities 7 Arranging and planning your learning-planning for a language task 8 Evaluating your learning-self-monitoring
The Interview Question and Strategy Use Interview Question Strategy 9 When you fail to recall some words in conversation, will you ask classmates or the teacher for help? Social / Affective 10 In a dialogue, do you ask the speaker to slow down or repeat when you fail to follow it? 11 Are you nervous of speaking Chinese? 12 Do you ask other to correct you if you make mistakes in speaking? Method applied from strategy Strategy 9 Cooperating with others-cooperating with peers and cooperating with proficient user of the new language Social/ Affective 10 Asking questions-asking for clarification or verification 11 Encourage yourself-making positive statement 12 Asking questions-asking for correction