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Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
Knowledge structure
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Knowledge structure

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  • 1. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 1 Drop me a mail:Drop me a mail: rushdecoder@yahoo.comrushdecoder@yahoo.com Find me on web:Find me on web: http://rushdishams.googlepages.comhttp://rushdishams.googlepages.com Gather at:Gather at: http://groups.google.com/group/csebatchesofrushdihttp://groups.google.com/group/csebatchesofrushdi Knowledge StructureKnowledge Structure Artificial IntelligenceArtificial Intelligence Version 2.oVersion 2.o
  • 2. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 2 Nature of Knowledge Human knowledge is encoded in internal neurological structures, which is usually inaccessible. When externalized, knowledge becomes embedded in language. With the ambiguities associated with natural language, such knowledge becomes inaccessible to machines
  • 3. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 3 Knowledge Using such phrase structures, it is possible to capture knowledge in small atomic units. Such atomic units can hold various types of knowledge e.g. declarative, procedural etc. It is possible to operate on these units to deduce new knowledge from given facts
  • 4. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 4 Some examples 1- Travel directions  Atomic units (given facts)  Deane Rd connects Uni to Sesame Rd  Sesame Rd is west of Uni  Sesame Rd connects Deane Rd to Derby St.  Railway station is on Derby St.  Railway station is east of Uni  Derby st. connects Uni to Long Rd.  Query: how to get from Uni to Railway Stn.
  • 5. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 5 Some examples 2- Family relations  Atomic units (given facts)  Ahmad is married to Sarah  Sarah is the mother of Sam  Sam is the brother of Mariam  Query: is Ahmad the father of Mariam.
  • 6. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 6 Some examples 3- Employment  Atomic units (given facts)  John works for Big Company  John’s contract will end in April  Big Company has been awarded a new project  Query: Will John be working for Big Company during May.
  • 7. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 7 Knowledge Base Structure Knowledge Units KB of facts and rules Inference Engine World Seek new knowledge Query Answer
  • 8. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 8 Domain Model How the real world domain is described Ontology: to capture the conceptual structure that underpins the real-world domain Domain Instances: the real-world objects, subjects and relations that make up the domain
  • 9. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 9 Domain Model  One simple DC circuit consists of a voltage source (battery or voltaic cell) connected to a resistor 1. DC circuit has voltage source as its component. 2. Battery and voltaic cell are voltage sources. 3. Battery and voltaic cell have similarity. 4. Voltage source can be connected to resistor. 5. DC circuit has resistor as its component. 6. As they all are satisfying the properties of a circuit, DC circuit is a type of circuit.
  • 10. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 10 Semantic Net
  • 11. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 11 Ontology After developing the semantic net, we need to make a hierarchy of the concepts The top level of the hierarchy is the domain itself-
  • 12. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 12 Ontology Next, we need to place something more conceptual that comes straight from human mind when he thinks about this domain. The most conceptual level.
  • 13. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 13 Ontology Next, find out more concepts and relate them This level is much more less conceptual, more elaborative
  • 14. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 14 Ontology So, now you can see that the more you go, the more concepts are there and they are less conceptual (easy to understand) In the end, you will only find the instances (names, numbers… no concepts, only instances). And we will find the semantic net we developed at first.
  • 15. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 15 References Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org “Development of a Conceptual Structure for a Domain-specific Corpus” by Rushdi Shams and Adel Elsayed, 3rd International Conference on Concept Maps (CMC 2008), Finland and Estonia, 2008
  • 16. Rushdi Shams, Dept of CSE, KUET, Bangladesh 16 Acknowledgement Dr. Adel Elsayed Research Leader, M3C Lab, University of Bolton, UK Weiqiang Wei PhD Student, University of Bolton, UK

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