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The Art of Nursing

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History of nursing education at Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing and St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing in Chicago, IL 1890-1920

History of nursing education at Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing and St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing in Chicago, IL 1890-1920

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  • Longfellow: The Lady of the LampFaithfully, intelligently, and competently execute orders of menPractice the art of cleanliness, food, etc.Home for nurses: Moral training. Students mothered by the nurse in charge. Head nurses teach pupils at the hospital.Pupils paid with training. After 6 months, pupils sent out to private homes for private duty. Money goes to school.
  • IL General Hospital of the Lakes 12 bed hospitalClinical experience for Rush students3rd floor of Lake House Hotel (North bank Chicago River)Sisters of Mercy served as helpers to doctorsLack of funds—Passed over to Sisters of Mercy in 1851—Became Mercy Hospital
  • Initially a seven-bed hospital with 4 untrained nurses (2 men, 2 women)
  • Remember, there are only 15 training schools in 1880.
  • Rush moves to West Side to be near Cook County. Even use the same architect, John C. Cochrane.
  • Isabel Hampton, Bellevue 1883 graduate. Later became the first president of American Nurses’ Association.Hampton increased scientific education of the school. Believed that nurses should intelligently attend to patients as a “watchful presence.”Beds increased from 40 to 200 between 1888 and 1903
  • Living quarters various temporary locations until Stickney House built in 1898. Accommodations for 50 nurses. Junior students in Saranack house.Pre-1920 Leisure highlights included private parlors, a tennis court, and a movie projector. $8 a month first year and $12 a month second year UniformsProbies wore a simple cotton dress—not in the school colors. Later a blue fabric provided by school.Special Blue precale imported form Scotland. High collar long cuffs. Before 1912, outdoor uniform included a grey cape and veil.Cap based on the organza cap of Bellevue (as was a similar cap for ITSN) From 1896 on, senior students embroidered a blue cross on the left sleeve of each uniform Entry requirements:1900: 21-31 years oldA letter from a clergyman about her moral character and a physician saying she is of sound health.1913 additions: Married women not admitted—even if they are separated or divorced!, good teeth and vaccinations
  • Early students: “There were few classes, much work and no time to study.” Classes were during “free time” and there was rarely a spare hour to study.
  • Hard sciences start to become part of the curriculum. 1880s, hospitals start to steam sterilize against bacteria.
  • 7:45A.M. to 7:45P.M. Meals, rest, and exercise allowed when not interfering with duty. Night shift is in one month assignmentsYounger students: Assist with care of patients + dusting and cleaning of all furniture + going on rounds in ambulancesSenior students: Administering medicine, changing dressings, going on rounds with doctors.Time off was two hours daily, four hours on Sunday, and one afternoon each week.
  • World’s fair $25 a month—one month shifts. Nursed king of Norway, and a good number of babies born at their mobile hospital by the Japanese gardens
  • Original Student home consisted of two refurbished houses at the corner of Ashland and Congress. Held 40-50 faculty and studentsTook over the hospital floor by floorSprague completed in 1915 on Congress. Rooftop tea room and grand piano.Probies: Plain dress that isn’t blue and white like the full students. Preliminary cap due to work at dispensaries. (a new concept)Admission Requirements in 1903: Between 20-30 years old. Physically fit. Good moral character. All creeds welcome, but you need to be practicing. Must be a high school graduate (not a common requirement until 1930s).
  • 10:00 curfew.Noiseless shoes.All weather gear.
  • Most schools were four months or two months in 1903Probies didn’t see hospital patients. Prelim courses (for probies) included domestic science, cooking, care of household items, and sewing. Prelim experience included home visits and practical work at free dispensary. $25 probie tuition.
  • Probie: 6 hours a day of supervised practical work at VNA home or Free Dispensary. 2 hours of classwork.Senior students: Assist with preparation of dietetic meals. 8 hours of practical duty/day. Operations and special duties required longer hours. 6 weeks of vacation but no other days off (unless special permission).8 hour day uncommonly short 1905 ASSTN study showed that most schools used 12 hour shifts.\\McMillan studied deaths of students on long shifts. Firmly believed 8 hours superior.
  • Phillpotts continued that bored private nurses turn to gossip. She suggested charitable work or other careers. Nursing training is never a waste. She went on to district work.
  • Harriet Fullmer defines it “cares for the sick poor in their own homes, when by reason of surrounding circumstances the patient may not be sent to a hospital.”Typical day: See excerpt
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Art of Nursing
      Nursing Education at Rush’s Predecessor Schools, 1900-1920
    • 2. American Nursing Before the Industrial Revolution
      • Women nurture their families
      • 3. Midwives attend births
      • 4. Religious orders tend to serious illnesses
      • 5. Almshouses and asylums
      • 6. 3,200 women serve the union as nurses during the U.S. Civil War
      From Our home physician: a new and popular guide to the art of preserving health and treating disease; with plain advice for all the medical and surgical emergencies of the family, by George Miller Beard,1875on the Internet Archive. OCLC-id 7747558.
    • 7. The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the “Modern Woman”
      1920s
      1890s
      Victorian Women
      • Separate spheres for men and women
      • 8. Home is with parents or husband
      • 9. Hourglass figure and “crowning glory” hair
      Modern Women
      • Women work and play with men
      • 10. Time “away from home” before marriage
      • 11. Loose, short dresses and bobbed hair
      Mandolin, Banjo, and Guitar Club
      Cap and Gown Yearbook of the University of Chicago, 1895.
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      On the roof of St. Luke’s Hospital
      Dorothea McMillan Scrapbook,
      Group Photos Collection, P4543J
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 12. The Nightingale Revolution
      Florence Nightingale
      • Service in Crimean War, 1854-1856
      • 13. Returns to England and founds school in 1860
      • 14. Pupils exchange nursing care at hospitals for training
      • 15. Strict hierarchy
      Her Nursing Schools
      • Trained directress
      • 16. Home for nurses
      From Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not, by Florence Nightingale,1860on the Internet Archive. LAGE-2533155.
    • 17. Nightingale Model Training Schools
      First U.S. training schools form in 1873
      Connecticut Training School, New Haven, CT
      Boston Training School in Boston, MA
      Bellevue Hospital Training School in New York, NY
      Bellevue Hospital Nursery (l) and School Pin (r)
      Both images from Bellevue : a short history of Bellevue Hospital and of the training schools, by Mrs. William Preston Griffin and Mrs. William Henry Osborn, 1915.
      Available on the Internet Archive. ID: bellevueshorthis00grif
    • 18. Hospitals
      1873—178
      1903—over 1,700
      Nursing Schools
      1880—15
      1893—225
      1900—432
      1910—1,000
      Illinois General Hospital of the Lakes
      1850 Rush Medical College Annual Announcement
      Annual Announcements Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Numbers from The Emergence of Modern Nursing, 1969
      The Rise of Hospitals and Nursing Schools in the United States
    • 19. St. Luke’s Hospital
      Presbyterian Hospital
      of the City of Chicago
      Digital Postcards Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Rush’s Predecessor Hospitals
    • 20.
      • Chartered January 23, 1865
      • 21. A partnership between Civil War nurses and Grace Episcopal Church
      • 22. Strong charitable mission
      • 23. Located on South Michigan Avenue
      • 24. Started very small
      • 25. Closed in 1956 to merge with Presbyterian Hospital on this campus
      St. Luke’s Hospital
    • 26.
      • Chartered on April 1, 1886
      • 27. First four directors were Bellevue graduates
      • 28. Graduated over 3,100 students
      • 29. Merged with Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing in 1956
      • 30. Last graduates 1959
      1887 Class Composite, St. Luke’s School of Nursing
      Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      St. Luke’s Hospital Training School for Nurses
    • 31. Rush Medical College, 1890
      Digital Photographs Collection, 2010-02
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Cook County Hospital, 1896
      Facilities Digital Photographs Collection, P371
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Presbyterian Hospital
    • 32.
      • Rush Medical College and Chicago Presbytery
      • 33. Chartered on July 21, 1883
      • 34. Founded to provide surgical and medical care to “sick and disabled persons of every creed, nationality, and color.”
      • 35. Became Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Hospital in 1956
      Presbyterian Hospital, 1914
      Digital image collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Presbyterian Hospital
    • 36. Illinois Training School for Nurses
      • Served Presbyterian Hospital from 1883 to 1903
      • 37. Led by Bellevue graduates during its entire affiliation with Presbyterian Hospital
      • 38. Pupils also served Cook County Hospital
      • 39. Severed ties with Presbyterian Hospital due to heavy workload
      Pupils from the Illinois Training School for Nurses prepare an operating room at Presbyterian Hospital in 1898.
      Photo 4051. Group Portraits Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives.
      The original nurses of Presbyterian Hospital
    • 40.
      • Director Isabel Hampton, 1886-1889
      • 41. Graded scientific instruction
      • 42. Scholastic schedule
      • 43. Nurses “watchful presence”
      • 44. Presbyterian Hospital expands dramatically
      • 45. (4o beds in 1888; 200 in 1903)
      • 46. Served 900 hospital beds at Presbyterian and Cook County
      Nicholas Senn Surgery Clinic, Rush Medical College. 1898.
      Photo 3549. Subject Group Portraits Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives.
      Illinois Training School for Nurses at Presbyterian, 1883-1903
    • 47. Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing
      • Chartered in 1903
      • 48. Superintendent Helena McMillan graduated from ITSN
      • 49. Leader in academic standards
      • 50. Graduated over 2,800 students
      • 51. Merged with St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing in 1956
      • 52. Last graduates 1959
      First graduating class of Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing, 1906
      Class composites digital collection. Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 53. Curriculum and Student Life
      1920 PHSN Yearbook
    • 54. Student life at St. Luke’s
      Tennis Court at Stickney House, 1920
      St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing Annual Announcement, 1920.
      “On Break,” Dorothea McMillan Scrapbook, 1923
      Group Photo Collection 4543c Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 55. School rules at St. Luke’s
      1902 Rules:
      • Strict rules in wards
      • 56. No swearing
      • 57. No hats
      • 58. Rising Hour 6:15 A.M.
      • 59. Must be at home by 10:00; Lights out by 11:00
      • 60. School is not responsible for stolen items
      • 61. Gossip about patients’ private affairs strictly forbidden
      • 62. Must attend morning prayer in the chapel
      Evening Fest with Cocoa at St. Luke’s, circa 1910
      Group Portraits Series, Photo P4637, Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 63. Early Curriculum at St. Luke’s
      • Initially a 2 year course of study
      • 64. 3 month probation period
      • 65. Tested for reading, grammar, and note taking before advancement
      • 66. First lectures by hospital doctors included practical topics: “Children’s diseases” “Germs”
      “Wounds and their healing”
      Nursing pupils preparing for surgery
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 67. Later Curriculum at St. Luke’s
      Curriculum in 1916
      • Lengthened to three years of study
      • 68. 4 months probationary period
      • 69. Scientific lectures by hospital doctors:
      • 70. Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, and dietetics
      • 71. Practical courses
      • 72. Gymnasium exercises, social dance, and massage
      Stickney House Gymnasium
      1920 SLHSN Annual Announcement
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 73. Nursing pupil on duty
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      St. Luke’s on-duty requirements
    • 74. Early Years:
      • Included working at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893
      • 75. Wards, private rooms, diet kitchen, pharmacy, and distribution.
      • 76. Department work in some specialties
      Later Years:
      • Practical experience in a variety of specialties
      Surgery, orthopedics, dermatalogy, gynecology, and pediatrics
      Nursing pupil in an operating room
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      St. Luke’s clinical experience
    • 77. Presbyterian student life
      Nursing Students on Sprague roof
      1920 PHSN Yearbook
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Pupils on the front steps of the PHSN Nurses’ Home, circa 1910
      Fiftieth Anniversary of the School of Nursing of the Presbyterian Hospital , Chicago
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 78. Presbyterian School Rules
      From the 1920 PHSN Yearbook, Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 79. Presbyterian’s special relationship with Rush Medical College
      • Affiliated with Rush Medical College
      • 80. Rush Medical College trained pupils in subject ordinarily taught in a medical school
      • 81. Use of its laboratories, classrooms, and library
      Bacteriology
      Class, 1907
      Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1907
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Rush Medical College Laboratory Building
      Pulse Yearbook, 1895. Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 82. Curriculum at Presbyterian
      • 3 years of courses total
      • 83. 6 month probationary period
      • 84. Probies did not see hospital patients
      • 85. For preliminary students
      • 86. Care of household items, cleaning, dietetics, sewing
      • 87. Advanced Students
      • 88. Science instruction from RMC professors
      Sprague House Library
      1920 PHSN Yearbook, Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 89. Presbyterian on-duty requirements
      Children’s Ward, Presbyterian Hospital, 1910
      Facilities Photograph Collection, P398, Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 90. Probationary:
      Supervised practical work
      • VNA home
      • 91. Central Free Dispensary
      Senior students:
      • Full clinical duty in private rooms and wards
      • 92. Assist with dietetic meals
      • 93. Prepare surgical materials
      Preparing Surgical Supplies, 1907
      Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1907RushUniversity Medical Center Archives
      Presbyterian clinical experience
    • 94. Private Duty Nursing
      Public Health Nursing
      Marriage and motherhood
      Hospital Leadership
      Nursing Education
      St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing Class of 1903.
      Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives..
      Common paths for nursing graduates
    • 95. Survey of Student Directories, 1915
      1900-1915
      554 students
      327 SLHSN
      227 PHSN
      Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 96. Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      St. Luke’s Hospital Annual Report, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Private Duty Nursing—46%
    • 97.
      • Most common for new graduates
      • 98. Care of patients in a private home
      • 99. Initially a fund raising tool for training schools
      • 100. Schools set standards for their graduate nurses
      • 101. Standard fees $30 a week for standard nursing in Chicago, 1917
      • 102. Private duty nurses must be granted 8 hours of rest at night and 2 hours of rest during the day
      Fredrica Stewart, RN
      and Hilda K. Twedten, R.N.
      Private Duty Nurses in Chicago
      PHSN Class of 1911
      Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Private Duty Nursing
    • 103. Discussion at a 1914 American Nurses Association Meeting:
      Private Duty Nursing Section praised their work as an ability to combine all facets of the nursing profession into one duty.
      The Alumnae newsletter, St. Luke’s School of Nursing, May 1914.
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Mary Gertrude Phillpotts, SLHSN 1892– A private duty nurse:
      “So wearing, so monotonous… our duties are those that could be performed by an intelligent chamber maid. Our time is largely taken up in amusing the patient.”
      St. Luke’s graduate, 1892
      Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      The Alumnae newsletter, St. Luke’s School of Nursing, October 1910.
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Private Duty Nurses discuss their work
    • 104. About 5% of graduates
      Harriet Fulmer, 1895 SLHSN graduate
      Chicago Visiting Nurses Association
      Divided into districts, overseen by Superintendent
      $45-$60 a month—8 hour days
      “Refinement and culture” of nurses
      Typical day
      Harriet Fullmer, 1925
      Individual Portraits, P2083
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Public Health Nursing
    • 105. Marriage & Motherhood
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      St. Luke’s Hospital Annual Report, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 106. Left “on account of her getting married.”
      Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      19% of graduates were married in 1915
    • 107. Hospital Leadership
      About 5% of graduates were head nurses or surgical nurses at hospitals
      Newborn Nursery at Presbyterian Hospital, 1910
      Subject digital collection, P2379. Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 108. Caroline Geiken PHSN, 1911
      Head Nurse, Washington University Hospital, St. Louis, MO
      Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Alice Bowen PHSN, 1909
      Head Nurse, Presbyterian Hospital
      Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Hospital Leadership
    • 109. Louise Spohr, SLHSN, 1902
      Instructress of Nurses
      Moline Public Hospital
      Moline, IL
      Jane Craig, SLHSN, 1904
      Superintendent, Western Hospital Training School
      Montreal, Ontario, CA
      Faye Jackson, PHSN, 1907
      Instructor, Presbyterian Hospital
      Chicago, IL
      Lina Davis PHSN, 1907
      Instructor, Pasadena Training School
      Pasadena, CA
      Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
      AddaEldredge, SLHSN 1899
      Supervisor of Preliminary Course, SLHSN
      Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Nurse Educators—About 1%
    • 110. Legacy
      First Graduates,
      Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing, 1960
      First Graduates,
      Rush University College of Nursing, 1975
      Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 111. Thank You
      Nathalie Wheaton
      Christine Frank
      Jeanne Link
      Judith Dzierba
      Molly Merrill
      Sarah Scheinman
      Gloria Ballard
      Katelyn Meehan
      St.Luke’s Hospital Ward, 1910
      Facilities Photo Collection, P752
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
    • 112. Questions?
      Heather J. Stecklein, MLS, MA, CA
      Librarian/Archivist
      Rush University Medical Center Archives
      Rush_Archives@rush.edu
      312-942-7214
      http://www.lib.rush.edu/archives/