The Art of Nursing


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History of nursing education at Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing and St. Luke's Hospital School of Nursing in Chicago, IL 1890-1920

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  • Longfellow: The Lady of the LampFaithfully, intelligently, and competently execute orders of menPractice the art of cleanliness, food, etc.Home for nurses: Moral training. Students mothered by the nurse in charge. Head nurses teach pupils at the hospital.Pupils paid with training. After 6 months, pupils sent out to private homes for private duty. Money goes to school.
  • IL General Hospital of the Lakes 12 bed hospitalClinical experience for Rush students3rd floor of Lake House Hotel (North bank Chicago River)Sisters of Mercy served as helpers to doctorsLack of funds—Passed over to Sisters of Mercy in 1851—Became Mercy Hospital
  • Initially a seven-bed hospital with 4 untrained nurses (2 men, 2 women)
  • Remember, there are only 15 training schools in 1880.
  • Rush moves to West Side to be near Cook County. Even use the same architect, John C. Cochrane.
  • Isabel Hampton, Bellevue 1883 graduate. Later became the first president of American Nurses’ Association.Hampton increased scientific education of the school. Believed that nurses should intelligently attend to patients as a “watchful presence.”Beds increased from 40 to 200 between 1888 and 1903
  • Living quarters various temporary locations until Stickney House built in 1898. Accommodations for 50 nurses. Junior students in Saranack house.Pre-1920 Leisure highlights included private parlors, a tennis court, and a movie projector. $8 a month first year and $12 a month second year UniformsProbies wore a simple cotton dress—not in the school colors. Later a blue fabric provided by school.Special Blue precale imported form Scotland. High collar long cuffs. Before 1912, outdoor uniform included a grey cape and veil.Cap based on the organza cap of Bellevue (as was a similar cap for ITSN) From 1896 on, senior students embroidered a blue cross on the left sleeve of each uniform Entry requirements:1900: 21-31 years oldA letter from a clergyman about her moral character and a physician saying she is of sound health.1913 additions: Married women not admitted—even if they are separated or divorced!, good teeth and vaccinations
  • Early students: “There were few classes, much work and no time to study.” Classes were during “free time” and there was rarely a spare hour to study.
  • Hard sciences start to become part of the curriculum. 1880s, hospitals start to steam sterilize against bacteria.
  • 7:45A.M. to 7:45P.M. Meals, rest, and exercise allowed when not interfering with duty. Night shift is in one month assignmentsYounger students: Assist with care of patients + dusting and cleaning of all furniture + going on rounds in ambulancesSenior students: Administering medicine, changing dressings, going on rounds with doctors.Time off was two hours daily, four hours on Sunday, and one afternoon each week.
  • World’s fair $25 a month—one month shifts. Nursed king of Norway, and a good number of babies born at their mobile hospital by the Japanese gardens
  • Original Student home consisted of two refurbished houses at the corner of Ashland and Congress. Held 40-50 faculty and studentsTook over the hospital floor by floorSprague completed in 1915 on Congress. Rooftop tea room and grand piano.Probies: Plain dress that isn’t blue and white like the full students. Preliminary cap due to work at dispensaries. (a new concept)Admission Requirements in 1903: Between 20-30 years old. Physically fit. Good moral character. All creeds welcome, but you need to be practicing. Must be a high school graduate (not a common requirement until 1930s).
  • 10:00 curfew.Noiseless shoes.All weather gear.
  • Most schools were four months or two months in 1903Probies didn’t see hospital patients. Prelim courses (for probies) included domestic science, cooking, care of household items, and sewing. Prelim experience included home visits and practical work at free dispensary. $25 probie tuition.
  • Probie: 6 hours a day of supervised practical work at VNA home or Free Dispensary. 2 hours of classwork.Senior students: Assist with preparation of dietetic meals. 8 hours of practical duty/day. Operations and special duties required longer hours. 6 weeks of vacation but no other days off (unless special permission).8 hour day uncommonly short 1905 ASSTN study showed that most schools used 12 hour shifts.\\McMillan studied deaths of students on long shifts. Firmly believed 8 hours superior.
  • Phillpotts continued that bored private nurses turn to gossip. She suggested charitable work or other careers. Nursing training is never a waste. She went on to district work.
  • Harriet Fullmer defines it “cares for the sick poor in their own homes, when by reason of surrounding circumstances the patient may not be sent to a hospital.”Typical day: See excerpt
  • The Art of Nursing

    1. 1. The Art of Nursing<br />Nursing Education at Rush’s Predecessor Schools, 1900-1920<br />
    2. 2. American Nursing Before the Industrial Revolution<br /><ul><li>Women nurture their families
    3. 3. Midwives attend births
    4. 4. Religious orders tend to serious illnesses
    5. 5. Almshouses and asylums
    6. 6. 3,200 women serve the union as nurses during the U.S. Civil War</li></ul>From Our home physician: a new and popular guide to the art of preserving health and treating disease; with plain advice for all the medical and surgical emergencies of the family, by George Miller Beard,1875on the Internet Archive. OCLC-id 7747558.<br />
    7. 7. The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the “Modern Woman”<br />1920s<br />1890s<br />Victorian Women<br /><ul><li> Separate spheres for men and women
    8. 8. Home is with parents or husband
    9. 9. Hourglass figure and “crowning glory” hair</li></ul>Modern Women<br /><ul><li>Women work and play with men
    10. 10. Time “away from home” before marriage
    11. 11. Loose, short dresses and bobbed hair</li></ul>Mandolin, Banjo, and Guitar Club<br />Cap and Gown Yearbook of the University of Chicago, 1895. <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />On the roof of St. Luke’s Hospital<br />Dorothea McMillan Scrapbook, <br />Group Photos Collection, P4543J <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    12. 12. The Nightingale Revolution<br />Florence Nightingale<br /><ul><li> Service in Crimean War, 1854-1856
    13. 13. Returns to England and founds school in 1860
    14. 14. Pupils exchange nursing care at hospitals for training
    15. 15. Strict hierarchy</li></ul>Her Nursing Schools <br /><ul><li>Trained directress
    16. 16. Home for nurses</li></ul>From Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not, by Florence Nightingale,1860on the Internet Archive. LAGE-2533155.<br />
    17. 17. Nightingale Model Training Schools<br />First U.S. training schools form in 1873<br />Connecticut Training School, New Haven, CT<br />Boston Training School in Boston, MA<br />Bellevue Hospital Training School in New York, NY <br />Bellevue Hospital Nursery (l) and School Pin (r)<br />Both images from Bellevue : a short history of Bellevue Hospital and of the training schools, by Mrs. William Preston Griffin and Mrs. William Henry Osborn, 1915.<br />Available on the Internet Archive. ID: bellevueshorthis00grif<br />
    18. 18. Hospitals<br />1873—178<br />1903—over 1,700<br />Nursing Schools<br />1880—15<br />1893—225<br />1900—432<br />1910—1,000<br />Illinois General Hospital of the Lakes<br />1850 Rush Medical College Annual Announcement<br />Annual Announcements Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Numbers from The Emergence of Modern Nursing, 1969<br />The Rise of Hospitals and Nursing Schools in the United States<br />
    19. 19. St. Luke’s Hospital<br />Presbyterian Hospital <br />of the City of Chicago<br />Digital Postcards Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Rush’s Predecessor Hospitals<br />
    20. 20. <ul><li>Chartered January 23, 1865
    21. 21. A partnership between Civil War nurses and Grace Episcopal Church
    22. 22. Strong charitable mission
    23. 23. Located on South Michigan Avenue
    24. 24. Started very small
    25. 25. Closed in 1956 to merge with Presbyterian Hospital on this campus</li></ul>St. Luke’s Hospital<br />
    26. 26. <ul><li> Chartered on April 1, 1886
    27. 27. First four directors were Bellevue graduates
    28. 28. Graduated over 3,100 students
    29. 29. Merged with Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing in 1956
    30. 30. Last graduates 1959</li></ul>1887 Class Composite, St. Luke’s School of Nursing<br />Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />St. Luke’s Hospital Training School for Nurses<br />
    31. 31. Rush Medical College, 1890<br />Digital Photographs Collection, 2010-02<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Cook County Hospital, 1896<br />Facilities Digital Photographs Collection, P371<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Presbyterian Hospital<br />
    32. 32. <ul><li>Rush Medical College and Chicago Presbytery
    33. 33. Chartered on July 21, 1883
    34. 34. Founded to provide surgical and medical care to “sick and disabled persons of every creed, nationality, and color.”
    35. 35. Became Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Hospital in 1956</li></ul>Presbyterian Hospital, 1914<br />Digital image collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Presbyterian Hospital<br />
    36. 36. Illinois Training School for Nurses<br /><ul><li>Served Presbyterian Hospital from 1883 to 1903
    37. 37. Led by Bellevue graduates during its entire affiliation with Presbyterian Hospital
    38. 38. Pupils also served Cook County Hospital
    39. 39. Severed ties with Presbyterian Hospital due to heavy workload</li></ul>Pupils from the Illinois Training School for Nurses prepare an operating room at Presbyterian Hospital in 1898. <br />Photo 4051. Group Portraits Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives.<br />The original nurses of Presbyterian Hospital<br />
    40. 40. <ul><li> Director Isabel Hampton, 1886-1889
    41. 41. Graded scientific instruction
    42. 42. Scholastic schedule
    43. 43. Nurses “watchful presence”
    44. 44. Presbyterian Hospital expands dramatically
    45. 45. (4o beds in 1888; 200 in 1903)
    46. 46. Served 900 hospital beds at Presbyterian and Cook County</li></ul>Nicholas Senn Surgery Clinic, Rush Medical College. 1898. <br />Photo 3549. Subject Group Portraits Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives.<br />Illinois Training School for Nurses at Presbyterian, 1883-1903<br />
    47. 47. Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing<br /><ul><li> Chartered in 1903
    48. 48. Superintendent Helena McMillan graduated from ITSN
    49. 49. Leader in academic standards
    50. 50. Graduated over 2,800 students
    51. 51. Merged with St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing in 1956
    52. 52. Last graduates 1959</li></ul>First graduating class of Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing, 1906<br />Class composites digital collection. Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    53. 53. Curriculum and Student Life<br />1920 PHSN Yearbook <br />
    54. 54. Student life at St. Luke’s<br />Tennis Court at Stickney House, 1920<br />St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing Annual Announcement, 1920.<br />“On Break,” Dorothea McMillan Scrapbook, 1923<br />Group Photo Collection 4543c Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    55. 55. School rules at St. Luke’s<br />1902 Rules:<br /><ul><li>Strict rules in wards
    56. 56. No swearing
    57. 57. No hats
    58. 58. Rising Hour 6:15 A.M.
    59. 59. Must be at home by 10:00; Lights out by 11:00
    60. 60. School is not responsible for stolen items
    61. 61. Gossip about patients’ private affairs strictly forbidden
    62. 62. Must attend morning prayer in the chapel</li></ul>Evening Fest with Cocoa at St. Luke’s, circa 1910<br />Group Portraits Series, Photo P4637, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    63. 63. Early Curriculum at St. Luke’s<br /><ul><li>Initially a 2 year course of study
    64. 64. 3 month probation period
    65. 65. Tested for reading, grammar, and note taking before advancement
    66. 66. First lectures by hospital doctors included practical topics: “Children’s diseases” “Germs” </li></ul>“Wounds and their healing”<br />Nursing pupils preparing for surgery<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    67. 67. Later Curriculum at St. Luke’s<br />Curriculum in 1916<br /><ul><li> Lengthened to three years of study
    68. 68. 4 months probationary period
    69. 69. Scientific lectures by hospital doctors:
    70. 70. Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, and dietetics
    71. 71. Practical courses
    72. 72. Gymnasium exercises, social dance, and massage</li></ul>Stickney House Gymnasium<br />1920 SLHSN Annual Announcement <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    73. 73. Nursing pupil on duty<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />St. Luke’s on-duty requirements<br />
    74. 74. Early Years:<br /><ul><li> Included working at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893
    75. 75. Wards, private rooms, diet kitchen, pharmacy, and distribution.
    76. 76. Department work in some specialties</li></ul>Later Years:<br /><ul><li>Practical experience in a variety of specialties </li></ul>Surgery, orthopedics, dermatalogy, gynecology, and pediatrics<br />Nursing pupil in an operating room<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />St. Luke’s clinical experience<br />
    77. 77. Presbyterian student life<br />Nursing Students on Sprague roof<br />1920 PHSN Yearbook<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Pupils on the front steps of the PHSN Nurses’ Home, circa 1910<br />Fiftieth Anniversary of the School of Nursing of the Presbyterian Hospital , Chicago<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    78. 78. Presbyterian School Rules<br />From the 1920 PHSN Yearbook, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    79. 79. Presbyterian’s special relationship with Rush Medical College<br /><ul><li> Affiliated with Rush Medical College
    80. 80. Rush Medical College trained pupils in subject ordinarily taught in a medical school
    81. 81. Use of its laboratories, classrooms, and library</li></ul>Bacteriology<br />Class, 1907<br />Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1907<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Rush Medical College Laboratory Building<br />Pulse Yearbook, 1895. Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    82. 82. Curriculum at Presbyterian<br /><ul><li> 3 years of courses total
    83. 83. 6 month probationary period
    84. 84. Probies did not see hospital patients
    85. 85. For preliminary students
    86. 86. Care of household items, cleaning, dietetics, sewing
    87. 87. Advanced Students
    88. 88. Science instruction from RMC professors</li></ul>Sprague House Library<br />1920 PHSN Yearbook, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    89. 89. Presbyterian on-duty requirements<br />Children’s Ward, Presbyterian Hospital, 1910<br />Facilities Photograph Collection, P398, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    90. 90. Probationary:<br />Supervised practical work <br /><ul><li>VNA home
    91. 91. Central Free Dispensary</li></ul>Senior students: <br /><ul><li> Full clinical duty in private rooms and wards
    92. 92. Assist with dietetic meals
    93. 93. Prepare surgical materials</li></ul>Preparing Surgical Supplies, 1907<br />Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1907RushUniversity Medical Center Archives<br />Presbyterian clinical experience<br />
    94. 94. Private Duty Nursing<br />Public Health Nursing<br />Marriage and motherhood<br />Hospital Leadership<br />Nursing Education<br />St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing Class of 1903.<br />Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives..<br />Common paths for nursing graduates <br />
    95. 95. Survey of Student Directories, 1915<br />1900-1915<br />554 students<br />327 SLHSN<br />227 PHSN<br />Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    96. 96. Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />St. Luke’s Hospital Annual Report, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Private Duty Nursing—46%<br />
    97. 97. <ul><li>Most common for new graduates
    98. 98. Care of patients in a private home
    99. 99. Initially a fund raising tool for training schools
    100. 100. Schools set standards for their graduate nurses
    101. 101. Standard fees $30 a week for standard nursing in Chicago, 1917
    102. 102. Private duty nurses must be granted 8 hours of rest at night and 2 hours of rest during the day</li></ul>Fredrica Stewart, RN <br />and Hilda K. Twedten, R.N.<br />Private Duty Nurses in Chicago<br />PHSN Class of 1911<br />Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Private Duty Nursing<br />
    103. 103. Discussion at a 1914 American Nurses Association Meeting:<br />Private Duty Nursing Section praised their work as an ability to combine all facets of the nursing profession into one duty. <br />The Alumnae newsletter, St. Luke’s School of Nursing, May 1914. <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Mary Gertrude Phillpotts, SLHSN 1892– A private duty nurse:<br />“So wearing, so monotonous… our duties are those that could be performed by an intelligent chamber maid. Our time is largely taken up in amusing the patient.”<br />St. Luke’s graduate, 1892<br />Class Composites Digital Collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />The Alumnae newsletter, St. Luke’s School of Nursing, October 1910. <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Private Duty Nurses discuss their work<br />
    104. 104. About 5% of graduates<br />Harriet Fulmer, 1895 SLHSN graduate<br />Chicago Visiting Nurses Association<br />Divided into districts, overseen by Superintendent<br />$45-$60 a month—8 hour days<br />“Refinement and culture” of nurses<br />Typical day<br />Harriet Fullmer, 1925<br />Individual Portraits, P2083<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives <br />Public Health Nursing<br />
    105. 105. Marriage & Motherhood<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />St. Luke’s Hospital Annual Report, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    106. 106. Left “on account of her getting married.”<br />Presbyterian Hospital Annual Report, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />19% of graduates were married in 1915<br />
    107. 107. Hospital Leadership<br />About 5% of graduates were head nurses or surgical nurses at hospitals<br />Newborn Nursery at Presbyterian Hospital, 1910<br />Subject digital collection, P2379. Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    108. 108. Caroline Geiken PHSN, 1911<br />Head Nurse, Washington University Hospital, St. Louis, MO<br />Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Alice Bowen PHSN, 1909<br />Head Nurse, Presbyterian Hospital<br />Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Hospital Leadership<br />
    109. 109. Louise Spohr, SLHSN, 1902<br />Instructress of Nurses<br />Moline Public Hospital<br />Moline, IL<br />Jane Craig, SLHSN, 1904<br />Superintendent, Western Hospital Training School<br />Montreal, Ontario, CA<br />Faye Jackson, PHSN, 1907<br />Instructor, Presbyterian Hospital<br />Chicago, IL<br />Lina Davis PHSN, 1907<br />Instructor, Pasadena Training School<br />Pasadena, CA<br />Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />AddaEldredge, SLHSN 1899<br />Supervisor of Preliminary Course, SLHSN<br />Ann Springer Scrapbook, 1915<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />Nurse Educators—About 1%<br />
    110. 110. Legacy<br />First Graduates, <br />Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing, 1960<br />First Graduates, <br />Rush University College of Nursing, 1975<br />Digital class composites collection, Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    111. 111. Thank You<br />Nathalie Wheaton<br />Christine Frank<br />Jeanne Link<br />Judith Dzierba<br />Molly Merrill<br />Sarah Scheinman<br />Gloria Ballard<br />Katelyn Meehan<br />St.Luke’s Hospital Ward, 1910<br />Facilities Photo Collection, P752 <br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br />
    112. 112. Questions?<br />Heather J. Stecklein, MLS, MA, CA<br />Librarian/Archivist<br />Rush University Medical Center Archives<br /><br />312-942-7214<br /><br />