Crime in India - compendium 2008 : By National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs


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Crime in India - compendium 2008 : By National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs

  1. 1. Crime in India2008CompendiumISO 9001 : 2000:26172324, 26105353, 26177442National Crime Records BureauMinistry of Home AffairsGovernment of IndiaEast Block - 7, R.K. Puram,New Delhi - 110 066.Fax :26197984E-Mail : stat@ncrb.nic.inWeb Site :
  2. 2. DISCLAIMERThe information given in this report has been obtained from State/U.T.Police. All precautions have been taken to ensure that the data isstatistically consistent. NCRB has only compiled and collated the dataand presented it in the form of this report. NCRB shall not beresponsible for authenticity of this information. However, anydiscrepancy observed in this report may be brought to the notice of theBureau.• Due to non-availability of actual police strength from MadhyaPradesh state, the sanctioned police strength has been takenequal to actual police strength.• Caste-wise break-up of Police Personnel has not beenfurnished by Madhya Pradesh.• There has been variation in police strength of Karnataka stateas they have included police personnel posted in policeheadquarters from this year only.• There has been variation in SLL crimes and persons arrestedunder them reported by Andhra Pradesh and Vishakhapatnamcity due to exclusion of large number of Motor Vehicles Actcases (non-cognizable).• The actual census population of mega cities for the year 2001has been used for calculating crime rates like previous fewyears in the absence of current mid-year population estimatesof these cities.• There may be some inconsistencies in tables in respect of dataon Prevention of Corruption Act and related sections of IPCdue to clarifications pending from Police units. This data issent by Vigilance Departments of States/UTs.LIMITATIONS
  3. 3. GuidanceShri Rajiv Mathur, IPS Director GeneralEditorial BoardShri Nasir Kamal, IPS Joint DirectorShri Alok Kumar Verma, ISS Chief Statistical OfficerShri M.P. Sharma Junior Staff OfficerTechnical Personnel Cover PageShri D.C. Pandey, DPA-B Shri Suresh Bohra, DPA-AShri K.P. Uday Shankar, DPA-BShri P. Suresh Kumar, DPA-AShri Rajesh Kumar, DEO-AShri Gulshan Sharma, DEO-AMaps & GraphicsShri D.C. Pandey, DPA-BShri C. Sivakumar, DPA-AShri Gulshan Sharma, DEO-AOFFICERS & OFFICIALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PUBLICATIONFront Cover Page Photos Source: InternetBack Cover Page Photo: Winner of painting competition organized by National Crime RecordsBureau on the occasion of National Communal Harmony week.
  4. 4. C O N T E N T SCHAPTERNO. TITLE PAGE No.--Figures at a glanceSnapshots-2008iii1--Excerpts National-1953 to 2008Snapshots – 1953 to 20087121 Executive Summary 152 Crimes in Mega Cities 433 Violent Crimes 494 Disposal of cases by Police & Courts 635 Crime Against Women 796 Crime Against Children 896* Human Trafficking 997 Crime Against Persons Belonging to SCs / STs 1058 Property Stolen and Recovered 1179 Economic Offences 12310 Juvenile Delinquency 13111 Recidivism 13912 Arrests and Trials 14113 Custodial Crimes 15114 Police Firing & Casualties 15515 Police Casualties 15716 Complaints Against Police Personnel & HumanRights Violation by Them16117 Police Strength, Expenditure and Infrastructure 16718 Cyber Crimes 17519-Crime in RailwaysSubject Index181187- Feedback Form -i
  5. 5. iiCrime in India: Publication over the years1953Dec.19541955Apr.19571957Dec. 19581954Nov.19551956May 19581963Aug.19651965Aug.19671966Nov.19681967Nov.19701961Dec.19621962Dec. 19631959Feb.19611960Jun.19621958Mar.19601964Aug.19661973Dec.19751975Apr.19791976Feb.19801977Jun.19811974Dec.19771983Dec.19881985Feb.19921986Mar.19901987Feb.19921984Feb.19921993Dec.19941995Jun. 19971996Jun 19981997Jan.19991994Apr.19961971Sep.19741972Jun.19751968Nov.19701969July 19711970Dec.19721982Jan.19871980May. 19851981Apr.19861978Aug.19821979Feb.19841990Dec.19911991Dec.19921992May. 19941989May. 19911988Dec.19902000Jun. 20022001July 20032002Jun. 20041999May 20011998Dec. 19992003Mar. 20052005July 20062006Oct. 20072007Oct. 20082008Dec.20092004Dec. 2005
  6. 6. SL.No.CRIME HEADS CASESREPORTED% TOTOTALIPCCRIMESRATEOFCRIMECHARGE-SHEETINGRATECONVI-CTIONRATEA) VIOLENT CRIMES1 MURDER 32766 1.6 2.8 83.2 38.42 ATTEMPT TO COMMIT MURDER 28598 1.4 2.5 89.0 31.33 C.H. NOT AMOUNTING MURDER 3863 0.2 0.3 87.4 34.84 RAPE 21467 1.0 1.9 93.9 26.65 KIDNAPPING & ABDUCTION 30261 1.4 2.6 73.4 27.16 DACOITY 4530 0.2 0.4 72.0 23.07 PREPARATION & ASSEMBLY FOR DACOITY 3217 0.2 0.3 96.7 23.18 ROBBERY 20522 1.0 1.8 68.7 30.09 RIOTS 66018 3.2 5.7 89.5 20.210 ARSON 9249 0.4 0.8 70.0 22.511 DOWRY DEATHS 8172 0.4 0.7 92.8 33.4TOTAL VIOLENT CRIMES 228663 10.9 19.8 84.2 27.8B) CRIME AGAINST WOMEN (IPC+SLL)1 KIDNAPPING & ABDUCTION OF WOMEN & GIRLS 22939 1.1 2.0 74.1 27.12 MOLESTATION 40413 1.9 3.5 96.1 31.73 SEXUAL HARASSMENT 12214 0.6 1.1 96.8 50.54 CRUELTY BY HUSBAND AND RELATIVES 81344 3.9 7.1 93.7 22.45 IMPORTATION OF GIRLS 67 0.0 0.0 72.2 12.3TOTAL CRIME AGAINST WOMEN (IPC+SLL) 195856 9.4 17.0 92.5 30.1C) ECONOMIC CRIMES1 CRIMINAL BREACH OF TRUST 16487 0.8 1.4 70.6 30.22 CHEATING 66579 3.2 5.8 73.7 29.13 COUNTERFEITING 2991 0.1 0.3 48.9 38.3TOTAL ECONOMIC CRIMES 86057 4.1 7.5 72.1 29.7D) PROPERTY CRIMES1 BURGLARY 93742 4.5 8.1 41.8 36.12 THEFT 316761 15.1 27.5 41.5 38.8TOTAL PROPERTY CRIMES 410503 19.6 35.6 41.6 38.1E) CRIME AGAINST SCTOTAL CRIME AGAINST SC 33615 1.6 2.9 90.4 31.7F) CRIME AGAINST STTOTAL CRIME AGAINST ST 5582 0.3 0.5 96.0 27.2G) CRIME AGAINST CHILDRENTOTAL CRIME AGAINST CHILDREN 22500 1.1 2.0 84.4 35.7H) COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER IPCTOTAL COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER IPC 2093379 181.5 79.8 42.6I) COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER SLLTOTAL COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER SLL 3844725 333.4 94.6 83.5J) COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER IPC + SLLTOTAL COGNIZABLE CRIMES UNDER IPC + SLL 5938104 515.0 89.5 73.9iiiFIGURES AT A GLANCE-2008NOTE: A4,A11 ARE PART OF CRIME AGAINST WOMEN ALSO; A6,A7 & A8 ARE PART OF PROPERTY CRIMES ALSO
  7. 7. SNAPSHOTS – 2008General Crime StatisticsINCIDENCE RATEIPC SLL IPC SLL2007 : 19,89,673 2007 : 37,43,734 2007 : 175.1 2007 : 329.42008 : 20,93,379 2008 : 38,44,725 2008 : 181.5 2008 : 333.4• A total of 59,38,104 cognizable crimes comprising 20,93,379 Indian Penal Code(IPC) crimes and 38,44,725 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were reported,showing an increase of 3.6% over 2007 (57,33,407).• IPC crime rate in 2008 was 181.5 as compared to 175.1 in 2007 recording anincrease of 3.6% in 2008 over 2007.• The IPC crimes reported a lower growth rate of 17.7% as compared to a fasterpace of population growth of 18.8% in the decade.• Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra each accounted for 9.9% of total IPC crimesreported in the country.• SLL crime rate in 2008 was 333.4 as compared to 329.4 in 2007 recording anincrease of 1.2% in 2008 over 2007.• Puducherry reported the highest crime rate (461.9) for IPC crimes which is 2.5times the National crime rate of 181.5. Kerala reported the highest crime rate at322.1 among States.• Chennai (184.1), Dhanbad (122.4), Kolkata (98.4) and Madurai (206.7) were theonly 4 mega cities which reported less rate of IPC crimes than their domainStates – Tamil Nadu (265.6), Jharkhand (128.3), West Bengal (119.5) and Tamil-Nadu (265.6) respectively.• The cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru have accounted for 12.8%, 9.4% and8.5% respectively of the total IPC crimes reported from 35 mega cities.• Indore reported the highest crime rate (941.4) among the mega cities in thecountry followed by Bhopal (791.4) and Jaipur (663.0).• The crime rate for IPC crimes at National level increased by 3.6% (from 175.1 in2007 to 181.5 in 2008). However, the crime rate in cities has increased by 3.0%(from 312.3 in 2007 to 321.8 in 2008).• Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh reported the highest rate of SLL crimes at 6,283.2followed by Agra (6,185.6) among the 35 mega cities.1
  8. 8. • Andhra Pradesh reported 86.7% cases under Indecent Representation ofWomen (Prohibition) Act of total cases reported under the Act in the country (889out of 1,025).• 28,82,286 persons were arrested under IPC crimes and 42,55,988 persons werearrested under SLL crimes. Overall 71,38,274 persons were arrested both underIPC and SLL crimes. On an average, 1.4 persons were arrested per IPC caseand 1.1 persons were arrested per SLL case in the country.• 47.4% of the arrestees belonged to 18-30 years reflecting the drift of youngerpeople taking to crimes.• A large chunk of juveniles (62.2%) belonged to the poor families whose annualincome was up to Rs 25,000/-. The share of juveniles hailing from middle incomegroup (Rs 50,000 - Rs 2,00,000) was 13.6%.• The arrest rate was the highest for Hurt cases (43.5) followed by Riots cases(28.9) and Theft cases (18.1).• Thefts (12,629) accounted for 61.0% of total IPC crimes in Railways.Violent CrimesINCIDENCE RATE2007 : 2,15,613 2007 : 19.02008 : 2,28,663 2008 : 19.8• The share of violent crimes in total IPC crimes has decreased from 11.4% in2004 to 10.9% in 2008.• The highest rate of violent crimes was reported from Manipur (46.0) followed byKerala (33.1), Assam (32.2) and Jammu & Kashmir (30.9) as compared to 19.8at All-India level.• Uttar Pradesh reported the highest incidence of violent crimes accounting for11.8% of total violent crimes in the country (26,921 out of 2,28,663) followed byBihar with 10.2% (23,247) and Maharashtra with 10.0% (22,862).• Uttar Pradesh reported 13.9% (4,564 out of 32,766) of total Murder cases in thecountry and 14.8% (4,233 out of 28,598) total Attempt to Murder cases.• 12.2% (4,101 out of 33,727) of murder victims died as a result of use of fire-armsin the country.2
  9. 9. Crime against WomenINCIDENCE RATE2007 : 1,85,312 2007 : 16.32008 : 1,95,856 2008 : 17.0• Andhra Pradesh reported 12.3% of total such cases in the country (24,111 out of1,95,856). Tripura reported the highest crime rate (40.2) as compared to theNational average rate of 17.0.• The proportion of IPC crimes committed against women towards total IPC crimeshas increased during last 5 years from 7.8% in 2004 to 8.9% during 2008.• Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of Rape cases (2,937)accounting for 13.7% of total such cases reported in the country.• Andhra Pradesh has reported 29.1% (3,551) of Sexual Harassment casesfollowed by Uttar Pradesh 27.6% (3,374).• Only Jharkhand (39), Bihar (22), West Bengal (5) and Karnataka (1) havereported cases of Importation of Girls.• Cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act decreased by 25.5% (from 3,568 in2007 to 2,659 in 2008).• Tamil Nadu reported 25.8% of cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (687out of 2,659).• The lone case under Sati Prevention Act was reported across the country duringthe year 2008 was registered in Chhattisgarh.• Incest Rape cases decreased by 23.7% in 2008 over 2007 (from 405 in 2007 to309 in 2008).• Madhya Pradesh reported 16.8% of total Incest Rape cases (52 out of 309).• Offenders were known to the victims in 91.0% of Rape cases (19,542 out of21,467).• Among 35 mega cities, Delhi city reported 22.4% (396 out of 1,768) of total Rapecases, 30.5% cases (948 out of 3,110) of Kidnapping & Abduction of Women,15.3% cases (110 out of 721) of Dowry Deaths, 11.5% cases (1,310 out of11,409) of Cruelty by Husband and Relatives and 15.4% cases (553 out of 3,602)of Molestation.• 50.5% conviction was reported in the country in Sexual Harassment cases(4,128 convictions out of 8,169 cases in which trial were completed).3
  10. 10. Crime against ChildrenINCIDENCE RATE2007 : 20,410 2007 : 1.82008 : 22,500 2008 : 2.0• 10.2% increase was reported in incidence of crime against Children in 2008 over2007. Cases of Child Rape went up by 7.9% during 2008 (5,446) over 2007(5,045).• A total of 7,650 cases of Kidnapping and Abduction of children were reportedduring the year 2008 as compared to 6,377 cases in the previous yearaccounting for a significant increase of 20.0%.• Cases of Selling of Girls for Prostitution declined from 69 in 2007 to 49 in 2008.• Madhya Pradesh reported 18.9% (4,259 out of 22,500) of total crimes committedagainst children in the country.• The highest crime rate (11.3) was reported by A & N Islands as compared toNational average (2.0).• Punjab (24) and Rajasthan (10) together have accounted for 46.6% (34 out of73) of cases of foeticide reported in the country.• The conviction rate at the National level for crimes against children stood at35.7%.Crime against Scheduled Castes/Scheduled TribesINCIDENCE RATESC ST SC ST2007 : 30,031 2007 : 5,532 2007 : 2.6 2007 : 0.52008 : 33,615 2008 : 5,582 2008 : 2.9 2008 : 0.5• Uttar Pradesh reported 23.8% of total crimes against Scheduled Castes (8,009out of 33,615) and Madhya Pradesh reported 19.2% of total (1,071 out of 5,582)crimes against Scheduled Tribes in the country.• Rajasthan reported the highest rate of crimes (6.6) against Scheduled Castes ascompared to the National average of 2.9. Arunachal Pradesh reported thehighest rate of crime against Scheduled Tribes (5.2) as compared to the Nationalaverage of 0.5.• The rate of crime against Scheduled Castes increased from 2.6 in 2007 to 2.9 in2008 while rate of crime against Scheduled Tribes in 2008 remained 0.5 - thesame as in 2007.4
  11. 11. Property CrimesINCIDENCE RATE2007 : 4,03,181 2007 : 35.52008 : 4,38,772 2008 : 38.0• Property crimes accounted for 21.0% of total IPC crimes. Such crimes reportedan increase of 8.8% in 2008 over 2007.• Auto Theft (1,20,032) cases accounted for 37.9% of all Theft cases (3,16,761).Chandigarh reported the crime rate at 102.1 for Auto Theft as compared to theNational rate of 10.4.• 24.5% of stolen motor vehicles (29,384 out of 1,19,667) were recovered during2008 out of which only 21.1% (6,203 out of 29,384) could be co-ordinated (i.e.rightful owner traced).Cyber Crimes• Cyber Crimes (IT Act + IPC Sections) decreased by 16.5% in 2008 as comparedto 2007 (from 556 in 2007 to 464 in 2008)• Cyber Fraud 44.9% (79 out of 176) and Cyber Forgery 31.2% (55 out of total176) were the main cases under IPC category for Cyber Crimes.• 61.2% of the offenders under IT Act were in the age group 18-30 years (109 outof 178) and 56.9% of the offenders under IPC Sections were in the age group 30-45 years (111out of 195).Disposal of crime cases• 74.9% (20,61,949 out of 27,52,687) of all IPC cases registered were disposed offby police and 79.8% cases (15,47,188 out of 19,39,738) were charge sheeted.• Trials were completed in 10,52,623 IPC crime cases out of total 78,33,842 casespending for trials. 66,25,756 IPC cases remained pending for trial in courts ason December 31, 2008.• Conviction rate for IPC crimes increased marginally from 42.3 in 2007 to 42.6 in2008.• Nagaland reported the highest conviction rate for IPC crimes among States,(92.8%) (503 cases convicted out of 542 cases in which trials were completed)while Maharashtra reported the lowest rate at 9.4% (7,552 out of 80,610) ascompared to National rate at 42.6.• 30.8% of trials were completed in less than 1 year (3,23,987 out of 10,52,623),32.0% of trials (3,36,829) were completed within 1 to 3 years, 22.4% (2,36,354)between 3 to 5 years, 11.8% between 5 to 10 years (1,24,171) and 3.0%(31,282) cases took more than 10 years.5
  12. 12. 6Police Infrastructure• There were 64 Policemen (Civil + Armed) per lakh population in Bihar followed byUttar Pradesh (72) and Dadra & Nagar Haveli (80) against the National averageof 128.• Ratio of Police Officers (ASI & above) to the subordinate Staff (Head Constables& Constables in 2008 was 1:7 at the National level – the same as in 2007.• There was no Woman Civil Police in Mizoram and Daman & Diu (actual orsanctioned).• 38.2% of police force was provided the housing facility by the Government.• 3,144 serving police officials died in 2008 as compared to 3,505 in 2007 reportinga decline of 10.3% in police fatalities. 763 (24.3%) police personnel of these diedwhile performing their duties.Custodial Crimes• 101 Custodial Deaths were reported in the country. 29 policemen were chargesheeted and no policeman was convicted during the year. No case of CustodialRape was reported in the country. No charge-sheet was submitted during theyear and 1 case remained under investigation. Out of the 6 cases for trial(including those pending trial from previous year(s)), 2 cases were withdrawn andthe remaining 4 cases were pending trail at the end of the year.---------
  13. 13. Incidence Of Cognizable Crimes (IPC) Under Different Crime HeadsDuring 1953 To 2008Sl.No.Year Murder Attemptto commitMurderC.H. notamountingto murderRape Kidnapping&AbductionDacoity Preparation& Assemblyfor dacoityRobbery Burglary(House-Breaking)Theft Riots(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979980297659700100251041910661107121091011188115861075411748123101263113398138491473215708161801547517072186491756316673183761931420349*********************************************235721962408251425022584261527283008******************24872605291929623376389340584558430052615514552959055821604365496024669871196924805079277854819288308464101119647940210223105431113911250122401361613125557953954779539755604658377439814213489049975287495548176300638460499837111931041110627136971250610910125991319514028***************************8407760067107618740871206267626364287551769483368067858510252101949922169581840217054188572228621656179742272522923228601473791324571217441345561296321246951182051145401226051343241370251538621420151501801735751562061454291663391658071670621814331998781928541686551936221839911685742565672238662120282362142332392361032330522288422328682524532424872736762737022987013398613155463001403372113352043463823794124369184218913651384320464371874304832052922777236092470023750249422698726890271992909628114326933294034696424474580155796683316411465781733888054767241636758044996488988967
  14. 14. Sl. Year Murder Attempt Rape Kidnapping Preparation Robbery Burglary(House-Breaking)Theft RiotsC.H. not Dacoity& AssemblyNo. to commit &amountingfor dacoityMurder Abductionto murder(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)2829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082214922727233392511225786259702726928513287713122235045391744010538240385773746437671375433858437170373993620235290327163360832719324813231832766********2068923748270952977831202297253002029571295972932230577296283074331523303802594227890280312723027401285983032327234273793409339954195372137554100428142434621389039463830372838693681391237733367362440293935357835353644386350235409542760196740728979528559909997521006810410117081221813208137541484615330151511546816496160751637315847182331835919348207372146713595138331334113842151411605115667152511577117318184742007920518198302098320426208482189823520232362287122487218501999223327157502399127561302611519414626127001238212301112541044410036930698961108910831113089357927183358035786780917079682561546101530353115141474745794530********931101512861393129711029469618881049126615011505161418412302234028343129320532172349322996219382131023204225012239522917216112248025440264282644424354239332244322705221412360321332209261990118764175121845817673184561913620522166695157540142726139103136272130354128946125466124304129020131331132087127281123020121536116507115097113319119260111296105391101182964619282792490901089166691218937424310364220593752403535363306693305543235333105753198483412403531913629283505823204343035642943062849852770772879672719072585882528032474622452372730452731112743542850433167611069571103611065111081011014609975794197907899458798943102846105309104749938389434496520928319181290767808388045676222689455733459971562355664159915660188
  15. 15. Incidence Of Cognizable Crimes (IPC) Under Different Crime HeadsDuring 1953 To 2008 (Concluded)Sl.No.Year Crimi-nalBreach ofTrustChea-ting Counter-feitingArson Hurt DowryDeathsMoles-tationSexualHarass-mentCruelty byhusband orRelativesImporta-tionOf GirlsCausingDeath byNegli-genceOtherIPC crimesTotalCognizableCrimesunder IPC(1) (2) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26)123456789101112131415161718192021222324252619531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978*15860146441546615362160171587815862168951809218438211802135422353239502240821118226792027021004218372227423287236562286823255*9934946195199388950396779207951197388854116701193511606127011252412001123311141212646143921538017772195881962319821*81559759662955544355448542328931743665514131425739650641670582718951887784636****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************1484401229291264351352211401631738871887721832941875611991941932542321942359742426552498922687952707772952672997113188863493583713873736603954914516725145426019645569125352365852175813716141846203266063676256516744666588307590137516157947338819818619628451679554229525819847731077181119227711605201093897126700413449689
  16. 16. 27282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555619791980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200822016206842057918259185141842818417190211784717352175411655217495179251703916523155031536815077161571545414581147981402713432141761357213636155311648718370174161776417471197671907721016225792211522705236912446627466293973007931207306783382335228382714140341701447274627147478519395362558076653266657952583010049398091118150416871653153720752576446751333728285122032796222813531347229916831522205515292383216922042991****************1202812425123631291311218103921053411820936586378451848090249249****************203812223977228497235870236313240580271487265025261444276868270861264748273067284969****************46485513600669756699699568516822620870266787761880938172****************2685628939307643095932311329403412433943329393456734175366173873440413****************46895671579680538858110249746101551232510001998499661095012214****************2857935246365924137543823457784917049237507035812158319631287593081344********************164114764689149676167**********************5718264044606726942371698785138679092186526942550480582265612586627578664371696069727950749550750090797803840709886287907071903082924342722583714587726042744422763835779757701362730297700412741031741977779697829206856963133616813685291385757135390413498661358660138473114058351406992144035615298441604449167837516893411629936163525116956961709576171982017788151764629177108417693081780330171612018320151822602187829319896732093379“*” Information not collectedSl.No.Year Crimi-nalBreach ofTrustChea-ting Counter-feitingArson Hurt DowryDeathsMoles-tationSexualHarass-mentCruelty byhusband orRelativesImporta-tionOf GirlsCausingDeath byNegli-genceOtherIPC crimesTotalCognizableCrimesunder IPC(26)(25)(24)(23)(22)(21)(20)(19)(18)(17)(16)(15)(14)(2)(1)10
  17. 17. Incidence of Total Cognizable Crime (IPC)1953-20080500000100000015000002000000250000019531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008YearIncidence
  18. 18. SNAPSHOTS (1953—2008)Trend of some major crime heads over the years 1953-2008Total Cog. Crimesunder IPCMurder Rape Kidnapping &AbductionDacoity Robbery Burglary/HousebreakingRiotsYear Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence Year Incidence1953 6,01,964 1953 9,802 1971* 2,487 1953 5,261 1953 5,579 1953 8,407 1953 1,47,379 1953 20,5292008 20,93,379 2008 32,766 2008 21,467 2008 30,261 2008 4,530 2008 20,522 2008 93,742 2008 66,018%Changein 2008over1953247.8 234.3 763.2 475.2 -18.8 144.1 -36.4 221.612*Bureau started collecting data on "Rape" since 1971 only.Note: All percentages shown have been rounded off.12
  19. 19. 13• The total cognizable crime under IPC in general has been rising as compared to previous years(except in 1954 when it declined by 7% as compared to 1953) by 6% in 1976 as compared to 1975;by 4% in 1955, 1993 and 2003 each as compared to 1954, 1992 and 2002 respectively; by 3% in1975 as compared to 1974; by 2% each in 1960, 1963, 1968, 1969 and 1982 as compared to 1959,1962, 1967, 1968 and 1981 respectively.• It can be observed from the above table showing crime trends of major heads that Dacoity andBurglary / House breaking have shown declining trend over a period of 56 years. Burglary /House breaking has declined by 36.4% (from 1,47,379 in 1953 to 93,742 in 2008) and Dacoity hasdeclined by 18.8% (from 5,579 in 1953 to 4,530 in 2008), whereas Murder has increased by234.3% (from 9,802 in 1953 to 32,766 in 2008); Rape by 763.2% (from 2,487 in 1971 to 21,467 in2008); Kidnapping & Abduction by 475.2% (from 5,261 in 1953 to 30,261 in 2008); Robbery by144.1% (from 8,407 in 1953 to 20,522 in 2008) and Riots by 221.6% (from 20,529 in 1953 to 66,018in 2008).
  20. 20. 050000100000150000200000250000300000350000400000450000500000Incidence2004 2005 2006 2007 2008YearCategorywise Cognizable Crimes During 2004-2008Crime Against Body Crime Against Property Crime Against Public OrderEconomic Crimes Crime Against women Crime Against SCs/STs
  21. 21. CHAPTER - 1EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThe Criminal Procedure Code(Cr.P.C.) divides all the crimes intotwo categories:(i) Cognizable - Sec.2(c)CrPC(ii) Non-cognizable - Sec.2(l)CrPCCognizable CrimesA cognizable offence or caseis defined as the one which an officerin-charge of a police station mayinvestigate without the order of amagistrate and affect arrest withoutwarrant. The police has a directresponsibility to take immediate actionon the receipt of a complaint or ofcredible information in such crimes,visit the scene of the crime,investigate the facts, apprehend theoffender and arraign him before acourt of law having jurisdiction overthe matter. Cognizable crimes arebroadly categorised as those fallingeither under the `Indian Penal Code(IPC) or under the `Special and LocalLaws (SLL).Non-Cognizable OffenceNon-Cognizable crimes aredefined as those which can not beinvestigated by police without theorder of a competent magistrate.Police does not initiate investigation innon-cognizable crimes except withmagisterial permission. Firstschedule of the Cr.P.C. gives theclassification of the offences of theIPC into cognizable & non-cognizablecategories.The various crimes that arebeing registered and investigated bydifferent law enforcement agenciesare broadly grouped under thefollowing categories for StatisticalInformation System.Broad classification of crimesunder the Indian Penal Code(IPC)i) Crimes Against Body:Murder, Its attempt, CulpableHomicide not amounting toMurder, Kidnapping &Abduction, Hurt, CausingDeath by Negligence;ii) Crimes Against Property:Dacoity, its preparation &assembly, Robbery, Burglary,Theft;iii) Crimes Against PublicOrder: Riots, Arson;iv) Economic Crimes: CriminalBreach of Trust, Cheating,Counterfeiting;v) Crimes Against Women:Rape, Dowry Death, Crueltyby Husband and Relatives,Molestation, SexualHarassment and Importationof Girls;vi) Crimes Against Children:Child Rape, Kidnapping &Abduction of Children,Procuration of minor girls,Selling/Buying of girls forProstitution, Abetment toSuicide, Exposure and15
  22. 22. Uttarakhand8856Maharashtra206243Karnataka127540Lakshadweep95Goa2742Kerala110620Tamil Nadu176833Puducherry4989Andhra Pradesh179275Dadra & Nagar Haveli401Rajasthan151174Gujarat123808Daman & Diu248Jammu & Kashmir20604Uttar Pradesh168996Madhya Pradesh206556Haryana55344Punjab35314Delhi49350Himachal Pradesh13976Chandigarh3931Jharkhand38686Orissa56755Chhattisgarh51442Andaman & Nicobar Islands882Meghalaya2318Bihar122669Assam53333Sikkim730Manipur3349Tripura5336 Mizoram1989Arunachal Pradesh2374Nagaland1202West Bengal105419Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 10,00010,000 - 50,00050,000 - 1,00,0001,00,000 - 1,50,000Above 1,50,000INCIDENCE OF IPC CRIME DURING 2008(All India 2093379)
  23. 23. Abandonment, Infanticide,Foeticide;vii) Other IPC crimes.Crimes under the Special andLocal Laws (SLL)i) Arms Act, 1959;ii) Narcotic Drugs & PsychotropicSubstances Act, 1985;iii) Gambling Act, 1867;iv) Excise Act, 1944;v) Prohibition Act;vi) Explosives & ExplosiveSubstances Act, 1884 & 1908;vii) Immoral Traffic (Prevention)Act, 1956;viii) Railways Act, 1989;ix) Registration of Foreigners Act,1930;x) Protection of Civil Rights Act,1955;xi) Indian Passport Act, 1967;xii) Essential Commodities Act,1955;xiii) Terrorist & Disruptive ActivitiesAct;xiv) Antiquities & Art TreasuresAct, 1972;xv) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961;xvi) Child Marriage Restraint Act,1929;xvii) Indecent Representation ofWomen (Prohibition) Act,1986;xiii) Copyright Act, 1957;xix) Sati Prevention Act, 1987;xx) SC/ST (Prevention ofAtrocities) Act, 1989;xxi) Forest Act, 1927;xxii) Other crimes (not specifiedabove) under Special andLocal Laws including CyberLaws under InformationTechnology Act (IT), 2000.Complaints Received byPoliceThe total number ofcomplaints received by police whetheroral, written, distress call or the onesinitiated suo-moto by police havebeen collected since 1999 in order toassess the quantum of work load ofpolice. The year-wise number of suchcomplaints vis-à-vis actual number ofcognizable crimes registered byPolice are presented in Table-1.1.A total of 81,60,624complaints were received by police inthe country during the year 2008 ascompared to 75,06,501 complaintsreceived during 2007 representing anincrease of 8.7% over 2007. 37.0% ofthese were written complaints, 15.2%were oral complaints, 40.3%complaints were initiated by Policeand 7.5% were distress calls reportedover phones (No.100). It is observedthat nearly 72.8% of these complaintswere registered as cognizableoffences (59,38,104 out of 81,60,624).Cognizable crimesThe incidence of cognizablecrimes in the country during thedecade 1998 to 2008 is presented inTable-1.2. As many as 59,38,104 cognizablecrimes were reported in the country during 2008comprising 20.93 lakh cases under the IPC and38.45 lakh cases under the SLL. The ratio ofIPC to SLL crimes varied from 1:2.30in 2004 to 1:1.84 in 2008. 64.7% oftotal crimes during 2008 wereaccounted for by Special Acts17
  24. 24. Note:Rate of IPC Crime means no. of IPC crimes per one lakh population.Uttarakhand92.8Maharashtra192.1Karnataka221.4Lakshadweep137.7Goa166.8Kerala322.1Tamil Nadu265.6Puducherry461.9Andhra Pradesh217.4Dadra & Nagar Haveli151.3Rajasthan232.6Gujarat218.5Daman & Diu131.2Jammu & Kashmir164.8Uttar Pradesh88Madhya Pradesh296.4Haryana231.7Punjab132.3Delhi286.1Himachal Pradesh212.7Chandigarh367Jharkhand128.3Orissa141.8Chhattisgarh216.4Andaman & Nicobar Islands212.5Meghalaya91Bihar130.1Assam177.3Sikkim122.5Manipur127Tripura151.4Mizoram202.1Arunachal Pradesh197.2Nagaland54.7West Bengal119.5Rate of IPC Crimeupto 100100 - 160160 - 300Above 300RATE OF IPC CRIME DURING 2008(All India 181.5)
  25. 25. CrimeAgainstBody22.6%PropertyCrime21.0%OtherCrimes48.8%CrimeAgainstPublicSafety3.6%EconomicCrimes4.1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%EconomicCrimesPropertyCrimesCrime AgainstPublic SafetyCrime AgainstBodyPercentage Distribution of IPC Crimes during 2008 FIGURE 1.3
  26. 26. Table-1 (A)Cognizable Crimes registered during 2004-2008Number Of OffencesYEARIPC SLL TotalRatio(IPC: SLL)Rate Per (1,00,000Population)2004 18,32,015 41,96,766 60,28,781 1:2.30 555.32005 18,22,602 32,03,735 50,26,337 1:1.76 455.82006 18,78,293 32,24,167 51,02,460 1:1.72 455.72007 19,89,673 37,43,734 57,33,407 1:1.88 504.52008 20,93,379 38,44,725 59,38,104 1:1.84 515.0& Local Laws and the rest (35.3%)by the Indian Penal Code.The rate of total crimes (IPC + SLL)was 515.0 in 2008 showing a decline of 7.26%over 2004 and an increase of 2.08% over 2007.PopulationMid-year estimated populationis used for calculating crime rate (i.e.number of crimes per one lakh ofpopulation). The estimated populationof the country as on 1stJuly, 2008 is11,531 lakhs as compared to 9,709lakhs in the year 1998. The populationof the country in the decade (1998-2008) has increased by 18.8% with anannual exponential growth rate of1.8%.Crime Incidence (IPC + SLL)(Incidence…59,38,104)Total incidence of crime givesan absolute picture of the crimesituation in the country or the State.Comparative figures over a period oftime indicate an increase or decreasein the incidence of crime requiringappropriate crime control efforts bythe State police.The IPC crimes reported a lowergrowth rate of 17.7% as compared to the fastpace of population growth of 18.8% in thedecade (Table-1.2).Crime Rate (IPC + SLL)(Crime Rate…515.0)Population is one of theimportant factors influencingincidence of crime. A positivecorrelation between the growth inincidence of crime and the populationof the country has been observed. Anumber of socio-economic factors,besides population, could influencethe crime situation at a particularplace. The present analysis of crimerate is restricted to the influence ofpopulation only, therefore, theanalysis of crime rate of a particularState/UT shouldn’t be construed asthe sole indicator of crime position ofthat particular State/UT in relation toothers.The crime rate defined as the‘number of crimes’ per 1,00,000population is universally taken as arealistic indicator since it balances theeffect of growth in population. Therate of total cognizable crimes in thecountry which showed a decreasingtrend during 2002-2003 (from 526.0 in23
  27. 27. (All India 472643)Uttarakhand2254Maharashtra48336Karnataka23743Lakshadweep14Goa536Kerala20359Tamil Nadu38346Puducherry1170Andhra Pradesh67795Dadra & Nagar Haveli64Rajasthan33797Gujarat18782Daman & Diu59Jammu & Kashmir2108Uttar Pradesh37503Madhya Pradesh48089Haryana8310Punjab11031Delhi5238Himachal Pradesh2087Chandigarh185Jharkhand7798Orissa14205Chhattisgarh13561Andaman & Nicobar Islands149Meghalaya511Bihar30762Assam12519Sikkim163Manipur1168Tripura1475Mizoram231Arunachal Pradesh773Nagaland337West Bengal19185Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 300300 - 1,0001,000 - 5,0005,000 - 10,000Above 10,000INCIDENCE OF CRIME AGAINST BODY DURING 2008
  28. 28. 2002 to 514.4 in 2003) rose to 555.3in 2004 and declined to 455.8 in 2005and further to 455.7 in 2006.However, it rose to 504.5 in 2007 andfurther to 515.0 in 2008. The crimerate has increased by 2.1% in 2008as compared to 2007. The suddendrop in crime rate from 555.3 in 2004to 455.8 in 2005 may be attributed tothe exclusion of certain non-cognizable crimes by Kolkata Policein 2005 data, which were beingincluded inadvertently under thecrime-head Other SLL crimes prior to2005. The crime rate in respect of IPC crimeshas increased by 3.6% from 175.1 in 2007 to181.5 in 2008 and that for SLL crimes hasincreased by 1.2% from 329.4 in 2007 to 333.4in 2008.Crime Incidence- IPC(Incidence…20,93,379)A total of 20,93,379 IPCcrimes were reported in the countryduring the year 2008 against19,89,673 in 2007 recording anincrease of 5.2% in 2008. The shareof IPC crimes to total cognizablecrimes in percentage terms increasedfrom 30.4% in 2004 to 36.3% in 2005and 36.8% in 2006. It declined to34.7% in 2007 and increased to35.3% in 2008, thus showing a mixedtrend during the five-year period 2004- 2008. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtraeach accounted for about 9.9% of total crimesreported in the country during 2008.Crime Rate - IPC(Crime rate…181.5)The IPC crime rate hasdeclined by 0.9% during the decade1998-2008 from 183.2 in 1998 to181.5 in 2008. It has increased by8.3% during 2008 as compared withquinquennial average (during 2003-2007) rate of 167.5. Puducherry (461.9),Chandigarh (367.0), Kerala (322.1), MadhyaPradesh (296.4) and Delhi (286.1) have reportedmuch higher crime rates as compared to theNational average of 181.5.Trend AnalysisCrimes Against Body(Incidence…4,72,643Rate…41.0)These comprise Murder andits attempt, Culpable Homicide notamounting to Murder, Kidnapping &Abduction, Hurt and Causing Deathby Negligence as defined in thebeginning of the chapter. A total of4,72,643 crimes were reported underthis head in the country accounting for22.6% of the total IPC crimes duringthe year 2008. Crimes Against Bodyshowed an increase of 4.8% during2008 over 2007. The share of these crimes tototal IPC crimes was highest in Andhra Pradeshat 37.8% compared to National average of22.6%. Details are presented in Table-1.9. The rate of crimes against bodywas also second highest in AndhraPradesh (82.2 per lakh population)after UT of Puducherry (108.3)compared to National rate of 41.0.Crimes Against Property(Incidence…4,38,772Rate…38.0)These comprise Dacoity, itsPreparation & Assembly, Robbery,Burglary and Theft. A total of4,38,772 such crimes were reportedduring 2008 as compared to 4,03,181crimes during 2007 showing anincrease of 8.8%. The share of these25
  29. 29. Note:Rate of Crime against Body means no. of crimes against body per one lakh population.Rate of Crimeupto 1919 - 3131 - 50Above 50RATE OF CRIME AGAINST BODY DURING 2008(All India 40.99)Uttarakhand23.62Maharashtra45.03Karnataka41.22Lakshadweep20.3Goa32.60Kerala59.29Tamil Nadu57.60Puducherry108.3Andhra Pradesh82.21Dadra & Nagar Haveli24.2Rajasthan52.00Gujarat33.15Daman & Diu31.2Jammu & Kashmir16.86Uttar Pradesh19.53Madhya Pradesh69.01Haryana34.78Punjab41.33Delhi30.37Himachal Pradesh31.76Chandigarh17.27Jharkhand25.87Orissa35.48Chhattisgarh57.04Andaman & Nicobar Islands35.9Meghalaya20.06Bihar32.62Assam41.62Sikkim27.35Manipur44.49Tripura41.86 Mizoram23.48Arunachal Pradesh64.20Nagaland15.35West Bengal21.8
  30. 30. crimes to total IPC crimes at theNational level was 21.0% during theyear. The share of these crimes (55.0%) to totalIPC crimes (1,095) was highest in Mizoram.The share of such crimes in thecountry was around 21% in each ofthe year from 2004 to 2008.The average rate of crimeunder this head in the country during2008 was 38.0. Table-1.10 may beseen for details.Crimes Against Public Order(Incidence…75,267Rate…6.5)Riots and Arson are the majorcomponents of this category of crimesagainst public order which constitute3.6% of the total IPC crimes.Incidence of crimes under this headhas increased by 9.2% from 68,939 in2007 to 75,267 in 2008. The rate ofsuch crimes has marginally increasedfrom 6.1 in 2007 to 6.5 in 2008. Therate of such crime was highest inKerala at 24.6 as compared toNational average of 6.5. Table-1.11may be seen for details.Economic Crimes(Incidence…86,057Rate…7.5)These crimes comprisingCriminal Breach of Trust, Cheatingand Counterfeiting, showed anincrease of 3.6% in 2008 as therewere 86,057 reported crimes ascompared to 83,061 in 2007. Therate of such crimes varied from 6.2 to7.3 during 2004 to 2007. Thesecrimes have accounted for 4.1% ofthe total IPC crimes. Punjab reportedthe highest share of 9.9% of thesecrimes to its IPC component.Chandigarh has reported the highestcrime rate of 23.3 as compared toNational average of 7.5. Table 1.12may be seen for details.Trend Analysis - Major IPCCrimesThe components of Violentcrimes such as Murder, Attempt toCommit Murder, Culpable Homicidenot amounting to Murder, Rape,Kidnapping & Abduction, Dacoity, itsPreparation & Assembly, Robbery,Riots, Arson and Dowry Death havebeen separately analysed in thechapter on Violent Crimes. The crimehead-wise analysis with 5 and 10 yeartrends for remaining crimes arediscussed below.Burglary (Sec. 449 to 452, 454,455, 457 to 460 IPC)(Incidence…93,742Rate…8.1)Burglary offences with 93,742incidents in 2008 were the highestsince 2003 showing an increase of2.8% as compared to 2007 (91,218).The trend analysis of Burglarycases reported at the national levelrevealed that there was a decline insuch cases by 21.4% during 2008from 1998 level and an increase of27
  31. 31. (All India 438772)Uttarakhand2207Maharashtra72980Karnataka26211Lakshadweep11Goa929Kerala10874Tamil Nadu19696Puducherry801Andhra Pradesh34438Dadra & Nagar Haveli104Rajasthan26117Gujarat27360Daman & Diu100Jammu & Kashmir3615Uttar Pradesh33850Madhya Pradesh38173Haryana17890Punjab8513Delhi21492Himachal Pradesh2063Chandigarh2276Jharkhand9871Orissa12236Chhattisgarh10832Andaman & Nicobar Islands220Meghalaya965Bihar18958Assam12113Sikkim216Manipur742Tripura828Mizoram1095Arunachal Pradesh783Nagaland565West Bengal19648Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 1,0001,000 - 10,00010,000 - 15,00015,000 - 25,000Above 25,000INCIDENCE OF CRIME AGAINST PROPERTY DURING 2008
  32. 32. 2.3% as compared to the average oflast 5 years (2003-2007) (See Table-1.3).Maharashtra reported themaximum number of Burglary cases(16,004) among States/UTsaccounting for 17.1% of suchincidents at the National level. Allmajor States other than Assam, WestBengal, Karnataka and Chhattisgarhhave either reported decline or slightincrease in Burglary cases during2008 as compared to 2007. Assamhas reported an increase of 20.9%,West Bengal an increase of 15.8%,Karnataka an increase of 14.8% andChhattisgarh has reported anincrease of 13.2% during the period.Every 1,00,000 population in thecountry experienced 8 Burglaries on an averagein 2008. The population in urbanagglomerations experienced morethan double of such crimes. Thehighest rate of about 34 Burglariesper lakh population was reported fromMizoram during the year 2008.Theft (Sec. 379 to 382 IPC)(Incidence…3,16,761Rate…27.5)Theft cases reported anincrease of 10.0% during 2008 ascompared to those of 1998. Therewas 17.3% increase in 2008 ascompared to average of such casesduring last 5 years. The incidence oftheft showed an increase of 11.1% in2008 as compared to 2007.Maharashtra has reported52,860 thefts during the yearreporting 16.7% of the total Thefts inthe country. There were about 27 thefts forevery 1,00,000 population in the country. TheUrban Agglomerations have reportedmore than triple rate with 91.2 thefts(per one lakh population). Chandigarhand Delhi UT have reported a rate of 185.9and 109.4 thefts respectively during the year2008.Auto Theft has accounted for37.9% of the total theft offences. Atotal of 1,20,032 cases of theft ofautomobiles were reported in thecountry during 2008 which accountedfor an increase of 19.7% ascompared to 2007 (1,00,255).Chandigarh has reported much higher rate at102.1 as compared to the National rate of 10.4Auto Thefts per 1,00,000 population.Riots (Sec. 143-145, 147-151, 153,153-A, 153-B, 157, 158, 160 IPC)(Incidence…66,018Rate…5.7)A total of 66,018 riot caseswere reported in the country during2008. Overall, riot cases haveincreased by 10.2% in 2008 overthose of 2007. As per 10-year and 5-year trend analysis, a decline of27.3% in comparison to 1998 and anincrease of 13.8% as compared toaverage of last 5 years (2003 – 2007)was observed. Maharashtra (9,388)has reported the highest numberof riot cases accounting for14.2% at the National level.However, Kerala reported the29
  33. 33. Note:Rate of Crime against Property means no. of crimes against property per one lakh population.Uttarakhand23.13Maharashtra67.99Karnataka45.5Lakshadweep15.94Goa56.51Kerala31.67Tamil Nadu29.58Puducherry74.17Andhra Pradesh41.76Dadra & Nagar Haveli39.25Rajasthan40.18Gujarat48.28Daman & Diu52.91Jammu & Kashmir28.92Uttar Pradesh17.63Madhya Pradesh54.78Haryana74.88Punjab31.9Delhi124.59Himachal Pradesh31.4Chandigarh212.51Jharkhand32.75Orissa30.56Chhattisgarh45.56Andaman & Nicobar Islands53.01Meghalaya37.89Bihar20.1Assam40.27Sikkim36.24Manipur28.14Tripura23.5Mizoram111.28Arunachal Pradesh65.03Nagaland25.73West Bengal22.27Rate of Crimeupto 2525 - 5050 - 100Above 100RATE OF CRIME AGAINST PROPERTY DURING 2008(All India 38.05)
  34. 34. Counterfeiting (Sec. 231 - 254and 489-A to 489-D IPC)highest rate of 23.5 cases per1,00,000 population in comparison to5.7 at the National level. (Incidence…2,991Rate…0.3)Criminal Breach of Trust (Sec.406-409 IPC)(Incidence…16,487Rate…1.4)A total of 16,487 cases ofCriminal Breach of Trust werereported in the country during 2008which were 6.2% more than those of2007 (15,531).An increase of 2.0% from1998 level and an increase of 17.2%from the average of last 5 years wereobserved as per 10-year & 5-yeartrend analysis.Uttar Pradesh has reported4,296 such cases reporting 26.0% oftotal cases at the National level.Dadra & Nagar Haveli has reportedhigh rate of 3.8 as compared to 1.4 atthe National level.Cheating (Sec. 419 to 420 IPC)(Incidence…66,579Rate…5.8)A total of 66,579 cheatingcases were reported in the countryduring 2008 accounting for 74.0%increase from 1998 level and 1.9%increase as compared to theprevious year. Rajasthan hasreported the highest number of suchcases (12,097) accounting for 18.2%of total such crimes in the country.Chandigarh has reported the highestrate of such crimes (19.9) incomparison to National average of5.8.A total of 2,991 cases ofCounterfeiting were reported during2008 showing an increase of 35.7%as compared to previous year (2,068).An increase of 121.1% from 1998level and an increase of 44.6% fromthe average of last 5 years wereobserved as per 10-year and 5-yeartrend analysis. Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Goaand Puducherry have reported 709.5%, 130%,120% and 100% increase in Counterfeiting casesover 2007 respectively.Hurt (Sec. 323, 324 to 333, 335 to338 IPC)(Incidence…2,84,969Rate…24.7)A total of 2,84,969 Hurt caseswere reported showing an increase of4.4% during this year over 2007figures. As per 5-year trend analysis,an increase of 5.8% over the averageof last 5 years (2003–2007) wasobserved. Lakshadweep has reported12 such cases against none last year.Tripura and Meghalaya each havereported an increase of more than60% over last year. Andhra Pradeshhas reported highest incidence(48,167) accounting for 16.9% of totalsuch crimes reported in the country.Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)(Incidence…40,413Rate…3.5)A total of 40,413 molestationcases were reported in the countryshowing an increase of 4.3% over2007.31
  35. 35. Uttarakhand524Maharashtra10676Karnataka6278Lakshadweep14Goa129Kerala8446Tamil Nadu3421Puducherry174Andhra Pradesh2951Dadra & Nagar Haveli30Rajasthan2005Gujarat2172Daman & Diu38Jammu & Kashmir2012Uttar Pradesh4609Madhya Pradesh3666Haryana1323Punjab76Delhi112Himachal Pradesh754Chandigarh87Jharkhand2740Orissa3590Chhattisgarh1446Andaman & Nicobar Islands31Meghalaya36Bihar8871Assam3043Sikkim40Manipur89Tripura244 Mizoram19Arunachal Pradesh28Nagaland18West Bengal5575Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 2525 - 5050 - 1,0001,000 - 5,000Above 5,000(All India 75267)INCIDENCE OF CRIME AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER DURING 2008
  36. 36. Madhya Pradesh has reported 6,445cases accounting for 15.9% of totalcases reported in the country. Tripurahas reported the highest rate (9.8) incomparison to the National average of3.5.Sexual Harassment (Sec. 509IPC)(Incidence…12,214Rate…1.1)A total of 12,214 cases werereported in the country during the yearshowing an increase of 11.5% ascompared to the previous year(10,950). 5-year trend analysisshowed an increase of 14.7% overthe average of 2003 – 2007. AndhraPradesh and Uttar Pradesh reported29.1% and 27.6% respectively of totalcases reported in the country duringthe year.Cruelty by Husband &Relatives (Sec.498-A IPC)(Incidence…81,344Rate…7.1)A total of 81,344 cases werereported in the country during theyear with an increase of 7.1% over2007 and 32.8% over the average oflast 5 years (2003 - 2007). 16.8% ofsuch crimes reported in the countrywere reported from West Bengal(13,663) alone. Tripura has reportedthe highest crime rate at 20.9 ascompared to National average of 7.1.Importation of girls (Sec. 366-BIPC)(Incidence…67Rate…Negligible)A total of 67 cases of suchcrimes were reported in the countryduring 2008 as compared to 61 casesin 2007 accounting for an increase of9.8% over 2007. Jharkhand (39) and Bihar(22) reported the bulk of cases out of 67 casesreported in the country.Causing Death by Negligence(Sec. 304-A IPC)(Incidence…92,186Rate…8.0)A total of 92,186 cases werereported in the country during 2008showing an increase of 6.2% over2007 (86,790). Andhra Pradesh hasreported the highest number (12,861)of such cases followed byMaharashtra (12,472) and Tamil Nadu(12,328). These three States togetheraccounted for 40.8% of total casesreported in the country.Incidence of IPC Crimes inDistricts and Big Cities:Reporting of various crimesunder Indian Penal Code for eachdistrict in the country is presented inTable-1.14. The distribution of IPCcrimes in cities with population ofmore than 5 lakh is presented inTable-1.15. The complete informationon 35 Urban Agglomeration centreswith population of more than10,00,000 (as per Census 2001) ispresented in various chapters of thereport. The crime analysis of theseUrban33
  37. 37. Note:Rate of Crime against Public Order means no. of crimes against Public Order per one lakh population.Uttarakhand5.49Maharashtra9.95Karnataka10.9Lakshadweep20.29Goa7.85Kerala24.6Tamil Nadu5.14Puducherry16.11Andhra Pradesh3.58Dadra & Nagar Haveli11.32Rajasthan3.08Gujarat3.83Daman & Diu20.11Jammu & Kashmir16.09Uttar Pradesh2.4Madhya Pradesh5.26Haryana5.54Punjab0.28Delhi0.65Himachal Pradesh11.47Chandigarh8.12Jharkhand9.09Orissa8.97Chhattisgarh6.08Andaman & Nicobar Islands7.47Meghalaya1.41Bihar9.41Assam10.12Sikkim6.71Manipur3.38Tripura6.92Mizoram1.93Arunachal Pradesh2.33Nagaland0.82West Bengal6.32Rate of CrimeBelow 2.202.20 - 5.085.08 - 10.0Above 10.0RATE OF CRIME AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER DURING 2008(All India 6.53)
  38. 38. Agglomeration Centres is discussedin the chapter on ‘Crime in MegaCities’.There were as many as 726districts in the country (includingRailway Police Districts) during 2008.19 districts of these have reported more than10,000 crimes annually, while 90 districts havereported crimes between 5,001 and 10,000 and abulk of them i.e. 617 of them have reported lessthan 5,000 crimes annually.The Police Districts whichhave recorded more than 10,000 IPCcrimes during 2008 along with theincidence are as under:Table-1(B)Police Districts registering above10,000 IPC cases in 2008Sl.No.Name of theDistrictIncidence1. Mumbai 32,7702. Bengaluru 29,6643. Indore 19,5874. Hyderabad 18,5675. Ahmedabad 18,5446. Bhopal 14,7187. Patna 14,4918. Pune 14,4679. Cyberabad 14,17310. South 24Parganas13,92011. Lucknow 13,70712. Kolkata 13,00513. Jalpaiguri 12,99214. Chennai 11,82915. North 24Parganas11,24716. Coimbatore Rural 10,99817.18.19.JabalpurSuratThrissur10,85710,74110,003Mumbai has reported the highestincidence of IPC crimes during 2008. Crimehead-wise analysis of districtsrevealed that Patna reported the highestnumber of cases under Murder (341) and DowryDeath (99). Nadia in West Bengal has reportedthe highest number of cases under Attempt toCommit Murder (345). Motihari in Bihar hasreported the highest incidence of CulpableHomicide not amounting to Murder (79).Jalpaiguri and North 24 Parganas inWest Bengal reported the highestincidence of Rape (334) andPreparation & Assembly for Dacoity(329) respectively. South 24Parganas in West Bengal reported thehighest incidence of Riots (1,115) andCruelty by Husband & Relatives(2,551). The highest incidence of Kidnapping& Abduction (389) was reported from Lucknowwhich reported the highest incidence of CriminalBreach of Trust (589) as well. Bengalurureported the highest incidence ofDacoity (88), Robbery (702) andCheating (2,025). Mumbai reportedthe highest incidence of Burglary(2,846), Theft (12,972) andMolestation (436). Coimbatore Urbanin Tamil Nadu accounted for themaximum number of cases underCounterfeiting (168) while Kandhamalin Orissa contributed the maximumnumber (374) of Arson cases.Cyberabad in Andhra Pradeshreported the highest incidence ofSexual Harassment (833) andCausing Death by Negligence (1,166).Hyderabad reported the highestincidence of Hurt / Grievous Hurt(4,244). Ranchi reported the highestincidence of Importation of Girls (27).Crimes under the Special &Local Laws (SLL)(Incidence…38,44,725Rate…333.4)Cases under these Acts35
  39. 39. Uttarakhand665Maharashtra9581Karnataka4211Lakshadweep0Goa174Kerala4140Tamil Nadu3179Puducherry68Andhra Pradesh9762Dadra & Nagar Haveli35Rajasthan12885Gujarat2524Daman & Diu7Jammu & Kashmir502Uttar Pradesh14043Madhya Pradesh1985Haryana1953Punjab3506Delhi1889Himachal Pradesh396Chandigarh250Jharkhand1193Orissa1612Chhattisgarh802Andaman & Nicobar Islands32Meghalaya146Bihar4162Assam1767Sikkim52Manipur188Tripura157 Mizoram106Arunachal Pradesh72Nagaland51West Bengal3962Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 100100 - 500500 - 2,0002,000 - 3,000Above 3,000INCIDENCE OF IPC ECONOMIC CRIME DURING 2008(All India 86057)
  40. 40. generally represent preventivepolicing i.e. reporting of crimesgenerally indicates better policingefforts. Mostly the Central Acts on specialsubjects which are applicable in the wholecountry are considered for the purpose of crimesreported under SLL. Local Acts areclubbed together in `Other SLL’crimes. A total of 38,44,725 SLL crimes werereported in the country during 2008 accountingfor an increase of 2.7% over 2007 (37,43,734).10-year and 5-year trend analysisshowed 12.7% decline from 1998level and 5.9% increase over theaverage of last 5 years (2003 – 2007).The rate of crime has also shown an increase of1.2% as compared to 2007 (329.4). 10-yearand 5-year trends for each crime arepresented in Table-1.16.The crime head-wisepercentage distribution of variouscognizable crimes under SLL ispresented in Table-1.17. It isobserved that the 21 specified crimeheads accounted for 21.8% of thetotal SLL crimes, while the remaining78.2% were clubbed as ‘Other SLLcrimes’. The `Prohibition Act’ and `GamblingAct’, though enforced only in a few States, share13.5% towards total SLL crimes. Next inorder were the `Excise Act’ (4.2%),and `Arms Act’ (2.0%). The trend ofmajor SLL crimes is discussed asunder:Arms Act, 1959(Incidence…77,016 Rate…6.7)77,016 cases under Arms Actwere reported in the country during2008 showing a decline of 4.0% overthe previous year (74,066). UttarPradesh has reported the highest incidence(47,725) of these cases accounting for more thanhalf (62.0%) of the total such cases reported inthe country. Uttar Pradesh has reported thehighest crime rate also at 24.9 as compared to6.7 at the National level.Narcotic Drugs & PsychotropicSubstances Act, 1985(Incidence…30,645Rate…2.7)A total of 30,645 cases underthis Act were registered in 2008showing an increase of 2.7% overprevious year (29,831). 10-year and5-year trend analysis showed 67.7%increase from 1998 level and 5.1%increase from the average of last 5years (2003 - 2007). Uttar Pradesh hasreported 46.1% (14,142) of the total such casesreported in the country. Punjab has reported thehighest crime rate of 18.9 as compared to theNational average of 2.7.Gambling Act, 1867(Incidence…1,56,247Rate…13.5)Incidence under this Actshowed a decline of 15.5% over theprevious year (1,84,972). 10-yearand 5-year trend analysis indicated anincrease of 39.1% and decline of14.6% respectively. 28.0% of the totalcases registered in the country were reportedfrom Andhra Pradesh (43,775). The Crime ratewas the highest in Andhra Pradesh (53.1) ascompared to 13.5 at the National level.Excise Act, 1944(Incidence…1,61,685Rate…14.0)The incidence under theExcise Act showed an increase of37
  41. 41. Note:Rate of Economic Crimes under IPC means no. of Economic Crimes under IPC per one lakh population.Uttarakhand6.97Maharashtra8.93Karnataka7.31Lakshadweep0Goa10.58Kerala12.06Tamil Nadu4.77Puducherry6.3Andhra Pradesh11.84Dadra & Nagar Haveli13.21Rajasthan19.82Gujarat4.45Daman & Diu3.7Jammu & Kashmir4.02Uttar Pradesh7.31Madhya Pradesh2.85Haryana8.17Punjab13.14Delhi10.95Himachal Pradesh6.03Chandigarh23.34Jharkhand3.96Orissa4.03Chhattisgarh3.37Andaman & Nicobar Islands7.71Meghalaya5.73Bihar4.41Assam5.87Sikkim8.72Manipur7.13Tripura4.46Mizoram10.77Arunachal Pradesh5.98Nagaland2.32West Bengal4.49Rate of CrimeBelow 44 - 55 - 10Above 10RATE OF ECONOMIC CRIMES UNDER IPC DURING 2008(All India 7.46)
  42. 42. 43.0% over the year 1998 and 12.8%over the previous year. Uttar Pradesh hasreported the highest incidents (63,185)accounting for 39.1% of the total cases reportedunder this Act. Among the States, highest crimerate was reported from Chhattisgarh (55.8)followed by Haryana (48.7). A&N Islands(926.0) has reported highest crimerate among UTs as compared toNational average of 14.0.Prohibition Act(Incidence…3,61,940Rate…31.4)Cases reported under this Acthave accounted for 9.4% of total SLLcrimes in the country and shows anincrease of 5.1% over the previousyear (3,44,356). The incidence underthis Act has declined by 33.0% overthe year 1998 and by 1.2% over theaverage of 5 years (2003 - 2007). Thehighest number of cases under thisAct (1,63,310) were reported fromGujarat followed by Tamil Nadu(1,17,410) and Maharashtra (69,412).These three States togetheraccounted for 96.7% of the totalcases registered in the country. Therate was highest at 288.2 in Gujaratagainst the National average of 31.4.Explosives & ExplosiveSubstances Act, 1884 & 1908(Incidence…4,067Rate…0.4)The incidence under theExplosives & Explosive SubstancesAct showed a decline of 17.4% from1998 (4,923) level and by 0.6% overthe average of last 5 years (2003 -2006). However, an increase of 1.2%in incidence was observed over 2007.The highest number of cases (1,088) accountingfor 26.7% of the total cases was reported fromUttar Pradesh. The crime rate was, however,maximum at 2.0 in Sikkim against the Nationalaverage of 0.4.Immoral Traffic (Prevention)Act, 1956(Incidence…2,659Rate…0.2)The incidence under theImmoral Traffic (Prevention) Act hasdeclined by 69.4% over 1998 level(8,695), 47.4% over average (5,055)of last 5 years (2003 - 2007). A declineof 25.5% was observed as compared to 2007.Tamil Nadu reported 25.8% of total such cases(687). Daman & Diu reported the highest crimerate at 3.2 against the National average of 0.2.Railways Act, 1989(Incidence…145Rate…Negligible)Cases registered under thisAct declined steeply from 21,444 in2004 to 224 cases in 2005 and furtherto 186 and 145 in 2007 and 2008respectively. Uttar Pradesh (24),Uttarakhand (22), Maharashtra (19),Rajasthan (15) and Assam (10)contributed 62.1% of the casesreported in the country under the Actduring 2008.Registration of Foreigners Act,1930(Incidence…1,524Rate…0.1)Cases registered under thisAct have shown an increase of 23.9%over 1998 (1,230) and a decline of39
  43. 43. 28.0% over previous year (1,524).West Bengal alone has reported 74.7% (1,139)of the total cases reported at the National levelwhile Goa has reported the highest crime rate of2.1 against the National crime rate of 0.1.Indian Passport Act, 1967(Incidence…1,045Rate…0.1)The cases registered underthe Indian Passport Act haveincreased by 163.9% over 1998, by18.6% over the quinquennial averageof 2003 - 2007, and by 6.2% over theprevious year (984). The highestincidence (411) accounting for 39.3%of the total cases in the country wasreported from Tamil Nadu during theyear. The highest crime rate was inMizoram (5.1) against the Nationalaverage of 0.1.Essential Commodities Act, 1955(Incidence…9,106Rate…0.8)The cases registered underthe Essential Commodities Act haveincreased by 60.5% over 1998, by39.8% over the quinquennial averageof 2003 - 2007 and by 14.3% overprevious year (7,965). The highestincidence (2,499) accounting for27.4% of the total cases werereported from Maharashtra, followedby Uttar Pradesh (2,096) representing23.0% of the total cases. However,the crime rate was highest inPuducherry (4.9) compared to theNational average of 0.8.Antiquities & Art Treasures Act,1972(Incidence…34Rate… Negligible)The cases registered underthis Act have shown a decline of10.5% over 1998, 37.0% over thequinquennial average of 2003 – 2007and 30.6% over previous year. Bulk ofthe cases were reported from Andhra Pradesh(16) out of total cases 34 reported at Nationallevel.Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961(Incidence…5,555Rate…0.5)The cases registered underthe Dowry Prohibition Act have shownan increase of 55.3% over 1998,41.7% over the quinquennial averageand decline of 1.2% over 2007(5,623). Orissa (1,316), Bihar (1,288) andAndhra Pradesh (1,069) have accounted for66.1% of the total cases reported in the country.Orissa reported the highest crime rate(3.3) against the National average of0.5.Child Marriage Restraint Act,1929(Incidence…104Rate… Negligible)The cases reported underthis Act have increased by 85.7%over 1998, by 9.9% over thequinquennial average and by 8.3%over the previous year (95). Gujarat(23) and Andhra Pradesh (19) havereported bulk of the cases togetheraccounting for 40.4% of the totalcases.40
  44. 44. 42Indecent Representation ofWomen (Prohibition) Act, 1986(Incidence…1,025Rate…0.1)The number of cases registered underIndecent Representation of Women(Prohibition) Act have shown adecline of 36.7% over the average of5 years (2003 - 2007) and 14.6% over2007 (1,200). Andhra Pradesh (889) hasreported 86.7% of the total cases registered inthe country. It has also reported the highestcrime rate at 1.1 against the national rate of0.1.Copyright Act, 1957(Incidence…6,036Rate…0.5)The cases registered underthe Copyright Act have shown amixed trend since 1998 with anincrease of 318.0% over the 1998level but decline of 6.7% over the 5year average (2003 - 2007) and 8.9%over 2007. Tamil Nadu (with 1,274cases) has registered 21.1% of thetotal cases reported in the country.SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities)Act, 1989 (Incidence…12,624Rate…1.1)The cases reported under the SC/ST(Prevention of Atrocities) Act have shown adecline of 13.7% over 1998. However, incidence(12,624) of these cases has shown an increase of26.3% over the average of last five years (2003 –2007) and 15.6% over the previous year(10,923). 11,602 cases accounting for91.9% of total 12,624 cases reportedin the country were reported forcrimes against the Scheduled Castesand 1,022 cases accounting for 8.1%were reported for crimes againstScheduled Tribes.Protection of Civil Rights Act,1955 (Incidence…254Rate…Negligible)The cases registered underthe Protection of Civil Rights Act haveshown a considerable decline of79.2% over the 1998 level, 41.3%decline over the average of last 5years and 20.4% increase over 2007(211).97.6% (248 cases) out of 254cases under this Act were reported forcrimes against the Scheduled Casteswhile the rest 2.4% (6 cases) were forcrimes against the Scheduled Tribes.Forest Act, 1927(Incidence…5,090Rate…0.4)The cases registered underthis Act have shown an increase of8.7% over the previous year(4,682).Two States viz. Rajasthan (2.362)and Uttar Pradesh (1,765) have accounted for81.1% of the total cases reported in the countryduring the year. Himachal Pradesh hasreported highest crime rate of 3.7 asagainst the National crime rate 0.4.
  45. 45. CHAPTER-2CRIMES IN MEGA CITIESIntroduction Various forms of crimeThe term `MegaCity’ here refers to cities havingpopulation of over 10 lakhs (1 million).The number of such cities hasincreased from 23 in 1991 to 35 in2001.Mega cities are facingincreased criminal activities onaccount of a number of socio-economic factors. This chapter dealswith crime analysis relating to thesecities.The actual census populationof these cities for the year 2001 isused for calculating the crime rates inthe absence of mid-year populationestimates for the year 2008 for these35 cities from the Registrar General ofIndia Office. The population of these35 mega cities (see Table-1.6)constitutes nearly 10% of thecountry’s total population.27.8% of population lives inUrban areas as per 2001 census. Thepresent analysis does not aim atcomplete urban crime pattern in thecountry but restricts to only 35 megacities representing nearly 37.8% oftotal urban population (1078.8 lakhout of 2853.5 lakh as per 2001census).The present analysis on megacities is restricted to 22 majorspecified crimes under IPC and 21specified crimes under SLL. The city-wise details of these crimes for 35mega cities are furnished in Chapter-I.Other related details on PropertyStolen & Recovered, Crime againstWomen, Crime against Children andCyber Crimes are also furnished inthe respective chapters of the reports.The major crime pattern of IPCcrimes & SLL crimes in 35 mega citiesare discussed below.Crimes under the IndianPenal Code (IPC) Incidence(All India…20,93,379Mega Cities…3,47,153)A total of 3,47,153 cognizablecrimes under the IPC were reported in35 mega cities during 2008 ascompared to 3,36,889 crimes during2007, thereby reporting an increase of3.0%. There was an increase of 5.2% in IPCcrimes during 2008 over the previous year 2007at the national level.The Urban agglomerationcentres have accounted for 42.2%(50,711 out of 1,20,032) of the totalauto theft cases in the countryfollowed by 32.1% Counterfeitingcases (960 out of 2,991) and 26.1%Cheating cases (17,351 out of66,579) of the nation’s total IPC crime.43
  46. 46. The cities of Delhi, Mumbai andBengaluru have accounted for 12.8%, 9.4% and8.5% respectively of the total crimes reportedfrom 35 mega cities. Rajkot city hasreported significant increase of 41.2%IPC crimes as compared to previousyear (2007) followed by Lucknow(38.6%). Chennai and Jabalpur citieshave reported a decline of 28.3% and21.6% respectively.Rate of Crime (IPC)(All India…181.5Mega Cities…321.8)The average rate of crime inUrban agglomeration centres at 321.8was much higher than the nationalcrime rate of 181.5 (Table-1.6). Indorereported the highest crime rate (941.4) among themega cities in the country followed by Bhopal(791.4) and Jaipur (663.0). The crime ratefor each city is compared with thecorresponding crime rate of thedomain State in Table 2(A).Crime rate (IPC) in cities wasgenerally higher than thecorresponding crime rate of domainState. The crime rate was lower thanthat of the respective State in case ofChennai, Dhanbad, Kolkata andMadurai. The crime rate in case ofMumbai (200.2) was slightly higherthan that of Maharshtra (192.1). Thecrime rate at national level increased marginallyby 3.6% (from 175.1 in 2007 to 181.5 in 2008),however, the crime rate in cities has increased by3.0% (from 312.3 in 2007 to 321.8 in 2008).Table-2 (A)IPC crime rateMega Cities Vs Domain StateRate of Crime (IPC)Sl.No.City MegaCityDomainState1 Agra 365.3 88.02 Ahmedabad 410.4 218.53 Allahabad 197.0 88.04 Amritsar 230.2 132.35 Asansol 153.6 119.56 Bengaluru 521.6 221.47 Bhopal 791.4 296.48 Chennai 184.1 265.69 Coimbatore 289.1 265.610 Delhi 348.5 286.111 Dhanbad 122.4 128.312 Faridabad 428.1 231.713 Hyderabad 335.5 217.414 Indore 941.4 296.415 Jabalpur 459.1 296.416 Jaipur 663.0 232.617 Jamshedpur 243.6 128.318 Kanpur 330.3 88.019 Kochi 587.2 322.120 Kolkata 98.4 119.521 Lucknow 517.6 88.022 Ludhiana 204.1 132.323 Madurai 206.7 265.624 Meerut 236.9 88.025 Mumbai 200.2 192.126 Nagpur 408.0 192.127 Nasik 331.0 192.128 Patna 528.1 130.129 Pune 385.2 192.130 Rajkot 551.4 218.531 Surat 382.1 218.532 Vadodara 361.0 218.533 Varanasi 225.6 88.034 Vijayawada 507.1 217.435 Vishakhapatnam 377.4 217.4Total (Cities/All India) 321.8 181.544
  47. 47. Incidence & Rate of IPC Crimes (mega cities)Percentage Change From 20012.7-0.419. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008YearPercent% Variation (Incidence) % Variation (Rate)FIGURE 2.1
  48. 48. 48Trend analysis – IPC crimesThe details of IPC crimes incities during 2004 to 2008 arepresented in Table-2(B).Table-2 (B)Incidence & Rate of IPC crimes (megacities)Year Incidence Rate200420052006200720083,09,9293,14,7083,26,3633,36,8893,47,153287.3291.7302.5312.3321.8Crimes under Special andLocal Laws(All India…38,44,725Mega Cities…6,38,986)35 cities have 6,38,986reported cases registered as crimesunder Special & Local Laws ascompared to 7,53,760 in 2007. Theincidence under SLL during 2008showed a decline of 15.2% in cities ascompared to an increase of 2.7%observed at National level.35 Urban agglomerationcentres have significantly accountedfor 41.6% of the cases (1,106 out of2,659) registered under ImmoralTraffic (Prevention) Act in the country,34.7% of the cases (2,092 out of6,036) registered under Copyright Actand 22.4% cases (57 out of 254)registered under the Protection of CivilRights Act in the country.Crime rate (SLL)(All-India…333.4Mega Cities…592.3)The crime rate in UrbanAgglomeration centres (592.3) was1.8 times more than the Nationalaverage (333.4). The highest crime rate ofSLL crimes during 2008 was reported fromAllahabad (6,283.2) followed by Agra (6,185.6).The city-wise details are presented inTable-1.18.Trends Analysis – SLL CrimesThe details of SLL crimes in35 mega cities during 2004 to 2008are presented in Table-2(C). Thecrime rate in 35 mega cities hasshown a mixed trend.Table-2(C)Incidence & Rate of SLL crimes inMega CitiesYear Incidence Rate2004200520062007200818,80,9247,66,6196,61,6007,53,7606,38,9861,743.5710.6613.3698.7592.3
  49. 49. CHAPTER-3VIOLENT CRIMESViolent crimes affect the lifeand safety of the people. Such crimesinduce a sense of insecurity and fearin the community. The frequency andthe magnitude of such crimes alsoaffect the public peace.The following IPC crimesreported to the Police authorities havebeen grouped as ‘Violent Crimes’ forthe purpose of crime analysis in thischapter.I. Violent crimes affectinglifeMurder, Attempt to Commit Murder,Culpable Homicide not amounting toMurder, Dowry Deaths andKidnapping & Abduction;II. Violent crimes affectingpropertyDacoity, Preparation & Assembly forDacoity and Robbery;III. Violent crimes affectingpublic safetyRiots and Arson;IV. Violent crimes affectingWomenRape.Percentage distribution ofViolent crimes during 2004-2008The percentage share ofviolent crimes reported in the countryduring 2008 was 10.9% of the totalIPC crimes. The share of violent crimes intotal IPC crimes has decreased from 11.4% in2004 to 10.9% in 2008. Out of the total2,28,663 violent crimes reported inthe country during the year, 45.3%crimes were violent crimes affectinglife (1,03,660 cases). Violent crimeswhich affected the property during theyear were 12.4% (28,269 cases);those affecting the public safety were32.9% (75,267 cases) and violentcrimes directed against Women(Rape) were 9.4% (21,467 cases) ofthe total violent crimes.Trend of Violent Crimes (2004 –2008)The quantum of total violentcrimes has declined during 2004 to2005 followed by a continuousincrease during 2006, 2007 and 2008.Though the share of violent crimes in totalIPC crimes has declined over this period (2004 -2008), the share of violent crimes affecting lifeincreased in 2005 as compared to 2006 and thencontinuously decreased. The share of violentcrimes affecting women has increasedcontinually from 8.7 in 2004 to 9.6 in 2007 andthen decreased to 9.4 in 2008. On thecontrary, share of violent crimesaffecting Public safety has declinedcontinually over the period 2004 –2006 and then continually increasedin 2007 and 2008. Share of crimesaffecting Property has shown a mixedtrend. This is clear indication ofchange in the pattern of violent crimesover the years.Incidence of Violent Crimes(Incidence… 2,28,663Crime Rate… 19.8)A total of 2,28,663 incidentsof violent crimes were reported in thecountry during 2008 as against2,15,613 during 2007 recording anincrease of 6.0%. The share ofviolent crimes to the total IPC crimesduring 2008 also increasedmarginally from 10.8% in 2007 to10.9% in 2008.49
  50. 50. Uttarakhand1573Maharashtra22862Karnataka13128Lakshadweep18Goa308Kerala11363Tamil Nadu10518Puducherry297Andhra Pradesh12275Dadra & Nagar Haveli65Rajasthan10127Gujarat7116Daman & Diu52Jammu & Kashmir3864Uttar Pradesh26921Madhya Pradesh15663Haryana5671Punjab3639Delhi3982Himachal Pradesh1284Chandigarh239Jharkhand8686Orissa10478Chhattisgarh5367Andaman & Nicobar Islands97Meghalaya497Bihar23247Assam9691Sikkim91Manipur1213Tripura931 Mizoram166Arunachal Pradesh353Nagaland377West Bengal16504Incidence (No. of Cases)upto 100100 - 1,0001,000 - 5,0005,000 - 10,000Above 10,000INCIDENCE OF VIOLENT CRIMES DURING 2008(All India 228663)
  51. 51. Table-3(A)Violent Crimes reported during 2004 - 2008YearsSl.No.Crimes2004 2005 2006 2007 2008(1) (2) (3) (5) (6) (7) (7) Violent CrimesAffecting LifeAffecting PropertyAffecting Public SafetyAffecting Women2,08,736[11.4]95,786(45.9)26,109(12.5)68,608(32.9)18,233(8.7)2,02,640[11.1]93,947(46.4)25,648(12.7)64,686(31.9)18,359(9.0)2,05,656[10.9]94,855(46.1)26,332(12.8)65,121(31.7)19,348(9.4)2,15,613[10.8]99,017(45.9)26,920(12.5)68,939(32.0)20,737(9.6)2,28,663[10.9]1,03,660(45.3)28,269(12.4)75,267(32.9)21,467(9.4)Note: 1. ( ) Bracketed figures represent the percentage share of crimes to total violent crimes2. [ ] Bracketed figures represent the percentage share of crimes to total IPC crimesTrend of Violent CrimesThe State and UT-wiseincidents of violent crimes and theirrate during 2008 are presented inTable-3.1. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar andMaharashtra have reported high number ofincidence with 26,921, 23,247 and 22,862cases representing 11.8%, 10.2% and 10.0%respectively of the total violent crimes reportedin the country during 2008.The crime rate (19.8) of total violentcrimes in the country has shown an increase of4.2% during 2008 over 2007 (19.0). Thecrime rates recorded for variouscategories of violent crimes for theyears 2004 - 2008 at the All-Indialevel are given in Table-3 (B). Therate of total violent crimes hasdeclined in 2005 as compared to 2004and remained static at 18.4 in 2006followed by an increase in 2007 and2008.The highest crime rate ofviolent crimes was reported inManipur (46.0) followed by Kerala(33.1), Assam (32.2) and Jammu &Kashmir (30.9). The lowest crime rate wasobserved in Gujarat (12.6), Punjab (13.6). andUttar Pradesh (14.0).Table-3 (B)Crime Rate of Violent crimes during 2004 - 2008Sl.No. Crime Rate For Violent Crimes (IPC) 2004 2005 2006 2007 20081.2.3.4.Affecting lifeAffecting PropertyAffecting Public safetyAffecting Women8. crimes 19.2 18.4 18.4 19.0 19.8Share of Violent crimes to totalIPC CrimesThe violent crimes constituted 11.4%of total IPC crimes reported in the countryduring 2004 whereas the share of these crimeswas 10.8% in 2007, thereby showing a decliningduring the period 2004 - 2007. However, theshare of violent crimes has marginally increasedto 10.9% of total IPC crimes during 2008. The51
  52. 52. Note:Rate of Violent Crime means no. of violent crimes per one lakh population.Uttarakhand16.5Maharashtra21.3Karnataka22.8Lakshadweep26.1Goa18.7Kerala33.1Tamil Nadu15.8Puducherry27.5Andhra Pradesh14.9Dadra & Nagar Haveli24.5Rajasthan15.6Gujarat12.6Daman & Diu27.5Jammu & Kashmir30.9Uttar Pradesh14Madhya Pradesh22.5Haryana23.7Punjab13.6Delhi23.1Himachal Pradesh19.5Chandigarh22.3Jharkhand28.8Orissa26.2Chhattisgarh22.6Andaman & Nicobar Islands23.4Meghalaya19.5Bihar24.7Assam32.2Sikkim15.3Manipur46Tripura26.4 Mizoram16.9Arunachal Pradesh29.3Nagaland17.2West Bengal18.7Rate of Crimeupto 1515 - 2020 - 25Above 25RATE OF VIOLENT CRIMES DURING 2008(All India 19.8)
  53. 53. comparative National level details arepresented in Table-3 (A). The share ofviolent crimes to total IPC crimes was highest inManipur (36.2%) followed by Nagaland(31.4%) against the National average of 10.9%.This reflects that there was nearly oneviolent crime for every three IPCcrimes in these two States (i.e.Manipur and Nagaland).Trend Analysis of VariousViolent CrimesMurder(Incidence… 32,766Crime Rate…2.8)The incidence of Murder (32,766) hasincreased by 1.4% as compared to the previousyear 2007 (32,318). The highest incidence(4,564) of Murder, accounting for 13.9% oftotal cases was reported from Uttar Pradesh.Bihar reported 3,139 casesaccounting for 9.6% of total Murdercases. The rate of crime was highestin Manipur (7.1) followed byNagaland (6.5) as compared to theNational average rate of 2.8 (SeeTable 1.8).Motives of MurderThe prominent motivesbehind murders were PersonalVendetta or Enmity and PropertyDispute as in the past, whichaccounted for 10.0% and 8.7%respectively. The other significantcauses were: ‘Love Affairs / SexualCauses’ (7.1%), ‘Gain’ (4.9%) and‘Dowry’ (3.6%). Bihar has reported20.5% (332 out of 1,618) murders for‘Gain’, 28.9% (825 out of 2,852)murders due to ‘Property Dispute’and 35.7% (15 out of 42) murders onaccount of ‘Casteism’. MadhyaPradesh has accounted for 14.2%(465 out of 3,271) murders due toPersonal Vendetta or Enmity and37.8% (17 out of 45) murders due toCommunalism. Andhra Pradesh hasreported 18.4% of murders due to‘Love Affairs / Sexual Causes and21.3% of murders due to PoliticalReasons. 24.2% of murders due to‘Dowry were reported from Orissa.Gujarat accounted for 25.4% ofmurders on account of ‘Lunacy’.Jharkhand contributed 29.7% ofmurders due to ‘Witchcraft.Chhattisgarh accounted for 23.7% murders by‘Terrorist / Extremist Violence’. 78.4% (58out of 74) of murders due to ‘ClassConflict were reported from WestBengal and the remaining murderswere reported from Bihar.Attempt to Commit Murder(Incidence… 28,598Crime rate… 2.5)The incidence of Attempt toCommit Murder (28,598) during 2008has increased by 4.4% over theprevious year (27,401). As in the caseof Murder, Uttar Pradesh hasregistered the highest (4,233)incidence of Attempt to CommitMurder followed by Bihar with (2,954)cases. The crime rate was the highestin Manipur (18.9) against the Nationalaverage of 2.5.Culpable Homicide not amountingto Murder(Incidence… 3,863Crime rate… 0.3)The incidence (3,863) ofCulpable Homicide not amounting to55
  54. 54. Murder has increased by 6.0% overprevious year (3,644). As in the casesof Murder and its attempt, UttarPradesh has reported highest numberof cases (1,493) of Culpable Homicidenot amounting to Murder accountingfor 38.6% of such cases reported atthe National level. The crime rate washighest in Uttar Pradesh (0.8) againstthe National average of 0.3.56Motives of Culpable Homicide(C.H.) not amounting to Murder‘Property Dispute’ (4.0%),‘Personal Vendetta or Enmity’ (2.9%)and ‘Gain’ (1.4%) were the majormotives for Culpable Homicide notamounting to Murder. AndhraPradesh has registered the highestnumber of Culpable Homicide casesfor Gain (24.1%). Bihar hasregistered the maximum number ofsuch cases due to Property Dispute(58.1%), ‘Personal Vendetta orEnmity’ (24.1%), Love Affairs(54.0%), Dowry (43.9%) and PoliticalReasons (50.0%). Jharkhandaccounted for 89.7% cases ofCulpable Homicide not Amounting toMurder due to Lunacy, the lone suchcase due to Witchcraft was reportedfrom Haryana, West Bengalaccounted for 92.7% cases due toClass Conflict and Chhattisgarh andWest Bengal each reported one casedue to Terrorist / Extremist Violence.A total of 3,371 cases of CulpableHomicide not amounting to Murder,which accounted for 87.3% of totalTable-3 (C)Percentage share of Violent crimes to the total IPC crimes during 2008(All-India Average: 10.9%)State/UTs With Percentage ShareAbove All-India AverageState/UTs With Percentage ShareBelow All-India AverageSl.NoState % Share Sl.NoState % Share(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)1. MANIPUR 36.2 1. CHHATTISGARH 10.42. NAGALAND 31.4 2. KARNATAKA 10.33. JHARKHAND 22.5 3. KERALA 10.34. MEGHALAYA 21.4 4. PUNJAB 10.35. DAMAN & DIU 21.0 5. HARYANA 10.26. BIHAR 19.0 6. HIMACHAL PRADESH 9.27. LAKSHADWEEP 18.9 7. MIZORAM 8.38. JAMMU & KASHMIR 18.8 8. DELHI UT 8.19. ORISSA 18.5 9. MADHYA PRADESH 7.610. ASSAM 18.2 10. ANDHRA PRDAESH 6.811. UTTARAKHAND 17.8 11. RAJASTHAN 6.712. TRIPURA 17.4 12. CHANDIGARH 6.113. DADRA & NAGAR HAVELI 16.2 13. PUDUCHERRY 6.014. UTTAR PRADESH 15.9 14. TAMIL NADU 5.9GUJARATWEST BENGAL 15.7 5.715. 15.ARUNACHAL PRADESH 14.916.SIKKIM 12.517.11.218. GOA11.1MAHARASHTRA19.11.0ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS20.
  55. 55. cases, could not be classified underthe specified motives category.Rape(Incidence… 21,467Crime rate… 1.9)The number of Rape cases showedsignificant increase of 41.7% over 1998 level(15,151),, an increase by 16.0% over theQuinquennial Average of 2003 - 2007 and by3.5% over the previous year (20,737). MadhyaPradesh has recorded the highestnumber (2,937) of incidentsaccounting for 13.7% of all the Rapecases reported in the country. Nocase of Rape was reported fromDaman & Diu. Mizoram reported thehighest crime rate of 7.8 against theNational average of 1.9.Kidnapping & Abduction(Incidence… 30,261Crime rate… 2.6)30,261 cases of ‘Kidnapping& Abduction were reported during theyear, showing an increase of 28.7%over 1998 level (23,520), 28.5% overthe Quinquennial Average of 2003 -2007 and 9.8% over the previous year(27,561). The highest incidence of Kidnapping& Abduction was reported from Uttar Pradesh(5,428) accounting for 17.9% of the total casesreported in the country. The highest crimerate 9.1 was observed in Delhifollowed by Assam (7.4) against theNational average of 2.6.Dacoity(Incidence… 4,530Crime rate… 0.4)The incidence of Dacoity showed adecline of 44.0% over the 1998 level (8,091),9.7% over the Quinquennial Average of 2003 -2007 and 1.1% over the previous year (4,579).Maharashtra has reported the highestnumber of such incidents (811)accounting for 17.9% of the totalcases reported in the country. Biharwith 686 cases was the next in orderaccounting for 15.1% of the totalcases in the country. The crime ratewas highest in Meghalaya (2.5)against the National average of 0.4.Preparation & Assembly for Dacoity(Incidence… 3,217Crime rate… 0.3)The incidence (3,217) of Preparation &Assembly for Dacoity during 2008 registered anincrease of 154.1% over 1998 level (1,266),16.5% over the Quinquennial Average of 2003 -2007 and 0.4% over the previous year (3,205).West Bengal has reported the largest numberTable-3 (D)Age & Gender-wise profile of victims of murder for the year 2007 & 20082007 2008 % Share(2008)Sl.No.Age groups*Male Female Total Male Female Total1. Up to 10 years 379 329 708 346 324 670 2.02. 10-15 years 306 160 466 276 156 432 1.33. 15-18 years 391 193 584 405 204 609 1.84. 18-30 years 11,167 4,016 15,183 11,306 3,928 15,234 45.25. 30-50 years 10,549 2,706 13,255 10,708 2,868 13,576 40.26. Above 50 years 2,530 702 3,232 2,500 706 3,206 9.5Total 25,322 8,106 33,428 25,541 8,186 33,727 100.0* Revised since 200157
  56. 56. West Bengal has reported the largest number(1,055) of such cases accounting for 32.8% oftotal such cases at the National level. The crimerate of 8.0 was highest in Manipur against theNational average of 0.3.Robbery(Incidence… 20,522Crime rate… 1.8)The incidence of Robbery(20,522) showed a decline of 13.1%over the 1998 level (23,603), anincrease of 12.5% over theQuinquennial Average of 2003 -2006 and 7.2% increase over theprevious year (19,136). The highestnumber of incidents (3,031)accounting for 14.8% were reportedfrom Maharashtra. ArunachalPradesh reported the highest crimerate of 6.6 against the Nationalaverage of 1.8.Riots(Incidence…66,018Crime rate… 5.7)Incidence of Riots (59,915) registeredduring the year has declined by 27.3% over1998 (90,767), increased by 13.8% over theQuinquennial Average of 2003 - 2007 and anincrease of 10.2% over the previous year(59,915). The highest number ofincidents (9,388) were reported fromMaharshtra accounting for 14.2% oftotal such incidents in the country.The crime rate was the highest inKerala (23.5) against the Nationalaverage of 5.7.Arson(Incidence… 9,249Crime rate… 0.8)The incidence of Arson duringthe year has decreased by 28.4%over the 1998 level (12,913),increased by 5.2% over theQuinquennial Average of 2003 - 2007and increased by 2.5% over 2007(9,024). Maharashtra (1,288) hasreported the highest number ofincidents accounting for 13.9% of thetotal cases at the National level. Thehighest crime rate was reported inSiikm (3.9) against the Nationalaverage of 0.8.Dowry Death(Incidence… 8,172Crime rate… 0.7)Incidence of Dowry Deathsduring the year (8,172) has increasedby 17.2% over 1998 level (6,975),14.4% over Quinquennial Average of2003 - 2007 and 1.0% over previousyear (8,093). Uttar Pradesh hasreported the highest number of suchincidents (2,237) like previous yearfollowed by Bihar (1,210). The crimerate for Dowry Deaths was highest inBihar and Haryana (1.3 each) againstthe National rate of 0.7.Victims of Violent CrimesThe age-wise details of victimsof various crimes viz. Murder, C.H. notamounting to Murder, Kidnapping &Abduction and Rape58
  57. 57. 59are compiled annually, besides theinformation on the use of firearms forMurder.Victims of MurderThe age-wise and gender-wise profile of victims of Murder forthe years 2007 and 2008 at All-Indialevel can be seen in Table-3 (D). TheState/UT-wise details are presented inTable-3.3. One-third (33.3%) of the 670Murder victims under 10 years of age belongedeither to Maharashtra (116) or Karnataka (107),while a little less than one-third (28.7%) (124out of 432) of Murder victims in the age groups10-15 years and 15-18 years (31.5% i.e., 192 outof 609) belonged to Uttar Pradesh.The incidence of Murder hasincreased marginally by 1.4% duringthe year (from 32,318 cases in 2007to 32,766 cases in 2008). The numberof victims of Murder has alsoincreased by 0.9% (from 33,428 in2007 to 33,727 in 2008). The share offemale victims (8,186) was 24.3% ofthe total Murder victims (33,727)during 2008. The share of victims in theyouth age-group (18-30 years) was maximum at45.2% followed by those in the age-group 30-50years (40.2%).Table-3(E)Age & Gender-wise profile of victims of C.H. not amounting to murderfor the year 2007 & 20082007 2008Sl.No.Age-group*Male Female Total Male Female Total% share(2008)1. Upto 10 years 52 28 80 53 25 78 1.92. 10-15 years 56 25 81 29 20 49 1.23. 15-18 years 139 51 190 81 30 111 2.74. 18-30 years 1,501 281 1,782 1,614 327 1,941 47.35. 30-50 years 1,247 168 1,415 1,397 192 1,589 38.86. Above 50 years 251 42 293 291 41 332 8.1Total 3,246 595 3,841 3,465 635 4,100 100.0* Revised since 2001Victims of Culpable Homicide notamounting to MurderThe age-wise and gender-wise profile of the victims of CulpableHomicide not amounting to Murder forthe year 2007 and 2008 at all Indialevel are presented in Table 3(E).The share of female victims(635) of Culpable Homicide notamounting to Murder was 15.5% ofthe total 4,100 victims during 2008.Nearly half (47.3%) (1,941 out of4,100) the victims were in the agegroup 18-30 years. The victims in theTable-3 (F)Age-wise profile of the victims of Kidnapping & Abduction for the year 2007 & 20082007 2008Sl.No. Age-group % share(2008)Male Female Total Male Female Total1. Upto 10 years 509 338 847 357 272 629 2.12. 10-15 years 352 1,281 1,633 426 1,508 1,934 6.33. 15-18 years 511 3,822 4,333 553 4,812 5,365 17.54. 18-30 years 3,802 12,765 16,567 4,119 14,205 18,324 59.95. 30-50 years 1,968 2,436 4,404 1,776 2,334 4,110 13.46. Above 50 years 198 48 246 191 42 233 0.8Total 7,340 20,690 28,030 7,422 23,173 30,595 100.0* Revised since 2001
  58. 58. age-group 30-50 years (1,589) were38.8% of the total victims underCulpable Homicide not amounting tomurder. The State/UT wise details arepresented in Table 3.4.Victims of Kidnapping & AbductionInformation on motive-wise,gender-wise, State-UT wise details onthe Kidnapping & Abduction casesand their victims are collected since1999.Victims of Kidnapping &Abduction have undergone ordeal atthe hands of the criminals for variouscauses, viz. for adoption, begging,camel racing, marriage, prostitution,ransom, revenge, sale, slavery andothers. The State/UT wise details ofthe victims of Kidnapping & Abductionare presented in Table 3.5. Thecauses or motive wise break-up ofKidnapping & Abduction at all Indialevel is presented in Table-3.6.A total of 30,595 persons werekidnapped & abducted during the year2008 as compared to 28,030 in theprevious year (2007), registering anincrease of 9.1% over 2007. More thanthree times number of females (23,173) werekidnapped compared to males (7,422) accountingfor 75.7% during the year. ‘Marriage’ was themain cause of Kidnapping & Abduction offemales accounting for 61.8% (14,312 out of23,173) of the total females Kidnapped &Abducted. Correspondingly, ‘Ransom’was the main cause of Kidnapping &Abduction of males representing 6.9%of the Kidnapped & Abducted males(513 out of 7,422).The number of victims ofKidnapping & Abduction was higher inthe age group of 18 - 30 years(18,324). The number of victims in thisage group accounted for 59.9% of thetotal such victims reported during theyear.N.C.T. of Delhi, which accounted foronly 5.2% of Kidnapping & Abduction victims,reported 47.4% (298 out of 629) of child victims(upto 10 years of age) and 20.3% victims forthe age-groups 10 - 15 years (393 out of 1,934).Uttar Pradesh has reported thehighest number of victims for agegroup 15 – 18 years (1,889 out of5,365 i.e., 35.2%) and 18 - 30 years(2,586 out of 18,324 i.e., 11.1%).Assam has reported the highestnumber of victims in 30 – 50 years(852 out of 4,110 i.e., 20.7%).Table-3 (G)Victims of Murder by Fire-Arms during 2004 to 2008Number of Victims MurderedYear Total Victims By LicensedFire ArmsBy un-Licensed FireArmsTotal FireArms victimsProportion ofvictims by fire-arms2004 34,915 813 7,621 8,434 24.22005 34,419 556 5,087 5,643 16.42006 33,808 587 4,988 5,575 16.52007 33,428 598 4,240 4,838 14.52008 33,727 574 3,527 4,101 12.260