Planning for resilient communities and landscapes in challenging times Claudia Carter, Nicki Schiessel & Alister Scott Birmingham City University Mark Reed, Peter Larkham, Karen Leach, Nick Morton, Rachel Curzon, David Jarvis, Andrew Hearle, Mark Middleton, Bob Forster, Ruth Waters, David Collier, Chris Crean, Miriam Kennet, Richard Coles and Ben Stonyer RURAL-URBAN FRINGE (RUF) project July 2010 – December 2011 funded under the Research Councils’ RELU programme Planning Research Conference - Birmingham - 13 th September 2011
"the Ecosystem Approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way “
(Convention on Biological Diversity, COP 7 Decision VII/11)
humans inherently part of nature
Ecosystem approach Structure/Factors e.g. Climate Topography Rock, Soil Water Biota Processes/Services: e.g. Air pollution ‘filter’ Recreational resource Waste receptor / neutraliser Carbon storage Flood protection Landscape diversity Natural factors e.g. extreme weather events; geological events Human factors e.g. pollution; deforestation; urban development
“… we must learn to apply an adaptive ecosystem approach to ecological planning. This will allow us to deal with the thorny issues of sustainability , itself taken complexly in regional and urban planning, in novel and ultimately more realistic ways.”
Vasishth 2008: 101
Vasishth, A. (2008) ‘A scale-hierarchic ecosystem approach to integrative ecological planning’, Progress in Planning 70 : 99-132.
“ The ecosystem approach may represent a paradigm shift . A fundamental change in the way we manage, value and pay for our natural environment. Implemented successfully, it will mainstream the environment across all decisions”
Head of Ecosystem Approach, Natural England (2010)
Values habitat(s) - biodiversity recreation health & wellbeing pollution buffer/filter GREENSPACE climate change - C sequestration flood alleviation/buffer barriers accessibility, freedom to roam? HOUSING Get away from pollution (but noise, heat, exhausts, CO2) barriers Transition space GREENSPACE – ‘natural’ low quality – lacks diversity but good for children to play? views Section 106: community provisions? community fragmentation?
Time habitat(s) - biodiversity recreation health & wellbeing transport? fewer cars? GREENSPACE more trees - C sequestration flood alleviation barrier to species migration HOUSING (natural materials, better thermal properties) use of alternative energy sources (wind, solar, fuel cell) barriers for wildlife GREENSPACE low quality – lacks diversity but good for kids to play? views Re-development rain & grey water collection and reuse administrative boundaries/barriers Mini habitats: e.g. green roofs; garden; allotments Economic: food, timber, fuel, recreation
Connectivity Habitat network Integrated transport system (public) Streams & rivers HOUSING (suit range of social, economic and cultural needs) – COMMUNITY development With Birmingham? Worcester? Warwick? Motorways & Big Roads: barrier for some wildlife species and pedestrians but connection for many people (e.g. car owners) – Small roads & Paths: vice versa Green Infrastructure Views to and from Historical and cultural heritage Permeable surfaces