Lecture 01 overview of dbms


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Lecture 01 overview of dbms

  1. 1. Database Management System <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Database system </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw fact and figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name, Roll number, invoice no. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processed or more useful form of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps in decision making process </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Table, Merit List, Report Card, Marks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Need of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information containing wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from fundamental processing and organizing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Difference b/w Data and Information </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The related information when placed in an organized form makes a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unorganized information has no meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone directory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address book </li></ul></ul></ul>Introduction
  6. 6. <ul><li>Manual database and its problems </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional file processing system </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of file processing system </li></ul><ul><li>Database and computers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Commonly performed operations on database <ul><li>Insertion : to add new information. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. to insert new address in address book. </li></ul><ul><li>Updation : to modify or edit the existing information. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. your friend has shifted a new place so his address would get changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Deletion : to remove or delete unwanted information </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. delete unwanted contacts in ur mobile phones </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>retrieval operation : to view or retrieve the stored information. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. you have to find address of one of your old friend “abcd” </li></ul><ul><li>Sort operation : arranging the information in a desired ascending or descending order etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Building blocks of a database Columns : columns are similar to fields that is individuals items of data that we wish to store. Rows : rows are similar to records as they contain data of multiple columns. Tables : table is a logical group of columns.
  10. 10. Characteristics of database <ul><li>Organized/related </li></ul><ul><li>Shared </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent or persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Validity/integrity/correctness </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Non-redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Recoverable </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible to change </li></ul>
  11. 11. Database system <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS “System that allow users to define, create and maintain a database and provides controlled access to the data.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enable user to store, modify and extract information as per the requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate layer </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized Library System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight reservation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway reservation system etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS in market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dbase, Foxpro, IMS and Oracle </li></ul></ul>Database system
  13. 13. <ul><li>Components of DBMS Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul>Database system
  14. 14. Hardware <ul><li>Computer System </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul><ul><li>Input / Output devices </li></ul><ul><li>DB work on micro computer to large mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed system </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Software <ul><li>Software is actual DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>b/w physical data and users </li></ul><ul><li>Requests handled by DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Provide simple interface </li></ul><ul><li>Mediator b/w database and user </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities (Report writers, application development,design aids etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Access, Oracle an IBM DB2 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Data <ul><li>Most important component of DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge b/w Machine and User </li></ul>
  17. 17. Users <ul><li>Different users can access data </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on their degree of expertise users are classified in the following groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naïve Users (ATM user) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBA </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages of DBMS <ul><li>Controlling redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity can be enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency can be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Standards can be enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Restricting unauthorized access </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Solving enterprise requirement than individual requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Providing backup and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of developing and maintaining system is lower </li></ul><ul><li>Data model can be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrency control </li></ul>
  20. 20. Disadvantages of DBMS <ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Higher impact of a failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Additional hardware costs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of conversion </li></ul>
  21. 21. Comparison of file management system with database management system <ul><li>File management </li></ul><ul><li>Small system </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively cheep </li></ul><ul><li>Simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant data </li></ul><ul><li>Chances of inconsistency </li></ul><ul><li>No security </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated data </li></ul><ul><li>Often single user </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Large systems </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Complex structure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple users </li></ul>