Literature Search Importance & Techniques

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NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, STATISTICAL
ANALYSIS AND STRESS MANAGEMENT
Organized by: - Panjab University Campus Students Council (PUCSC) in Collaboration With
Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh

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Literature Search Importance & Techniques

  1. 1. Use of E-Resources in Literature Search Dr. Rupak Chakravarty Assistant Professor Dept. of Library & Information Science Panjab University, Chandigarh rupak@pu.ac.in
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  3. 3. The Frame of Reference... Analysis and interpretation Evaluation Literature search Problem formulation Lit er at ur e R ev ie w
  4. 4. The Frame of Reference... Literatu re Review Problem formulatio n Literatu Evaluati re on search Analysis and interpretatio n
  5. 5. The steps to undertaking a LR involve: selecting a topic literature searching reading organising the literature analysis and synthesis writing up the final review 2/3/2014
  6. 6. Literature Review
  7. 7. Literature Review critical discussion similarities and inconsistencies identify relevant literature gather and synthesis information. draw on and critique previous studies in an orderly, precise and analytical manner. 2/3/2014
  8. 8. Literature Review • LR is the process of critically evaluating and summarising that literature. 2/3/2014
  9. 9. LS Vs LR • Literature Search: searching the literature for some studies. • Literature review: reviewing the studies which have been identified.
  10. 10. Literature Review comprehensive picture justification thorough grasp of background knowledge. inspire and generate new ideas One single article – incomplete / baisedreview 2/3/2014
  11. 11. Literature Review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work. offers an overview of significant literature published on a topic.
  12. 12. Literature Review All works included in the review must be read, evaluated and analysed relationships between the literature must also be identified and discussed. Explore Prior knowledge, their strengths and weaknesses Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort Point the way forward for further research
  13. 13. Importance... know what the most important issues are and their relevance to your work know the controversies, neglected area becomes your springboard for the whole thesis.
  14. 14. The purposes of the review are:  to define and limit the problem you are working on  to place your study in an historical perspective  to avoid unnecessary duplication  to evaluate promising research methods  to relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research • A good literature review, therefore, is critical of what has been written, identifies areas of controversy, raises questions and identifies areas which need further research.
  15. 15. Literature Search As a subset of LR Facilitates LR Resonance in aims & objectives of LR Quality of LR is directly proportional to LS
  16. 16. Literature Search A systematic and exhaustive search for published material on a specific subject. It is often the first step in a research and sometimes reveals that the proposed action is unnecessary, having been carried out previously.”
  17. 17. Literature Search LS is a systematic and thorough search of all types of published literature LS is carried out in order to identify a breadth of good quality references relevant to a specific topic.
  18. 18. Literature Search The success of your research project is dependent on a thorough review of the academic literature at the outset. It is therefore a fundamental element of the methodology of any research project.
  19. 19. Literature Search Effective literature searching is a critical skill in its own right and will prove valuable for any future information gathering activity whether in academia or not. Getting the literature search right will save hours of time through the course of your research project and will inform and improve the quality of the research you go on to do for yourself.
  20. 20. Aims Review existing critical opinions/theories Identify current research findings on a topic Identify potential research methods or models you could use Having carried out research, enabling comparison with your own research findings
  21. 21. LS The literature search can be a time-consuming job – you need to be well prepared before beginning. LS is a never ending process 2/3/2014
  22. 22. Literature Search: Techniques Background reading and preparation Working with your title: identify search terms Identify the resources to search Search using search techniques Choosing keywords Boolean Operators (AND, OR, NOT) Collate your results (collect, combine & compare)
  23. 23. E-Resources
  24. 24. Selecting relevant sources Level of Access Cost Factor Format Document Type Books Bibliographic Paid Print Theses Journals FullText Free Electronic Conference
  25. 25. Bibliographic (Abstracting & Indexing)
  26. 26. MEDLINE MEDLINE provides over 20 million references to biomedical and life sciences journal articles back to 1946. MEDLINE includes citations from approximately 5,600 scholarly journals published around the world. 2/3/2014
  27. 27. MEDLINE The MEDLINE (1960) database is the largest subset of PubMed. PubMed (1996) has over 22 million references including the MEDLINE database PMC (PubMed Central) launched in 2000 as a free archive for full-text biomedical and life sciences journal articles. 2/3/2014
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  30. 30. Is a health information Web site for patients, families and other consumers 2/3/2014
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  42. 42. Evidence Based Databases 2/3/2014
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  54. 54. Search Effectiveness Authortative Currency Recency Language Geographical or cultural relevance Final selection
  55. 55. Library Resources OPAC - Online Public Access Catalogue Basically used for searching printed documents available in the library OPAC help you to identify relevant documents pertaining to your subject which are available in your library Modern OPAC also provides link to various e-resources like e-books and e-journals for immediate access.
  56. 56. Library E-Resources • Library can provide you rich literature on your topic through – Subscribed journals, books and databases – Format can be print or electronic – A researcher should not undermine the significance of printed resources. – A habit of visiting library on regular basis – Inculcating good reading habit is also very important
  57. 57. Library E-Resources The library website can be your focal point providing single window access It can offer access to expensive databases which an individual can’t subscribe and are not available through search engines. The most helpful service which university libraries are providing to the scholars are through UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortium
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  60. 60. Problem of too many… So many publishers So many databases Library own subscribed Made available through consortia User may get confused What is needed is a UNIFIED SEARCH INTERFACE
  61. 61. Discovery Services One search = all content Panjab University is providing the access to Summon and EBSCO Academic Search Complete
  62. 62. Statistical Databases At times we may require statistical data PU is providing access to two databases pertaining to various aspects of Indian States and Districts.
  63. 63. Micrograms per cubic metre (micrograms/m3) Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 9.7, 20% 17, 35% Delhi Kolkata Chennai 8.5, 17% Mumbai 14, 28%
  64. 64. Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETDs)
  65. 65. Open Access
  66. 66. Open Access (OA) By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Copyright should be to give authors as they have the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
  67. 67. OA Journals
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  69. 69. OA Books
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  74. 74. OA ETDs
  75. 75. OpenDOAR
  76. 76. What Next???
  77. 77. Plagiarism Plagiarism is defined as the reproduction of ideas and/or language from the source materials without adequately acknowledging the original source. It is an academic dishonesty Spreading as an epidemic Research Scholars most affected. Need intervention
  78. 78. Categories Factors   Poor Writing Lack of search skills Problems evaluating Internet sources and  Confusion between plagiarism and paraphrasing I  Confusion about terminology  Careless note taking  Confusion about how to properly cite sources  Research Skills Misconception of plagiarism Misunderstanding Key  II Misconception of intellectual property, copyright, and public domain IV Internal Factors Perception of online information as public knowledge Pressure from family, competition for scholarships and jobs.  Student ethics  External Factors Misconception of common knowledge  III   Concepts Commoditization of knowledge and education-Internal Factors.  Poor time management and planning skills
  79. 79. How to avoid? use of quality literature understand the concepts with clarity by inculcating good reading habit comprehension ability use quotation marks for the exact words of the source express the ideas in a passage in your own words through paraphrasing consult the guide use appropriate citation style most important is awareness regarding plagiarism to eliminate it from root.
  80. 80. Citation??
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  82. 82. ALERT !!! 2/3/2014
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  86. 86. Learning Outcome Know what you want to know Use quality literature search eresources (paid + free) Read, comprehend, understand Cite SHARE 2/3/2014
  87. 87. Being a scholar…. • I would also recommend you to make use of …………… 2/3/2014
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