Eykaryotes

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Eykaryotes

  1. 1. Regents Biology Cells: Two main types
  2. 2. Regents Biology before nucleus true nucleus
  3. 3. Regents Biology Prokaryotes 1. NO nucleus 1. unicellular 1. NO membrane-bound organelles (just ribosomes) 2. Forerunner to eukaryotic cells (smaller, simpler) 3. DNA – single strand and circular -Bacteria, archaea
  4. 4. Regents Biology Eukaryotes 1.Has a nucleus with a nuclear envelope 2.Bigger and more complex than prokaryotes 3.Have membrane bound organelles 4.DNA – double-stranded and forms chromosomes (highly organized) 5. Uni- OR multicellular organisms animals, plants, fungi…
  5. 5. Regents Biology Similarities 1. Contain all four biomolecules (lipids, carbs, proteins, and nucleic acids) 1. Have ribosomes (eukaryotes 80S, prokaryotes 70S) 2. Have DNA 3. Similar Metabolism 4. Can be unicellular 5. Have cell/plasma membranes or cell wall
  6. 6. Regents Biology Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells
  7. 7. Regents Biology Organelles  Organelles do the work of cells  each structure has a job  keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive Model Animal Cell
  8. 8. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals Cytoplasm lattice-like material holding organelles in place
  9. 9. Regents Biology Cell membrane  Function  Barrier  Control  O2,CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste  Communication  between cells  Structure  phospholipid bilayer  receptor molecules  proteins lipid “tail” phosphate “head”
  10. 10. Regents Biology Vesicles  Function  Transport  Endocytosis  Exocytosis  Structure  membrane sac large food particle vesicle Proteins etc Endocytosis! Exocytosis!
  11. 11. Regents Biology Vacuoles: Storage plant cells contractile vacuole animal cells central vacuole food vacuoles
  12. 12. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm lattice material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles storage transport
  13. 13. Regents Biology Lysosomes  Function  little “stomach” of the cell  digests macromolecules  “clean up crew” of the cell  cleans up broken down organelles  Structure  vesicles of digestive enzymes only in animal cells synthesized by rER, transferred to Golgi Where old organelles go to die!  lyso– = break apart  –some = body
  14. 14. Regents Biology Lysosomes white blood cells attack & destroy invaders = digest them in lysosomes 1974 Nobel prize: Christian de Duve Lysosomes discovery in 1960s 1960 | 1974
  15. 15. Regents Biology When things go bad…  Diseases of lysosomes are often fatal  digestive enzyme not working in lysosome  picks up biomolecules, but can’t digest one  lysosomes fill up with undigested material  grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function  lysosomal storage diseases  more than 40 known diseases  example: Tay-Sachs disease build up undigested fat in brain cells
  16. 16. Regents Biology But sometimes cells need to die…  Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed  some cells have to die for proper development in an organism  apoptosis  “auto-destruct” process  lysosomes break open & kill cell  ex: tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog  ex: loss of webbing between your fingers during fetal development
  17. 17. Regents Biology Fetal development 15 weeks 6 weeks syndactyly
  18. 18. Regents Biology Apoptosis  programmed destruction of cells in multi- cellular organisms  programmed development  control of cell growth  example: if cell grows uncontrollably this self-destruct mechanism is triggered to remove damaged cell  cancer must over-ride this to enable tumor growth
  19. 19. Regents Biology
  20. 20. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm lattice-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport storage
  21. 21. Regents Biology Making Energy  Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work  mitochondria: from glucose to ATP  chloroplasts: from sunlight to ATP & carbohydrates  ATP = active energy  carbohydrates = stored energy + ATP ATP
  22. 22. Regents Biology Mitochondria & Chloroplasts  Important to see the similarities  transform energy  generate ATP  double membranes = 2 membranes  semi-autonomous organelles  move, change shape, divide  internal ribosomes, DNA & enzymes
  23. 23. Regents Biology Mitochondria  Function  make ATP energy from cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP  fuels the work of life  Structure  double membrane in both animal & plant cells ATP
  24. 24. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm lattice-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2
  25. 25. Regents Biology Plants make energy two ways!  Mitochondria  make energy + O2 from sugar  cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP  Chloroplasts  make energy + sugar from sunlight  photosynthesis  sunlight + CO2  ATP & sugar  ATP = active energy  sugar = stored energy  build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars ATP sugar ATP
  26. 26. Regents Biology Mitochondria
  27. 27. Regents Biology Dividing Mitochondria Who else divides like that? What does this tell us about the evolution of eukaryotes?
  28. 28. Regents Biology Mitochondria  Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria  there may be 1 very large mitochondrion or 100s to 1000s of individual mitochondria  number of mitochondria is correlated with aerobic metabolic activity  more activity = more energy needed = more mitochondria What cells would have a lot of mitochondria? active cells: • muscle cells • nerve cells
  29. 29. Regents Biology Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast
  30. 30. Regents Biology Chloroplasts  Function  photosynthesis  generate ATP & synthesize sugars  transform solar energy into chemical energy  produce sugars from CO2 & H2O  Semi-autonomous  moving, changing shape & dividing  can reproduce by pinching in two Who else divides like that? bacteria!
  31. 31. Regents Biology
  32. 32. Regents Biology Endosymbiosis theory  Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria  engulfed by ancestral eukaryote  Endosymbiont  cell that lives within another cell (host)  as a partnership  evolutionary advantage for both  one supplies energy  the other supplies raw materials & protection Lynn Margulis U of M, Amherst 1981 | ??
  33. 33. Regents Biology Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes
  34. 34. Regents Biology Endosymbiosis Evidence • Mitochondrial has its own DNA • Mitochondrial DNA more similar to bacterial DNA than nuclear DNA of cell • Mitochondria divide by binary fission, not mitosis
  35. 35. Regents Biology central vacuole storage: food, water or waste mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals lysosome digestion & clean up cytoplasm
  36. 36. Regents Biology Cells need workers (proteins)!  Making proteins  to run daily life & growth, the cell must…  read genes (DNA)  build proteins  structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)  enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)  signals (hormones) & receptors  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  ribosomes  endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Golgi apparatus
  37. 37. Regents Biology Proteins do all the work! cellsDNA proteins one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work! signals structure enzymes receptors
  38. 38. Regents Biology Nucleus  Function  control center of cell  protects DNA  instructions for building proteins  Structure  nuclear membrane  nucleolus  ribosome factory  chromosomes  DNA
  39. 39. Regents Biology Ribosomes on ER Ribosomes  Function  protein factories  Eukaryotes have 80S, prokaryotes 70S  read instructions to build proteins from DNA  Structure  2 subunits  some free in cytoplasm  some attached to ER large subunit small subunit
  40. 40. Regents Biology Endoplasmic Reticulum  Function  part of protein factory  helps complete the proteins  makes membranes  Structure  rough ER  ribosomes attached  works on proteins  smooth ER  makes membranes
  41. 41. Regents Biology lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes
  42. 42. Regents Biology transport vesicles vesicles carrying proteins Golgi Apparatus  Function  finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins  like UPS headquarters  shipping & receiving department  ships proteins in vesicles  “UPS trucks”  Structure  membrane sacs
  43. 43. Regents Biology cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals cytoplasm lattice material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 nucleus protects DNA controls cell ribosomes builds proteins ER helps finish proteins makes membranes Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins lysosome food digestion garbage disposal & recycling
  44. 44. Regents Biology central vacuole storage: food, water or waste mitochondria make ATP in cellular respiration chloroplast make ATP & sugars in photosynthesis cell wall support cell membrane cell boundary controls movement of materials in & out recognizes signals Golgi apparatus finish & ship proteins nucleus control cell protects DNA endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins makes membranes lysosome digestion & clean up cytoplasm ribosomes make proteins

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