Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Astrocytes in the Synapse: Nurse or Key-Player?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Astrocytes in the Synapse: Nurse or Key-Player?

247
views

Published on

Astrocytes have for decades been considered as non-excitable support cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, this view has changed radically during the last thirty years. Astrocytes have …

Astrocytes have for decades been considered as non-excitable support cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, this view has changed radically during the last thirty years. Astrocytes have come to the forefront of neuroscience in our attempt to gain a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying synaptic transmission. Astrocytes express a variety of surface receptors for common neurotransmitters, e.g., glutamate and acetylcholine. Additionally, astrocytes respond to stimulation by releasing gliotransmitters such as glutamate. These properties have led to the concept of tripartite synapse involving bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. This review aims at summarizing current evidence for how astrocytes are involved in modulating synaptic transmission within cortical regions of the CNS. The activation of metabotropic- and ionotropic receptors expressed in astrocytes triggers an increase in their intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which in turn promotes the release of glutamate. The astrocyte released glutamate stimulate either group I or II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on presynaptic terminals. Depending on the type of activated presynaptic mGluR, astrocytic glutamate may either potentiate or depress synaptic transmission. In summary, astrocytes are actively participating in the modulation of synaptic transmission within cortical regions of the CNS. Astrocytes may consequently be a potential therapeutic target for brain pathological illnesses, e.g., neurodegeneration during ischemic stroke.

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
247
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Astrocytes in the Synapse - Nurse or Key-Player? Rune Rasmussen Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Jean-Francois Perrier Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology
  • 2. Agenda •  Introduction to Astrocytes and Tripartite synapse •  Aim of project •  Main findings (exemplified through studies) •  Therapeutic applications •  Considerations •  Summary
  • 3. Introduction Glial cells (Greek “Glue”): Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes and Microglia (CNS)   Astrocytes the most numerous glial cell type   Do not fire action potentials (Obenheim et al., 2009)   Astrocytes maintain synaptic homeostasis: e.g., K+ buffering (Kuffler, 1967)   Occopy different spatial territories (Volterra & Meldolesi, 2005)   (Volterra & Meldolesi, 2005)  
  • 4. Introduction Astrocyte Presynaptic neuron Gt Astrocytes release gliotransmitters