HARM  A Hybrid Rule-based Agent ReputationModel based on Temporal Defeasible Logic                     Kalliopi Kravari, N...
OVERVIEW      Agents in the SW interact under uncertain and risky situations.      Whenever they have to interact with par...
OVERVIEW      Trust is the degree of trust that can be invested in a certain agent.      Reputation is the opinion of the ...
APPROACHES’ LIMITATIONS       If the reputation estimation is based only on direct experience, it would        require a ...
HYBRID MODELS      Hybrid models combine both interaction trust and witness reputation.      We propose HARM:      an incr...
(Temporal) Defeasible Logic      Temporal defeasible logic (TDL) is an extension of defeasible logic (DL).      DL is a ki...
Defeasible Logic        Facts: e.g. student(Sofia)        Strict Rules: e.g. student(X) person(X)        Defeasible Rul...
Temporal Defeasible Logic        Two types of temporal literals:         expiring temporal literals l:t (a literal l is v...
HARM – Evaluated Abilities        Evaluates four agent abilities:         validity, completeness, correctness and respons...
HARM - Ratings        Agent A establishes interaction with agent B:        (A)Truster is the evaluating agent        (B) T...
HARM – Experience Types         Direct Experience (PRAX )         Indirect Experience           reports provided by str...
HARM – Experience Types         Sometimes one or more rating categories are missing.               ▫ e.g. a newcomer has ...
HARM – Final reputation value        RAX is a function that combines each available category               ▫ personal opi...
HARM  Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism / Facts       Truster’s rating (r) (defeasible RuleML / d-POSL syntax):       ...
HARM  Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism       Confidence and transaction value allow us to decide        how much atte...
HARM  Which ratings “count”?     r1: count_rating(rating→?idx, truster→?a, trustee→ ?x) :=                   confidence_th...
HARM  Conflicting Literals   All the previous rules are conclude positive literals.   These literals are conflicting eac...
HARM  Determining Experience Types     r4: known(agent1→?a, agent2→?y) :-                                    Which agents ...
HARM  Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism     Final step is to decide whose experience will “count”:      direct, indire...
HARM  Theory #1: All categories count equally                                 AX, KX, SX                   AX, KX         ...
HARM  Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism        e.g. Theory #2:          An agent relies on its own experience if it bel...
HARM  Theory #2: Personal experience is preferred to  friends’ opinion to strangers’ opinion                              ...
HARM  Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism        e.g. Theory #3:          If direct experience is available (PRAX), then ...
HARM  Theory #3: Personal experience and friends’  opinion is preferred to strangers’ opinion                             ...
HARM      Temporal Defeasible Logic Extension       Agents may change their objectives at any time             Evolution...
HARM      Temporal Defeasible Logic Extension       Rules are modified accordingly:           each rating is active afte...
HARM Evaluation          We implemented the model in EMERALD                Framework for interoperating knowledge-based...
HARM - Evaluation       All agents provide the same service             Performance is service – independent       Cons...
HARM - Evaluation                                                            Number of simulation: 500       Performance ...
Conclusions      We proposed HARM that combines:            the hybrid approach (interaction trust and witness reputatio...
Future Work      Fully implement HARM with temporal defeasible logic      Compare HARM’s performance with other centrali...
Thank you!                   Any Questions?Nick Bassiliades       RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29                     ...
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HARM: A Hybrid Rule-based Agent Reputation Model based on Temporal Defeasible Logic

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  • ..deter dishonest participation by providing the mean through which reputation and ultimately trust can be quantified
  • Hence, models based only on one or the other approach typically cannot guarantee stable and reliable estimations.
  • The testbed environment for evaluating HARM is a multi-agent system consisting ofagents providing services and agents using these services in an on-line community.We assume that the performance of a provider (and effectively its trustworthiness) isindependent from the service that is provided. In order to reduce the complexity of the testbed’s environment, it isassumed that there is only one type of service in the testbed.The value of UG variesfrom −10 to 10 and depends on the level of performance of the provider in the interaction.Τώρα όσον αφορά τα άλλα μοντέλα που χρησιμοποιούμε ούτε στο paper λέμε κάτι. Μπορείτε να πείτε αν θέλετε ότι το μόνο το HARM έχει temporal, ενώ το t-rexλαμβάνει υπόψη τον χρόνο θεωρώντας τα πιο πρόσφατα rating πιο σημαντικά με την χρήση ουσιαστικά του clock (Timer) ενώ το setmδεν λαμβάνει υπόψη τον χρόνο.
  • The testbed environment for evaluating HARM is a multi-agent system consisting ofagents providing services and agents using these services in an on-line community.We assume that the performance of a provider (and effectively its trustworthiness) isindependent from the service that is provided. In order to reduce the complexity of the testbed’s environment, it isassumed that there is only one type of service in the testbed.The value of UG variesfrom −10 to 10 and depends on the level of performance of the provider in the interaction.Τώρα όσον αφορά τα άλλα μοντέλα που χρησιμοποιούμε ούτε στο paper λέμε κάτι. Μπορείτε να πείτε αν θέλετε ότι το μόνο το HARM έχει temporal, ενώ το t-rexλαμβάνει υπόψη τον χρόνο θεωρώντας τα πιο πρόσφατα rating πιο σημαντικά με την χρήση ουσιαστικά του clock (Timer) ενώ το setmδεν λαμβάνει υπόψη τον χρόνο.
  • HARM: A Hybrid Rule-based Agent Reputation Model based on Temporal Defeasible Logic

    1. 1. HARM A Hybrid Rule-based Agent ReputationModel based on Temporal Defeasible Logic Kalliopi Kravari, Nick Bassiliades Department of Informatics Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece
    2. 2. OVERVIEW Agents in the SW interact under uncertain and risky situations. Whenever they have to interact with partners of whom they know nothing.. they have to make decision involving risk. Thus: Their success may depend on their ability to choose reliable partners. Solution: Reliable trust and/or reputation models. SW Intelligent SW Trust Layer evolution AgentsNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 2
    3. 3. OVERVIEW Trust is the degree of trust that can be invested in a certain agent. Reputation is the opinion of the public towards an agent. Reputation (trust) models provide the means to quantify reputation and trust  help agents to decide who to trust  encourage trustworthy behavior  deter dishonest participation Current computational reputation models are usually built either on interaction trust or witness reputation. an agent’s direct experience reports provided by othersNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 3
    4. 4. APPROACHES’ LIMITATIONS  If the reputation estimation is based only on direct experience, it would require a long time for an agent to reach a satisfying estimation level. Why? because when an agent enters an environment for the first time, it has no history of interactions with the other agents in the environment.  If the reputation estimation is based only on witness reports, it could not guarantee reliable estimation. Why? because self-interested agents could be unwilling or unable to sacrifice their resources in order to provide reports.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 4
    5. 5. HYBRID MODELS Hybrid models combine both interaction trust and witness reputation. We propose HARM: an incremental reputation model that combines  the advantages of the hybrid reputation models  the benefits of temporal defeasible logic (rule-based approach)Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 5
    6. 6. (Temporal) Defeasible Logic Temporal defeasible logic (TDL) is an extension of defeasible logic (DL). DL is a kind of non-monotonic reasoning Why defeasible logic?  Rule-based, deterministic (without disjunction)  Enhanced representational capabilities  Classical negation used in rule heads and bodies  Negation-as-failure can be emulated  Rules may support conflicting conclusions  Skeptical: conflicting rules do not fire  Priorities on rules resolve conflicts among rules  Low computational complexityNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 6
    7. 7. Defeasible Logic Facts: e.g. student(Sofia) Strict Rules: e.g. student(X) person(X) Defeasible Rules: e.g. r: person(X) works(X) r’: student(X) ¬works(X) Priority Relation between rules, e.g. r’ > r Proof theory example:  A literal q is defeasibly provable if: supported by a rule whose premises are all defeasibly provable AND  q is not definitely provable AND each attacking rule is non-applicable or defeated by a superior counter-attacking ruleNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 7
    8. 8. Temporal Defeasible Logic Two types of temporal literals:  expiring temporal literals l:t (a literal l is valid for t time instances)  persistent temporal literals l@t (a literal l is active after t time instances have passed and is valid thereafter)  temporal rules: a1:d1 ... an:dn d b:db delay between the cause a1:d1 ... an:dn and the effect b:db Example: (r1) => a@1 Literal a is created due to r1. (r2) a@1=>7 b:3 It becomes active at time offset 1. It causes the head of r2 to be fired at time 8. The result b lasts only until time 10. Thereafter, only the fact a remains.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 8
    9. 9. HARM – Evaluated Abilities Evaluates four agent abilities: validity, completeness, correctness and response time. An agent is valid if it is both sincere and credible.  Sincere: believes what it says  Credible: what it believes is true in the world An agent is complete if it is both cooperative and vigilant.  Cooperative: says what it believes  Vigilant: believes what is true in the world An agent is correct if its provided service is correct with respect to a specification. Response time is the time that an agent needs to complete the transaction.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 9
    10. 10. HARM - Ratings Agent A establishes interaction with agent B: (A)Truster is the evaluating agent (B) Trustee is the evaluated agent Truster’s rating value (r) in HARM has 8 coefficients:  2 IDs: Truster, Trustee  4 abilities: Validity, Completeness, Correctness, Response time  2 weights: Confidence, Transaction value  Confidence: how confident the agent is for the rating  Transaction value: how important the transaction was for the agentNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 10
    11. 11. HARM – Experience Types  Direct Experience (PRAX )  Indirect Experience  reports provided by strangers (SRAX)  reports provided by known agents (e.g friends) due to previous interactions (KRAX )  Both Final reputation value of an agent X, required by an agent A: RAX = {PRAX , KRAX, SRAX}Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 11
    12. 12. HARM – Experience Types  Sometimes one or more rating categories are missing. ▫ e.g. a newcomer has no personal experience  A user is much more likely to believe statements from a trusted acquaintance than from a stranger. ▫ Thus, personal opinion (AX) is more valuable than strangers’ opinion (SX), as well as it is more valuable even from previously trusted partners (KX).  Superiority relationship among rating categories AX, KX, SX AX, KX AX, SX KX, SX AX KX SXNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 12
    13. 13. HARM – Final reputation value RAX is a function that combines each available category ▫ personal opinion (AX) ▫ strangers’ opinion (SX) ▫ previously trusted partners (KX) RAX PR AX , KR AX , SR AX HARM allows agents to define weights of ratings’ coefficients ▫ Personal preferences coefficient coefficient coefficient AVG wi log prAX AVG wi log krAX AVG wi log srAX RAX 4 , 4 , 4 , i 1 wi i 1 wi i 1 wi coefficient validity, completeness, correctness, response _ time 2Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 13
    14. 14. HARM Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism / Facts  Truster’s rating (r) (defeasible RuleML / d-POSL syntax): rating(id→rating’s_id, truster→truster’s_name, trustee→trustee’s_name, validity→value1, completeness→value2, correctness→value3, response_time→value4, confidence→value5, transaction_value→value6). e.g. rating(id→1, truster→A, trustee→B, validity→5, completeness→6, correctness→6, response_time→8, confidence→0.8, transaction_value→0.9).Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 14
    15. 15. HARM Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism  Confidence and transaction value allow us to decide how much attention we should pay on each rating.  It is important to take into account ratings that were made by confident trusters, since their ratings are more likely to be right.  Confident trusters, that were interacting in an important for them transaction, are even more likely to report truthful ratings.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 15
    16. 16. HARM Which ratings “count”? r1: count_rating(rating→?idx, truster→?a, trustee→ ?x) := confidence_threshold(?conf), • if both truster’s confidence and transaction_value_threshold(?tran), transaction importance are high, rating(id→?idx, confidence→?confx, then that rating will be counted transaction_value→?tranx), during the estimation process ?confx >= ?conf, ?tranx >= ?tran. r2: count_rating(…) := • if the transaction value is lower than the threshold, it doesn’t matter so much … if the truster’s confidence is high ?confx >= ?conf. • if there are only ratings with high r3: count_rating(…) := transaction value, … then they should be taken into account ?tranx >= ?tran. r1 > r2 > r3 • In any other case, the rating should be omitted.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 16
    17. 17. HARM Conflicting Literals  All the previous rules are conclude positive literals.  These literals are conflicting each other, for the same pair of agents (truster and trustee) ▫ We want in the presence e.g. of personal experience to omit strangers’ ratings. ▫ That’s why there is also a superiority relationship between the rules.  The conflict set is formally determined as follows: C[count_rating(truster→?a, trustee→?x)] = { ¬ count_rating(truster→?a, trustee→?x) } { count_rating(truster→?a1, trustee→?x1) | ?a ?a1 ∧ ?x ?x1 }Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 17
    18. 18. HARM Determining Experience Types r4: known(agent1→?a, agent2→?y) :- Which agents count_rating(rating → ?id, truster→?a, trustee→?y). are considered as known? r5: count_prAX(agent→?a, truster→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id) :- count_rating(rating → ?id, truster→? a, trustee→ ?x). r6: count_krAX(agent→?a, truster→?k, trustee→?x, rating →?id) :- known(agent1→?a, agent2→?k), Categori zation of count_rating(rating→?id, truster→?k, trustee→ ?x). ratings r7: count_srAX(agent→?a, truster→?s, trustee→?x, rating→?id) :- count_rating(rating → ?id, truster →?s, trustee→ ?x), not(known(agent1→?a, agent2→?s)).Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 18
    19. 19. HARM Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism  Final step is to decide whose experience will “count”: direct, indirect (witness), or both.  The decision for RAX is based on a relationship theory e.g. Theory #1: All categories count equally. r8: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingAX) := count_pr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingAX). r9: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingKX) := count_kr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingKX). r10: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingSX) := count_sr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingSX).Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 19
    20. 20. HARM Theory #1: All categories count equally AX, KX, SX AX, KX AX, SX KX, SX AX KX SXNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 20
    21. 21. HARM Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism e.g. Theory #2: An agent relies on its own experience if it believes it is sufficient. If not it acquires the opinions of others. r8: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingAX) := count_pr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingAX). r9: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingKX) := count_kr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingKX). r10: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingSX) := count_sr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingSX). r8>r9>r10Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 21
    22. 22. HARM Theory #2: Personal experience is preferred to friends’ opinion to strangers’ opinion AX, KX, SX AX, KX AX, SX KX, SX AX > KX > SXNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 22
    23. 23. HARM Rule-based Decision Making Mechanism e.g. Theory #3: If direct experience is available (PRAX), then it is preferred to be combined with ratings from known agents (KRAX). If not, HARM acts as a pure witness system. r8: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingAX) := count_pr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingAX). r9: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingKX) := count_kr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingKX). r10: participate(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→?id_ratingSX) := count_sr(agent→?a, trustee→?x, rating→ ?id_ratingSX). r8> r10, r9>r10Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 23
    24. 24. HARM Theory #3: Personal experience and friends’ opinion is preferred to strangers’ opinion AX, KX, SX AX, KX AX, SX KX, SX > AX KX SXNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 24
    25. 25. HARM Temporal Defeasible Logic Extension  Agents may change their objectives at any time  Evolution of trust over time should be taken into account  Only the latest ratings participate in the reputation estimation  In the temporal extension of HARM:  each rating is a persistent temporal literal of TDL  each rule conclusion is an expiring temporal literal of TDL  The truster’s rating (r) is active after time_offset time instances have passed and is valid thereafter rating(id→value1, truster→value2, trustee→ value3, validity→value4, completeness→value5, correctness→value6, response_time →value7, confidence→value8, transaction_value→value9)@time_offset.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 25
    26. 26. HARM Temporal Defeasible Logic Extension  Rules are modified accordingly:  each rating is active after t time instances have passed (“@t”)  each conclusion has a duration (“:duration”)  each rule has a delay, which models the delay between the cause and the effect. e.g. r1: count_rating(rating→?idx, truster→?a, trustee→ ?x):duration := delay confidence_threshold(?conf), transaction_value_threshold(?tran), rating(id→?idx, confidence→?confx, transaction_value→?tranx) @t, ?confx >= ?conf, ?tranx >= ?tran.Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 26
    27. 27. HARM Evaluation  We implemented the model in EMERALD  Framework for interoperating knowledge-based intelligent agents in the SW.  Built on JADE multi-agent platform  EMERALD uses Reasoners (agents offering reasoning services)  Supports the DR-Device defeasible logic system  Used temporal predicates to simulate the temporal semantics. o No available temporal defeasible logic reasonerNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 27
    28. 28. HARM - Evaluation  All agents provide the same service  Performance is service – independent  Consumer agent selects the provider with the highest reputation value 5. Report rating 1. Request reputations of the provider agents 2. Inform about the provider with the highest reputation Consumer agent HARMAgent 4. Service providing 3. Service request Provider agenty Provider agentxNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 28
    29. 29. HARM - Evaluation Number of simulation: 500  Performance of providers (e.g. Number of providers: 100 quality of service) is the utility Good providers 10 that a consumer gains from each Ordinary providers 40 interaction Intermittent  Utility Gain (UG), UG [-10, 10] providers 5  Four models are used: Bad providers 45  HARM (rule-based / temporal)  T-REX (temporal degradation) Average UG per interaction  SERM (uses all history) HARM 5.73  NONE (no trust mechanism). T-REX 5.57 SERM 2.41  From previous study: NONE 0.16  CR, SPORAS (literature famous, CR 5.48 distributed) SPORAS 4.65Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 29
    30. 30. Conclusions  We proposed HARM that combines:  the hybrid approach (interaction trust and witness reputation)  the benefits of temporal defeasible logic (rule-based approach)  Overcomes the difficulty to locate witness reports (centralized administration authority)  It is the first reputation model that uses explicitly knowledge, in the form of defeasible logic, to predict agent’s future behavior  Easy to simulate human decision makingNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 30
    31. 31. Future Work  Fully implement HARM with temporal defeasible logic  Compare HARM’s performance with other centralized and decentralized models from the literature  Combine HARM and T-REX  Develop a distributed version of HARM  Verify its performance in real-world e-commerce applications  Combining it with Semantic Web metadata for trustNick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 31
    32. 32. Thank you! Any Questions?Nick Bassiliades RuleML 2012, Montpellier, Aug 27-29 32

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