UNIT III GROUP BEHAVIOURDefining and Classifying GroupsGroup(s)Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together toachieve particular objectivesFormal GroupA designated work group defined by the organization’s structureInformal GroupA group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appearsin response to the need for social contactCommand GroupA group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.Task GroupThose working together to complete a job or taskInterest GroupThose working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concernedFriendship GroupThose brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.Why People Join Groups? • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal AchievementThe Five-Stage Model of Group DevelopmentForming StageThe first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertaintyStorming StageThe second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflictNorming StageThe third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships andcohesiveness.Performing StageThe fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.Adjourning StageThe final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized byconcern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.An Alternative Model: Temporary Groups with DeadlinesPunctuated-Equilibrium ModelTemporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.Sequence of actions: 1. Setting group direction 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
Group Structure - RolesRole(s)A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a givenposition in a social unitRole IdentityCertain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.Role PerceptionAn individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situationRole ExpectationsHow others believe a person should act in a given situationPsychological ContractAn unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employeeand vice versaRole ConflictA situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectationsGroup Structure - NormsNormsAcceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’smembers.Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources normsThe Hawthorne Studies A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932. Research Conclusions: – Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. – Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. – Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. – Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and securityGroup Structure - NormsConformityAdjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.Reference GroupsImportant groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whosenorms individuals are likely to conform.Deviant Workplace Behavior
Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate establishednorms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, orboth.Typology of Deviant Workplace BehaviorCategory ExamplesProduction Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resourcesProperty Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organizationPolitical Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkersPersonal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkersGroup Structure – StatusStatusA socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.Social LoafingThe tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively thanwhen working individuallyOther conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groupsGroup Structure - CompositionGroup DemographyThe degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute,such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, andthe impact of this attribute on turnover.CohortsIndividuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.Group Structure – CohesivenessCohesivenessDegree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated tostay in the group.Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group
Group Tasks Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well. Strengths Weaknesses – More complete information – More time consuming – Increased diversity of (slower) views – Increased pressure to – Higher quality of decisions conform (more accuracy) – Domination by one or a – Increased acceptance of few members solutions – Ambiguous responsibilityGroupthinkPhenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal ofalternative course of action.GroupshiftA change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decisionthat member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism orgreater risk.Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority. Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.Group Decision-Making TechniquesInteracting GroupsTypical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-faceNominal Group TechniqueA group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face topool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashionBrainstormingAn idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives,while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.Electronic MeetingA meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity ofcomments and aggregation of votes.
Evaluating Group Effectiveness TYPE OF GROUPEffectiveness Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal ElectronicNumber and quality of ideas Low Moderate High HighSocial pressure High Low Moderate LowMoney costs Low Low Low HighSpeed Moderate Moderate Moderate ModerateTask orientation Low High High HighPotential for interpersonal conflict High Low Moderate LowCommitment to solution High Not applicable Moderate ModerateDevelopment of High High Moderate Lowgroup cohesivenessTEAM Why Teams become so Popular? Teams typically outperform individuals. Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Teams facilitate employee involvement. Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivationDifference between Group and Team : a) Work group: A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform with in his or her area of responsibility. b) Work team: A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.Types of Teams: There are four most common types of Teams in anorganization. 1. Problem –Solving Teams: Groups of 5-12 employees from the same department who met a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, effiency and the work environment. 2. Self –Managed work Teams: Groups of 10 -15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisor.s
3. Cross – Functional Teams: Employees from about the same hierarchial level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. 4. Virutal Teams ; Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order toachieve a common goal.Team Characteristics 1. The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues 2. A limited social context 3. The ability to overcome time and space constraintsCreating Effective TeamsContext: • Adequate Resources • Leadership • Climate of trust • Performance Evaluation & RewardsComposition; • Ability • Personality • Roles and Diversity • Size • Flexibility • Preference for Team worksWork Design: • Autonomy • Skill Variety • Task Identity • Task SignifiganceProcess; • Common purpose • Specific Goals • Team Efficacy • Conflict • Social loafingsCreating Effective Teams: DiversityGroup DemographyThe degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute,such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, andthe impact of this attribute on turnover.
Turning Individuals Into Team Players The Challenges – Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. – Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. – Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. Shaping Team Players – Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. – Training employees to become team players. – Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.Teams and Quality Management Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: 1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective. 2. Are properly trained in required skills. 3. Allocated enough time to work on problems. 4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. 5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.Teams Aren’t Always the Answer Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: – Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? – Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? – Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?