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เทคโนโลยีการถ่ายภาพ

เทคโนโลยีการถ่ายภาพ

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1digitalphotographynew1 1digitalphotographynew1 Presentation Transcript

  • Rujroad Photography Digital Photography I The Basics Rujroad Photography rujroadk@msn.com
  • rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography2 Photography φως phos (“ ") γραφις graphis (“ ", “ ")
  • 3 “ rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 4 – , rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 5 – , rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 6 – rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 7 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 8 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 9 , makes silhouettesrujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 10 silhouettes) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 11 Overcast Light – , , rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 12 (Quality)   Direction  (Contrast)   Difference between the lightest and darkest tones of the subject or image (Source) (Ambient) – daylight, tungsten, fluorescent, firelight (Artificial) – flash, tungsten (Intensity)     , rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 13 (Color)  : Red, Green and Blue  “ ” –  “ ” –  Expressed in Kelvin (K):  ~ 3000K  Fluorescent ~ 4100K  Flash ~ 5400K   Day light ~ 5200K  Cloudy) ~ 6000K  Shade) ~ 8000K  Referred to as “White Balance” in digital photography. rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • White Balance) 4100K (Fluorescent) 3000K (Incandescent) 5200K (Sunlight) 8000K (Shade) 5400K (Flash) 6000K (Cloudy)
  • 15 Exposure Composition rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 16 (Exposure) “Photographic Triangle” rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography Shutter Speed ApertureISO CCD/CMOS sensor
  • 17 Shutter CCD Image source: www.howstuffworks.com Image source: VisibleDust rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 18 Shutter Speed – Fast 1/1600 sec., stops action rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 19 Shutter Speed – Slow 1/60 sec. pan Left rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography 0.3 sec. 3 sec.
  • 20  (overexposed)  (underexposed)  Speed shutter : 1/8000, 1/4000, 1/2000 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 , 2 30 ,  1 stop   rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 21 (Aperture) iris ) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 22  f-stop number: 1.4 2.0 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22  1 stop  F/16 F/8  f-stop  f/2 50mm rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 23 Aperture And Depth Of Field f/2.8 f/16 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 24      rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 25 The following reciprocals will yield the same exposure: What changes is how much is sharp and in focus. f/2.8 1/500 sec. f/4 1/250 sec. f/5.6 1/125 sec. f/8 1/60 sec. f/11 1/30 sec. f/16 1/15 sec. f/22 1/8 sec. rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 26      (Matrix/Evaluative), Center-weighted, (Spot metering)  “ 18%” “ ”  rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 27 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 28 Exposure Compensation)   +/- 2 EV (Exposure Value) in steps of 0.3 EV  rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 29 ISO   (hence, ISO) – 100, 200, 400, 800,  ISO noise  ISO rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 30  ASA – American Standards Association. Most common film speed rating in the U.S. until the conversion to ISO. Only the name has changed.  ISO – International Standards Organization. Most common film speed rating in the U.S. Doubling the value doubles the film speed.  DIN – Deutsche Industrie Norm. Based on a logarithmic scale where each increase represents 1/3 stop. E.g. ISO 800/30 on a roll of ISO (ASA) 800 film indicates that the DIN rating is 30. rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 31 Higher ISO = More Noise!  ISO 3200 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 32 … Exposure : Shutter Speed Aperture – ISO – : White Balance – rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 33 … rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 34 Cameras Three popular types of cameras on the market for the consumer Point-and-shoot SLR (Single-lens Reflex) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography Mirror Less Cam
  • 35 Cameras Point-and-shoot  Viewfinder separate from lens  Small and compact  Fixed lens  Shutter delay  Usually fully automatic (some exceptions, like Olympus C-series) SLR (Single-lens Reflex)  Based on 35mm design  Actual image seen in viewfinder  Interchangeable lenses (more flexible composition)  Ability to use filters  More advanced metering and shutter system  Little to no shutter delay  Automatic, Program (“Scene”), Shutter Priority, Aperture Priority and Manual modes  Flash hot shoe  Pro models may not have pop-up flash or Program (“scene”) modes rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • mirror less camera rujroadk@msn.com rujroad- Digital Photography36 Between Compact and DSLR CCD bigger than Compact Can change Lens No Viewfinder Direct Light to Censor Smaller than DSLR Semi Pro models High Quality image
  • 37 Point-and-shoot Anatomy  Viewfinder separate from lens (better to use LCD on digital)  Actual image (as exposed) is not quite the same as in the viewfinder  Much simpler design than SLRs. Light Path Lens Camera Body Viewfinder (front) Shutter Sensor or Film Viewfinder Focal Length LCD Screen (Digital) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 38 SLR Anatomy  Through-the-lens (TTL) viewing (works like a periscope)  Actual image (as exposed) is shown in the viewfinder  Mirror flips up when the shutter release is pressed, exposing the sensor (and blacking out the viewfinder)  “Reflex” comes from the use of the mirrors in the viewfinder system. Light Path Lens Camera Body Focusing Screen Mirror (Pentaprism) Mirror (flips up) Shutter Sensor or Film Viewfinder Focal Length LCD Screen (Digital) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 39   ,        ISO ISO   ISO, Shutter speed, aperture, Metadata rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 40   medium or large format  Full Frame) x  Blown highlights – no information means no information; film is better at rendering overexposed areas more naturally   rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 41      shutter lag    Slide shows – projectors designed for business graphics render poor photographic quality and awful color. rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 42 Choosing A Digital Camera ! Pixel . rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 43 Megapixel Madness rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 44 ?   6MP ~ 3008 x 2000 pixels (Nikon D70) 3008/300 = 10.027 in. 2000/300 = 6.667 in.    . rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • The following chart can be used as a guide to help you decide what resolution camera you should purchase rujroadk@msn.com rujroad- Digital Photography45 Digital Camera Resolution Chart Capture Resolution Video Display* Print Size*** 2x3" 4x5"/4x6" 5x7" 8x10" 11x14" 16x20" 20x30" 320x240 Acceptable Good Acceptable Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor 640x480 - 0.3 Megapixel Good Excellent Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor 800x600 Excellent Photo Quality Very Good Acceptable Poor Poor Poor Poor 1024x768 Excellent Photo Quality Excellent Good Acceptable Poor Poor Poor 1280x960 - 1 Megapixel Excellent Photo Quality Photo Quality Very Good Good Poor Poor Poor 1536x1180 Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Excellent Very Good Acceptable poor poor 1600x1200 - 2 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo Quality Very Good Acceptable Acceptable Poor 2048x1536 - 3 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo Quality Excellent Good Acceptable Acceptable 2240x1680 - 4 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Very Good Good Acceptable 2560x1920 - 5 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Excellent Very Good Very Good 3032x2008 - 6 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Photo Quality Excellent Very Good 3072x2304 - 7 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Photo Quality Excellent Excellent 3264x2448 - 8 Megapixel Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Photo Quality Photo Quality Excellent 10 Megapixel + Excellent** Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo QualityPhoto Quality Photo Quality Photo Quality Photo Quality
  • rujroadk@msn.com rujroad- Digital Photography46 Poor Noticeably Grainy (pixelated) Acceptable Obviously not a real photo, but some details are visible Good Can tell it is not a photo but most details are discernable Very Good Can tell it is not a photo at normal distance, but good enough for many uses Excellent Difficult to tell from real photo at normal viewing distance Photo Quality On a photo-quality printer, the human eye should not be able to tell the difference at a normal viewing distance * Either television or computer display (e.g. Web Page) ** Will produce an excessively large file size that would be inappropriate for web applications *** Using a typical Photo Quality Desktop printer
  • 47 ?  ?     Sharpness  Distortion  (optical vs. digital)  Digital zoom !    Built-in flash  Red-eye reduction  Can you control it?  M,B C-function  mA)  CF SD XD Memory stick  rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 48 About The Cards Pick One Compact Flash SD MiniSD xD MultiMediaCard RS-MMC (Reduced-Size MultiMediaCard) SmartMedia Memory Stick Image source: Lexar rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 49   Format the card  Set up the camera  Date and time  Bells and whistles (literally!)  Digital zoom – if you can turn it off, do it!  Mode: Auto, Program, Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority, Manual  ISO  White balance  Color space (Never mind!)  Image quality and file type  JPEG (Joint Photo Experts Group) – in-camera processing, lossy (small, medium, large), 8-bits (256 shades of color) per channel (16.7 million colors)  TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) – in-camera processing, uncompressed, lossless, 8-bits per channel  RAW – direct output from the sensor, little to no in-camera processing, 12-bit (4096 shades of color) per channel (68.7 billion colors)  ?? rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  •   DSLR     Processrujroadk@msn.com rujroad- Digital Photography50
  • 51 : Exposure Composition rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 52 Composition rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 53 Composition  There are established “guidelines”, but ultimately, it’s about your artistic vision  Very subjective  Not always a conscious thing – listen to your heart!  Simplify, Simplify, Simplify! rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 54 Simplify rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 55 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography Simplify
  • 56 Simplif y rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography Simplify
  • 57 Simplif y rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 58 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography Simplif y
  • 59 Composition)       rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 60 Composition  Photoshop!  “Photoshop doesn’t make a bad photograph good, it makes a bad photograph big.”    rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 61 Rule Of Thirds) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • rujroadk@msn.com rujroad- Digital Photography62
  • 63 ! rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 64 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 65 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 66 Tips For Better Composition rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 67 Learn, Practice, Then Forget , , ! You are only limited by your own creativity! rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 68 Now That You Have Your Pictures Time for the workflow Why do you need a workflow? Because your photos are trapped in your card and somebody has to liberate them Because it’s too expensive not to get them out and print/email/put-them-on-the-web yourself Because you want artistic control over how your photos are displayed rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 69 Now That You Have Your Pictures Typical Post-capture Workflow: Download And Store File naming Storage Metadata Edit Crop/Straighten Tone Contrast Color correction Sharpening Cataloging Output Printer Email Web Image source: Epson rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 70 Download And Store  Downloading directly from the camera can be slow  usually USB 2.0 – maximum transfer rate of 480 Mbits/sec.  Use a fast external card reader if possible  USB 3.0 capable of up to 5-8 Gbits/sec.  Software available to download, rename, add metadata  Downloader Pro (Breeze Systems)  Photo Mechanic (Camera Bits)  . Use the same file naming scheme for your edits and originals.  Metadata . rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 71 ! Backups! Backups! CD DVD 5-10 ! rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 72    ,   metadata  EXIF (Exchangeable Image File Format)  IPTC (The International Press Telecommunications Council)   Adobe Photoshop  Photo Mechanic  iPhoto rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 73   EXIF  IPTC  File names  Folder names  Allows searching of your photos regardless of where they are  Popular software  Adobe Photoshop Elements  Extensis Portfolio  iView MediaPro  Canto Cumulus rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 74 Time To Edit  Crop and straighten  Tone and contrast  Color correction  Creative sharpening  Many software packages available:  Adobe  Corel  Apple  Microsoft  Extensis  Ulead  JASC  Nova  Free/share-ware  Etc. rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 75 Adobe Photoshop? Because it’s the best! Because the camera is good, but you might be able to do better in post Because your in-camera technique is good, but you might be able to do better in post Because you might have been forced to do something like underexpose on purpose, and only you know how to deal with that rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 76 Why Adobe Photoshop? Because you may want to create a piece of art out of your photos… rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 77 Adobe Photoshop Family  Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 – casual snapshooters  Adobe Photoshop Album Starter Edition 3.0  Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 – photo enthusiasts and most amateur photographers (This is probably all you need!)  Adobe Photoshop CS2 – professional gold standard rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 78 Sharing Your Photos  Print  Desktop printers  Commercial printing services  Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc.  Costco  Web  Online services  Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc.  Web pages (72 dpi)  Email  Good for small files only! (72 dpi) rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 79 Printing Tips   Set the correct printer and paper (including size, orientation, fit on paper)  Your software gives you options, then your printer gives you options – can be confusing  – either let your software manage the colors, or let the printer do it, but not both!  Set the color profile of the paper you’re using  Do a nozzle check beforehand. (Keep scrap plain paper around!)  .  Use third-party inks and paper at your own peril! rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 80  Mbyte  dpi, 4 pixels  winzip  rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 81 Web Tips  If you have already enhanced your photos, make sure your service (Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc.) doesn’t enhance them again!  If you manage your own web pages, use small files (72 dpi)  Software available to create galleries  Adobe Photoshop  CompuPic rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 82 Sharpening  In digital terms, adding adjacent light and dark pixels to enhance contrast  Amount – how much (gas pedal)  Halo (Radius) – how many pixels affected  Threshold – how many surrounding pixels considered “edge”  Different needs  Print: inkjet, laser, offset, etc.  Web/email (screen)  After resizing  Schools of thought  For output only  Workflow (artistic) sharpening rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • Rujroad Photography …
  • 84 “Good art comes of good craftspersonship.” rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 85 rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • 86 Photography  The Digital Photography Book Scott Kelby  Digital photography: expert techniques Ken Milburn  The Adobe Photoshop CS5 Book for Digital Photographers  The Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 3 Book for Digital Photographers Scott Kelby  The Photoshop Elements 7 Book for Digital Photographers Scott Kelby  Scott Kelby's Digital Photography Books, Volumes 1, 2, and 3, EPub  Photoshop on the Web Adobe Photoshop (http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/overview.html) National Association of Photoshop Professionals (NAPP) (http://www.photoshopuser.com/) a blog/Photoshop site made to house and showcase some of the best Photoshop tutorials (http://psd.tutsplus.com/) Scott founded KelbyTraining.com (http://www.scottkelby.com/) Web Blog for Knowledge about Photography (http://www.digitalpixels.net/) Photoshop News (http://photoshopnews.com/) Photoshop Café (http://www.photoshopcafe.com/) Adobe Evangelists (http://www.adobeevangelists.com/)rujroadk@msn.com Rujroadk- Digital Photography
  • Rujroad Photography Rujroad Photography rujroadk@msn.com