Slides upf2011 sesión #8 public

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Slides upf2011 sesión #8 public

  1. 1. I nformación Sociedad Sesión 10 1
  2. 2. I nformaciónTecnología Sociedad Sesión 10 2
  3. 3. Plan de la Sesión:• Comentarios y cuestiones sobre el blog• Debate: “Privacidad y Facebook”• Teoría 8: “Comunicación y Sociedad”nsito a la Sociedad de la Información• Teoría 7: Web 2.0, Social Media y afines 3
  4. 4. Zuckerberg:"When I got started in my dorm room at Harvard, the question a lot of people askedwas why would I want to put any information on the Internet at all? Why would I wantto have a website?"And then in the last 5 or 6 years, blogging has taken off in a huge way and all thesedifferent services that have people sharing all this information. People have reallygotten comfortable not only sharing more information and different kinds, but moreopenly and with more people. That social norm is just something that has evolvedover time."We view it as our role in the system to constantly be innovating and be updating whatour system is to reflect what the current social norms are."A lot of companies would be trapped by the conventions and their legacies of whattheyve built, doing a privacy change - doing a privacy change for 350 million users isnot the kind of thing that a lot of companies would do. But we viewed that as a reallyimportant thing, to always keep a beginners mind and what would we do if we werestarting the company now and we decided that these would be the social norms nowand we just went for it." http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/facebooks_zuckerberg_says_the_age_of_privacy_is_ov.php 4
  5. 5. “El secreto de toda ‘socialización’ exitosa reside en hacer que los individuos deseenhacer lo que es necesario para que el sistema logre autorreproducirse.Esto puede realizarse abierta y explícitamente, [...] como se efectuaba durante lafase sólida de la modernidad, en la sociedad de productores.O puede producirse subrepticia y oblicuamente, inculcando o imponiendo, más omenos por la fuerza, ciertos patrones de comportamiento para la solución deproblemas que, una vez adoptados y acatados (y deben ser acatados, ya que lasopciones alternativas escasean y se desvanecen) hacen posible la monótonareproducción del sistema, como sucede en la fase líquida de la modernidad, quecasualmente es también la era de la sociedad de consumidores”. Bauman, “Vida de Consumo”, pág. 97 5
  6. 6. “Lo que mantiene con vida a la economía de consumo y al consumismo es elmenoscado y la minimización de las necesidades de ayer y la ridiculización de susobjetivos, ahora passés, y más aún el descrédito de la idea misma de que la vidade consumo debería regirse por la satisfacción de las necesidades”. Bauman, pag. 136“Los mercados de consumo se concentran en la rápida devaluación de sus ofertaspasadas, para hacer un lugar en la demanda del público para nuevas ofertas.Generan insatisfacción hacia los productos que los consumidores usan parasatisfacer sus necesidades, y también cultivan un constante desafecto hacia laidentidad adquirida y el conjunto de necesidades que esa identidad define.Cambiar de identidad, descartar el pasado y buscar nuevos principios, esforzarsepor volver a nacer: son todas conductas que esa cultura promueve comoobligaciones disfrazadas de privilegios”. Bauman, pag. 137 6
  7. 7. Estos dos medios sociales, ¿son igualmente sociales? 7
  8. 8. Indice de próximas sesiones1. Introducción2. Tecnología y sociedad se co-producen (1)3. ¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de Internet?4. Internet: Un cruce de culturas5. Tecnología y sociedad se co-producen (2)6. Visiones de la sociedad de la información7. Web 2.0, Social Media y afines8. Comunicación y sociedad9. Nueva (o no) Economía10. Libertad y ‘cultura free’ 8
  9. 9. Sesión 8:Comunicación en la sociedad-red 9
  10. 10. Comunicación ≈ Poder“The process of communication operates accordingto the structure, culture, organization andtechnology of communication in a given society.The communication process decisively mediates theway in which power relationships are constructedand challenged in every domain of socialpractice”. (4) 10
  11. 11. “Communication power is at the heart of thestructure and dynamics of society.... The most fundamental form of power lies inthe ability to shape the human mind”. (3) 11
  12. 12. Comunicación → Sentido“Power is the most fundamental process in society, since society isdefined around values and institutions, and what is valued andinstitutionalized is defined in power relationships.Power is the relational capacity that enables a social actor toinfluence asymmetrically the decisions of other social actors inways that favor the empowered’s actor will, interest and values.Power is exercised ... by the construction of meaning on thebasis of the discourses through which social actors guide theiraction.”. (10)“Meaning is constructed in society through the process ofcommunicative action”. (12) 12
  13. 13. No se trata de un mensaje nuevo“Podemos estar seguros de que la sociedad de 2030será muy distinta de la de hoy [...]No estará dominada, ni siquiera conformada por lastecnologías de la información [...]La característica central de la próxima sociedad, comola de sus predecesores, serán nuevas instituciones ynuevas teorías, ideologías y problemas”. Peter Drucker 13
  14. 14. Sentido → Acción“Enacting social change in the network society proceeds byreprogramming the communication networks that constitute thesymbolic environment for image manipulation and informationprocessing in our minds, the ultimate determinant of individualand collective practices.Creating new content and new forms in the networks that connectminds and their communicative environment is tantamount torewiring our minds. If we feel/think different, by adquiring newmeaning and new rules to make sense of the meaning, we actdifferently, and we end up transforming the way societyoperates”. (412 ss) 14
  15. 15. Cambios en los canales de comunicación Circulación diarios EEUU 70 65En millones de ejemplares 60 55 50 45 Diarios Domingos 40 90 992 994 996 998 000 002 004 006 008 19 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Porcentaje de audiencia de las noticias de la tarde (EEUU)50% ABC CBS NBC Total40%30%20%10%0% 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 17
  18. 18. Rasgos distintivos de la sociedad red“A network society is a society whose social structure is madearound networks [...]Social structures are organizational arrangements of humans inrelationships of production, consumption, reproduction, experienceand power expressed in meaningful communication coded byculture”. (24)“Culture is the set of values and beliefs that inform, guide andmotivate people’s behavior” 19
  19. 19. El discurso como generador de poder“A major source of power: network’s programming capacity,which depends in the ability to generate, diffuse and affect thediscourses that frame human action.[...]Because the public mind, the set of values and frames that havebroad exposure in society, is ultimately what influences individualand collective behavior, programming the communicationnetworks is the decisive source of cultural materials that feedthe programmed goals of any other network”. (53) 20
  20. 20. El discurso como generador de poder“Discourses frame the options of what networks can or cannotdo.In the network society, discourses are generated, diffused, foughtover, internalized and ultimately embodied in human action, in thesocialized communication realm constructed around global-localnetworks of multimodal, digital communication, including themedia and the InternetPower in the network society is communication power”. (53) 21
  21. 21. No es proceso predeterminado, sino una lucha de intereses“Social actors and individual citizens around the world are using thenew capacity of communication networking to advance theirprojects, to defend their interests and to assert their values.[...] So, the new field of communication in our time is emergingthrough a process of multidimensional change shaped by conflictsrooted in the contradictory structure of interests and values thatconstitute society”. (57) 22
  22. 22. “Whoever holds power decides what is valuable.[...] Value is what is processed in every dominant network atevery time in every space according to the hierarchyprogrammed in the network by the actors acting upon thenetwork”. (28-29) , por ejemplo 23
  23. 23. La cultura de la sociedad red“Culture is the set of values and beliefs that inform, guide andmotivate people’s behavior.[...] What we observe [...] is fragmentation rather than convergence.[...] The common culture of the global network society is a culture ofprotocols of communication enabling communication betweendifferent cultures on the basis not of shared values but of thesharing of the value of communication”. (35-38)“The protocols of communications are not based on the sharing ofculture but on the culture of sharing”. (126) El instrumento se vuelve más importante que el motivo. 24
  24. 24. “Google will become what it has always wanted and intended to become, which is an advertising gatekeeper as indispensible as Microsoft is (or was) with Windows, Apple is with downloadable music or Amazon.com is with online book sales. But in order to get there, Google needs you to change. They need you to drop your resistance to being listened to, tracked and monitored at all times. They want you to be the best product you can possibly be. Googles customers will love you”.http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/columns/executive_tech/article.php/3801006/Googles-Business-Model-YOU-Are-the-Product.htm http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/article.php/3801006/Googles-Business-Model-YOU-Are-the-Product.htm 25
  25. 25. Marcos mentales 26
  26. 26. El cambio tecnológico no es el único necesario"Para que las fuerzas generadoras de riqueza en el nuevo paradigmaalcancen su máximo esplendor se requieren cambios inmensos enlos patrones de inversión, en los modelos de organización demáxima eficiencia, en los mapas mentales de todos los actoressociales y en las instituciones que regulan y habilitan los procesossociales y económicos". Carlota Pérez 27
  27. 27. “The exercise is: Don’t think of anelephant! I’ve never found a studentwho is able to do this”. 28
  28. 28. “Frames are mental structures that shape the way we see theworld. As a result, they shape the goals we seek, the plans wemake, the way we act, and what counts as a good or bad outcome ofour actions” (xv) 29
  29. 29. “We know frames through language. All words are defined relative toconceptual frames. When you hear a word, its frame (or collectionof frames) is activated in your brain.[...] Because language activates frames, new language is requiredfor new frames. Thinking differently requires speakingdifferently”. (xv) 30
  30. 30. “It is a general finding about frames that if a strongly held framedoesn’t fit the facts, the facts will be ignored and the frame willbe kept”. (37)Ejemplo: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/03/AR2007090300933.html 31
  31. 31. “Framing is not primarily about politics or politicalmessaging, or communication. It is far morefundamental than that: Frames are the mentalstructures that allow human beings to understandreality - and sometimes to create what we taketo be reality”. (25) 32
  32. 32. La Vanguardia, 5 de Marzo 2010 33
  33. 33. Lessons on frames1. The use of frames is largely unconscious.2. Frames define common sense.3. Repetition can embed frames in the brain.4. Activation links surface frames to deep frames and inhibits opposition frames.5. Existing deep frames don’t change overnight.6. The facts alone will not set you free.7. Simply negating the other side’s frame only reinforces them.8. There are (many) binconceptuals. As a matter of fact, they might be the most interesting people. 34
  34. 34. “Know your values and frame the debate” 35
  35. 35. Ejemplosrelacionados con las TIC y la sociedad de la información 36
  36. 36. “La sociedad de la información es …un estadio de desarrollo social caracterizado por la capacidad desus miembros (ciudadanos, empresas y Administración Pública) paraobtener y compartir cualquier información, instantáneamente, desdecualquier lugar y en la forma que se prefiera”. Informe Telefónica Sociedad de la Información Valores subyacentes: La información por encima de otras consideraciones. 37
  37. 37. THE NATURE OF CYBERSPACE“The Internet -- the huge (2.2 million computers), global (135countries), rapidly growing (10-15% a month) network that hascaptured the American imagination -- is only a tiny part ofcyberspace. So just what is cyberspace?More ecosystem than machine, cyberspace is a bioelectronicenvironment that is literally universal: It exists everywherethere are telephone wires, coaxial cables, fiber-optic lines orelectromagnetic waves.This environment is "inhabited" by knowledge, includingincorrect ideas, existing in electronic form”. 38
  38. 38. “Cyberspace is the land of knowledge, and the exploration ofthat land can be a civilizations truest, highest calling. Theopportunity is now before us to empower every person to pursuethat calling in his or her ownway.The challenge is as daunting as the opportunity is great. The ThirdWave has profound implications for the nature and meaning ofproperty, of the marketplace, of community and of individualfreedom. As it emerges, it shapes new codes of behavior thatmove each organism and institution -- family,neighborhood, church group, company, government, nation --inexorably beyond standardization and centralization, as well asbeyond the materialists obsession with energy, money and control”. 39
  39. 39. Marcos mentales40
  40. 40. Teorías“En la medida en que llegásemos a vivir una gran parte denuestras vidas en el ciberspacio, ¿nos convertiríamos en super- o infra- humanos? H.L. Dreyfus 41
  41. 41. ???42
  42. 42. ¿Un ejemplo de ‘framing’? 43
  43. 43. “The attribution of intelligence to machines,crowds of fragments, or other nerd deitiesobscures more than it illuminates. Whenpeople are told that a computer isintelligent, they become prone to changingthemselves in order to make the computerappear to work better, instead ofdemanding that the computer be changedto become more useful. People already tendto defer to computers, blaming themselveswhen a digital gadget or online service is hardto use.Treating computers as intelligent,autonomous entities ends up standing theprocess of engineering on its head. We can’tafford to respect our own designs somuch” (36). 44
  44. 44. Un ejemplo de éTIC@ ciberlibertaria“Why, then, do so many people simply ignore copyright laws?Part of the reason is that people question whether the law that forbids sharing of suchmaterial online is morally justified. The fact that something is illegal doesnt mean thatits necessarily immoral. Around the world, young people are questioning the merit ofthe laws that forbid them to share material. They break copyright laws in partbecause they believe that these laws are unjust.Not only do we think that the copyright laws are unjust, we also know that its easy toget away with breaking these laws -- and for youth and students with limited, orsometimes nonexistent funds, the allure of free media with minimal chances of beingcaught is too good to pass up.From a practical point of view, trying to regulate the distribution of these materialsover the Internet is an unachievable goal. No matter what laws are put in place,technological advances by ingenious young computer geeks mean that youth will alwaysbe one step ahead of the authorities”. 45
  45. 45. La trampa de los ciberlibertarios http://www.rpi.edu/~winner/cyberlib2.html“Primero se observa lo que ocurre en el ámbito de lasredes y el desarrollo de la tecnosfera. Se escogeentonces una palabra impactante: comunidad odemocracia, ciudadanía o igualdad o cualquier otroconcepto positivo para describir aspectos de lo que unoobserva. Y se ignoran otros contextos, en la historia, lafilosofía o la experiencia contemporánea, en los queestos conceptos tengan significado”. L. Winner 46
  46. 46. Ciberlibertarios“Los gobernantes que hoy intentan recortar lo que podemos y nopodemos hacer en Internet para así intentar preservar el equilibrio quehabía antes de que la red existiese lo hacen, en realidad, porque noson capaces de explicarse que alguien de verdad pretenda romperdicho equilibrio, y mucho menos que no se pueda hacer nada paraevitarlo. [...]  El que la red no acepte restricciones, el que las leyesno puedan actuar sobre ella si contradicen el código con el que fuecreada, es algo completamente inaceptable [...] Para una personaque entiende la red [...] la idea de “controlarla”, de restringir loque circula por ella, de someterla a determinadas leyes esdirectamente una locura”. E. Dans 47
  47. 47. Los ciberlibertarios y la sociedad líquida“Una nueva ideología para la sociedad individualizada, en la quese espera, se empuja y se tira de los hombres y las mujeresindividuales para que busquen y encuentren solucionesindividuales a problemas creados socialmente y pongan losmedios para llegar a estas soluciones individualmente utilizandohabilidades y recursos individuales.[...] Se trata también de una ideología hecha a la medida de lanueva sociedad de consumidores. Representa el mundo como unalmacén de objetos de consumo potenciales, la vida humanacomo una búsqueda perpetua de gangas, su propósito como lamáxima satisfacción del consumidor y el éxito en la vida comoun aumento del propio valor de mercado del individuo”. Z. Bauman “El arte de la vida”: 109 48

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