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Foreign E-Commerce Transactions

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Master Thesis - Andreas Kurtz

Master Thesis - Andreas Kurtz

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    Foreign E-Commerce Transactions Foreign E-Commerce Transactions Presentation Transcript

    • Universiteit Maastricht Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maastricht, 30 th August 2005 Kurtz, Andreas i980475   supervised by Drs. Toñita Perea y Monsuwé Foreign E-Commerce Transactions Why consumers hesitate to shop around the globe online?
    • introduction academic context - hypotheses development research design analysis and results discussion and conclusion additional questions - foreign e-commerce framework
    • introduction
      • Internet is growing rapidly
      • e-commerce sales are soaring
      • EU – online sales 7% from foreign e-commerce transactions (FET)
      (BCG, 2003)
    • internet sales in various markets (OECD, 2002)
    • problem statement Why do consumers hesitate to shop around the globe online?
      • impact of attitude
      • situational factors and import tariffs
      • impact of trust
      • significance of culture
    • intention and contribution
      • provide more insight in FET
      • develop multicultural framework
      • FET applicability for existing e-commerce literature
      • e.g. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by Davis (1989)
      • & TAM extensions by Perea y Monsuwé et al. (2004)
      • & Jarvenpaa et al. (1999)
    • approach
      • review existing literature on e-commerce
      • develop adequate hypotheses
      • empirical research across three countries
      • - the Netherlands, South Korea, Germany
    • TAM (Davis, 1989) Perea y Monsuwé (2004) framework intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothesis 01: The attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website has a direct positive effect on the intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypotheses 0 2 - 05 : The situatuational factors have an impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothes e s 0 2 - 05 : The situatuational factors have an impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website . attenuating effect
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothes e s 0 2 - 05 : The situatuational factors have an impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypotheses 0 2 - 05 : The situatuational factors have an impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothesis 0 2 - 05 : The situatuational factors have an impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothes i s 06 : Import tariffs and the corresponding efforts by the consumer have a strengthening impact on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website Hypothes e s 07 – 08 : The perceived ability and integrity of an Internet merchant have a moderating effect on the realtionship the attitude and i ntention to purchase a product on a foreign website .
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
      • Hofstede‘s dimensions of culture (1984) :
      • masculinity
      • individualism
      • power distance
      • uncertainty avoidance
      status symbols De Mooij (1998) : computer / internet usage
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
      • Hofstede‘s dimensions of culture (1984) :
      • masculinity
      • individualism
      • power distance
      • uncertainty avoidance
      mas 14 66 39 80 67 18 idv Netherlands Germany South Korea (Hofstede, 1984)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
      Hypothes e s 09 – 10 : The degrees of masculinity and individualism have a positive effect on the attitude towards purchasing a product from a foreign website
    • Doney et al. (1998) :
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
      Hypothes e s 11 – 12 : The degrees of masculinity and individualism have an effect on the consumer‘s trust in pruchasing from a foreign website
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs
      • situational factors
      • need for special items
      • geographical distance
      • international transportation
      • delivery time
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability
      • perceived integrity
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism
      • masculintiy
      • demographics
    • sampling webproficiency as pre-requisite mailing
      • convenience set
      • all senior bachelor students at Soongsil University, Seoul (SSU)
      • all bachelor students at FEBA
    •  
    • sampling webproficiency as pre-requisite mailing
      • convenience set
      • all senior bachelor students at SSU
      10-06-2005 – 16-06-2005 51 Dutch / 75 Germans 20-06-2005 – 30-06-2005 55 Koreans
      • all bachelor students at FEBA
    • questionnaire 41 questions on four pages three languages
    • components attitude and intention (Dabholkar, 1994) four-item scale two-item scale seven-point Likert scales (Chang & Cheung, 1994) attitude intention (Dabholkar, 1994)
    • components moderators – situational factors (McQuarrie & Munson, 1992) ten bipolar items need for special items geographical distance international transportation delivery time three self-made statements each one statement
    • components (Cheung & Lee, 2001) three statements perceived ability perceived integrity (Cheung & Lee, 2001) (Moorman et al., 1993) three statements (Lee & Turban, 2001) moderator – trust
    • components demographic details moderator – import tariffs consumer traits three self-made statements
    •  
    • descriptive statistics demographics nationality: 51 Dutch 75 German 55 Korean 28.2 % 41.4 % 30.4 % female male 18 38 31 33 37 24
    • descriptive statistics demographics age: < 20 20 – 34 25 – 34 35 – 49 50 – 65 5.5 % 44.8 % 44.8 % 4.4 % 0.6 % 10 81 81 08 01
    • descriptive statistics demographics education: secondary high-school vocational advanced university other 3.3 % 19.9 % 13.3 % 3.9 % 59.1 % 0.6 % 06 36 24 07 107 01
    • descriptive statistics demographics income: < € 15,000 15 – 20 20 – 35 35 – 50 50 – 65 > € 65,000 72.4 % 10.5 % 7.2 % 3.3 % 5.5 % 1.1 % 131 19 13 06 10 02
    • descriptive statistics previous purchases 51 Dutch 75 German 55 Korean 29/22 35/40 15/40 yes/no 79/102 foreign transactions: domestic transactions: 91.7 % yes 8.3 % no 43.6%
        • attitude
        • intention
      reliability analysis
        • perceived ability
        • perceived integrity
        • import tariffs
        • need for special items
        • geographical distance
        • international transportation
        • delivery time
        • 0.9201
        • 0.8577
        • 0.8253
        • 0.5758
        • 0.6860
        • 0.3346
        • 0.8546
        • 0.8480
        • 0.4032
        • variable Cronbach‘s α
      Exceeding 15min
        • attitude
        • intention
      reliability analysis
        • perceived ability
        • perceived integrity
        • import tariffs
        • need for special items
        • geographical distance
        • international transportation
        • delivery time
        • 0.9201
        • 0.8577
        • 0.8253
        • 0.5758
        • 0.6860
        • 0.3346
        • 0.8546
        • 0.8480
        • 0.4032
        • variable Cronbach‘s α
    • analysis of variance national differences and attitude mas 14 66 39 80 67 18 idv Netherlands Germany South Korea (Hofstede, 1984) Netherlands Germany South Korea 4.455 4.446 4.097 mean H09 & H10 not supported F = 4.319 p = .015
    • analysis of variance national differences and trust F = .392 p = .626 F = 2.756 p = .066 perceived ability perceived integrity H11 = no support H12 = no support Netherlands Germany South Korea 5.229 4.446 4.097 4.471 4.138 3.958 ability integrity
    • analysis of variance previous purchases F = 7.380 p = .05 F = 15.039 F = 48.336 intention attitude intention p = .05 e-commerce experience FET experience
    • (moderated) regression analsyis attitude and intention t = 8.023 p = .000 H01 = supported
    • (moderated) regression analsyis situational factors t = -2.195 p = .03 H02 = supported need for special items β = - .231 t = 2.963 p = .003 H03 = no support geographical distance β = .269
        • α =
      .5758
        • α =
      .8253
    • (moderated) regression analsyis situational factors t = 2.631 p = .009 H04 = no support international transportation β = .185 H05 = no support delivery time
        • α =
      0.3346
        • α =
      0.6860
    • (moderated) regression analsyis import tariffs t = - .055 p = .635 H06 = no support β = - .475
        • α =
      0.4032
    • (moderated) regression analsyis trust t = 1.649 p = .233 H07 = no support perceived ability H08 = supported perceived integrity
        • α =
        • α =
      0.8546 0.8480 t = -2.248 p = .026 β = .216 β = - .233
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
    • intention to purchase a product on a foreign website import tariffs (-)
      • situational factors
      • need for special items (+)
      • geographical distance (~)
      • international transportation (~)
      • delivery time (-)
      • trust in foreign Internet merchant
      • perceived ability (-)
      • perceived integrity (+)
      attitude towards purchasing a product on a foreign website
      • culture
      • individualism (-)
      • masculintiy (-)
      (+)
      • the need for special items is key
      • domestic e-commerce experience
      • attitude goes a long way
      • trust is imperative
      • do not neglect culture
      final conclusion
    • implications
      • focus on demand for special items
      • address issues of international transportation
      • attitude – influence determinants
      • create trust
    • limitations
      • various issues of foreign e-commerce
      • e.g. language or payment
      • bigger sample
      • specific evaluation and measurement of culture
      • investigation of determinants of trust and attitude
      • products / services
    • q & a