Look at this cartoon. Does this person look happy about having to pay taxes? Taxes are a touchy subject now, and they were a touchy subject when this nation was just forming. Let’s look at some reasons that taxes are such a hard issue
Broken Promises• • As we learned in section one, the British did not keep their promises to the Native Americans. Soon after the war was over, more and more English moved across the Appalachian Mountains. This pushed the natives off more land.• An Indian chief named Pontiac led a rebellion against the English settlements. This rebellion was known as Pontiac’s war. It was short- lived and did little to stop settlers from moving in. Chief Pontiac
Proclamation of 1763 • • England was tired of hearing news about colonists fighting with the Indians. To keep peace and order, the king issued the Proclamation of 1763. • • It said that no one was allowed to move West of the Appalachians. If you had already moved, the proclamation stated that you were to remove yourself immediately. • England then sent over 10,000 troops to enforce the law. People were ticked! Many moved westward anyway.
England Goes Into Debt• • The French and Indian War put Britain into debt. Parliament (Britains Legislature or law making body) decided that a small tax increase for the colonists would help them get some much needed money.• • Parliament passed the sugar act, which put a small tax on sugar and Molasses.• • They also passed the Stamp Act which put a tax on legal documents (diplomas, marriage papers) and other random items like newspapers and playing cards. When you bought these items, they had to be stamped to say that you paid the tax.• • The 13 colonies had no elected representatives in Parliament. The colonists were happy to pay any taxes in which colonial representatives had some say.
The Colonists Revolt This isn’t a • • Colonists got together, money issue, wrote a petition, and sent it to this is a Parliament. England paid little representation attention. issue! The • • Colonists boycotted British colonies goods, which means they refused should have to buy them. Parliament repealed representatives the stamp act in Parliament • • Did parliament learn its lesson…oh no. A few months later they passed the Townshend Acts. This taxed things like glass, paper, paint, lead, and TEA!! • • The colonists were mad for the same reason: no taxation without representation • • Colonists continued to protest being taxed with no representatives from the colonies allowed in parliament.
People boycott today in the 21st centuryfor many causes.
The colonists fight back•• Merchants, or store owners, were urged not to purchase English goods.• New Colonial leaders like Samuel Adams, John Adams, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson led the campaign against unfair taxes.• As soldiers walked through big cities like Boston and New York, they faced insults and sometimes even beatings!• England sent troops into Boston to protect tax collectors.
The Boston Massacre • • Late one night, a group of colonists gathered outside the customs house to protest. They threw snowballs, ice, and rocks. One of the English soldiers fired into the crowd which caused a domino effect of other soldiers firing. This is known as the Boston Massacre. • • When the smoke cleared, five colonists lay dead. • • Of course, colonists were outraged. They demanded justice! • • The soldiers went to trial, but no one received any real punishment. • • Entire newspapers were written strictly to fan the flames of protest in the colonies • • Parliament repealed (canceled) the Townshend Acts, and only left the tax on tea. This brought peace for a little while, but not for long.