Preserving Computer-Aided Design, Digital Preservation Coalition Report

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by Alex Ball (DCC/UKOLN, University of Bath). …

by Alex Ball (DCC/UKOLN, University of Bath).
Presentation given at the DEDICATE final seminar (University of Glasgow, 21st October 2013).

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  • 1. because good research needs good data Preserving Computer-Aided Design Digital Preservation Coalition Report Alex Ball DCC/UKOLN, University of Bath 21 October 2013 Glasgow University Except where otherwise stated, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Scotland: http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/scotland/ DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013 Supported by
  • 2. My background 2013 2012 2011 2010 DCC SCARP 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 3. DPC Technology Watch Report Preserving Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Alex Ball http://dx.doi.org/10.7207/twr13-02 DPC Technology Watch Report 13-02 April 2013 DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013 01000100 01010000 01000011 01000100 01010000 01000011 01000100 01010000 01000011
  • 4. Outline Curation challenges for CAD The CAD format problem The rationale problem The contextual problem Final thoughts DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 5. Curation challenges for CAD DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 6. Lasting value of CAD c Field Archaeology Specialists c Alexander C. Schreyer Public domain DEDICATE Final Seminar c Worcestershire Archaeological Service 21 October 2013
  • 7. Nature of CAD systems … Typical CAD system: new version every 6 months, end-of-life after 10 years. … Dependence on particular modelling kernel Intense competition between vendors for customers … … … … Innovation: new features being added Need to retire old systems ! time-limited licences Fear of losing customers to rival systems ! lock-in DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 8. Integration with other systems Finite Element Analysis System Geographic Information System CAM System CAD System Animation System DEDICATE Final Seminar ... High Quality Renderer 21 October 2013
  • 9. Relationship with other documents Bill of Materials Process Model CAD Model Rationale Model DEDICATE Final Seminar Archaeology Database ... Systems Models 21 October 2013
  • 10. The CAD format problem DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 11. Software emulation Pros … CAD model unchanged Cons … Licence may not allow it … Need to preserve expertise in the system … Hard to maintain integration with newer systems DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 12. Rolling format migrations Pros … Models stay usable by current designers and systems Cons … Incremental data loss/corruption … Each migration needs to be validated, problems resolved … Migration path may run out . . . DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 13. Normalisation Pros … Limited data loss … Support for archival format likely to improve rather than degrade over time Cons … Some data loss/corruption … Migration needs to be validated, problems resolved DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 14. Normalisation: full exchange formats DXF: DWG Exchange Format … Not enough documentation? STEP: ISO 10303 … Too much documentation? Key parts: … … … … Part 21: Clear text encoding of the exchange structure (‘STEP file’) AP 203: Configuration controlled 3D designs of mechanical parts and assemblies AP 214: Core data for automotive mechanical design processes AP 242: Managed model-based 3D engineering … CAx Implementer Forum … Basis for other standards, e.g. IFC, LOTAR DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 15. Normalisation: visualisation formats Standards U3D Universal 3D – ECMA-363 X3D ISO/IEC 19775, 19776, 19777 IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification – ANSI Y14.26M-1981 . . . ANS US/PRO/IPO-100-1996 PRC Product Representation Compact – ISO/PRF 14739 JT ISO 14306 Non-standards DWF/DWFx AutoCAD DWG Web Format 3D XML CATIA visualisation format DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 16. FACADE recommendations CAD models should be stored in 1. the original format 2. a full exchange format, e.g. STEP 3. a desiccated format, e.g. IGES 4. an access format, e.g. 3D PDF DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 17. Validation Example from LOTAR International 1. Generate point cloud in original software 2. Export to normalisation format 3. Import into new software 4. Overlay point cloud: do the points still lie on surfaces/edges? c ITI/SNECMA DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 18. Lightweight models with multilayer annotations Unclassified annotations for manufacture Classified annotations for designers Geometry layer DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 19. The rationale problem DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 20. Feature-based modelling Cavities Ribs DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 21. Construction history modelling 1. Insert cylinder l = 20 r = 1.0 Change cylinder l = 40 r = 0.5 2. Insert sprocket r = 3.0 3. Fit sprocket to cylinder 4. Group cylinder and sprocket 5. Scale group by 1.75⇥ ... DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 22. Automated information capture Non-intrusive engineering knowledge acquisition User logging Knowledge store Design/ plan Data analysis Knowledge capture/ formalization c Raymond Sung/ Heriot-Watt University DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 23. Design Rationale Editor c Rob Bracewell/University of Cambridge DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 24. The contextual problem DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 25. Transactional records Engineering workspace Documentary space XSLT c Alastair Conway, Matt Geiss, Bill Ion, Chris McMahon DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 26. Key ERIM Research Findings 1. Poor framework for … … … pre-project considerations of data management; data management during the research; during-project data management for post-project re-use. 2. Poor knowledge of context in which data were generated: … … … engineering research data is very diverse; large number of diverse research data records; relations between data records complex. 3. Knowing the context is vital for understanding data. Slide: Mansur Darlington DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 27. Collecting metadata Minimum Mandatory Metadata Set; REDm-MED version at: http://opus.bath.ac.uk/30372/ … Drew on PREMIS for preservation metadata … Drew on DataCite for descriptive metadata … Excluded metadata that could easily be generated later … We looked for ways to collect it automatically (NB: an extensive specification of what metadata to collect for archaeological CAD can be found at: http://guides.archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/g2gp/Cad_Toc) DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 28. Research activity information development http://sourceforge.net/p/raidmap/ DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 29. Final thoughts DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 30. Recommendations … Establish why a CAD model will be kept, then target the required properties for preservation. … Create tests that can prove whether these properties have survived. … Keep native CAD models for as long as they can be read. … Normalise to STEP and a visualisation standard (or two). … Don’t forget supporting documentation, especially local conventions, ‘house style’, specifications, rationale records . . . … Campaign for better support for standard formats in CAD systems! DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013
  • 31. because good research needs good data Thank you for your attention DCC Website: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/ Alex Ball: http://alexball.me.uk/ Preserving CAD DPC Technology Watch Report: http://dx.doi.org/10.7207/twr13-02 DEDICATE Final Seminar 21 October 2013