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Information on Herbs

Information on Herbs

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  • 1. Herbs Nicolette Setola
  • 2. What is a herb?
    • Herbaceous Plant
    • Forms fleshy, not woody stem
    • Herb is the leafy part of the plant
    • Herbs include trees, shrubs, ferns, mosses, algae, fungi, vines, annuals, biennials, and perennials
    • Know for variety of uses: medicinal, culinary, fragrance, ornamental and industrial
    • About 60 types
  • 3. Where is the Aroma from?
    • Herbs maintain their pungent aroma and fragrance from its chemicals
    • Examples: essential oils, alkaloids, acids, steroids, tannins, saponins
    • Different extractions are used to obtain a specific chemical
  • 4. How to extract chemicals?
      • Drying & Freeze Dry
      • Pressing
      • Crushing – mortar and pestle
      • Infusions - hot teas
      • Decoctions - boiled teas
      • Tinctures - alcohol and water extracts
      • Macerations - cold-soaking
      • Methods Vary depending on solubility
      • Medicinally solubility determines where it can be distributed
      • Example: Tea can be used to treat anti-inflammatory and tincture used to treat bacteria infections.
  • 5. What are the 4 different categories?
    • Aromatic : Oils used for aroma and fragrance in perfumes. Lavender has a pungent smell and Chamomile a more gentle aroma.
    • Medicinal : Used for centuries as preventatives and help cure ailments . Mint help relive stomach ache and feverfew for headaches and rheumatism prevention.
    • Culinary: Used to add flavor acting like a spice. Rosemary adds a minty but sweet flavor and Thyme adds a clover flavor but a little more subtle.
    • Ornamental : Dried herbs used for presentation in rooms, fresh herbs used for presentation of dishes or presentation in gardening. Violet and lemon balm.
  • 6. What is the History of Herbs?
    • Egyptians
    • Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian Medical Document
    • Found by Georg Ebers, a German Egyptologist in 1874
    • Contains a 800 medicinal herbs including medicine, cosmetics, aromatics, cooking, fumigating, and embalming.
    • Ebers Papyrus dates back to about 1700 B.C.
  • 7.
    • Chinese and Indian
    • 2500 B.C . when Ayurveda was discovered.
    • Treats to balance and create harmony in mental and physical health
    • Ayurveda :
    • - "the knowledge of how to live" - stresses a balanced lifestyle of exercise, dieting, and clear mental and psychological health.
    What is the History of Herbs?
  • 8.
    • Greeks
    • Hippocrates then studied the three ancient civilizations
    • Categorized herbs into four groups hot, cold, dry and damp.
    • Focused on balancing exercise and diet to maintain health
    • 486-377 B.C.
    • Dioscorides said to be doctor to Cleopatra and Antony or surgeon during reign of Nero
    • Wrote De Materia Medica , used as a reference for 1,500 years.
    • Focused on experimenting with herbs for medicinal purposes
    • 60 A.D
    What is the History of Herbs?
  • 9.
    • Rome
    • Greeks brought over in 100 B.C.
    • Galen 131-199 A.D. disliked Hippocrates views of the body healing itself
    • Four Humors : blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
    • -Used in Unani medicine and Muslim world
    What is the History of Herbs?
  • 10. Web Sites