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Sorghum breeding for Improved productivity nutrition and INDUSTRIAL use
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Sorghum breeding for Improved productivity nutrition and INDUSTRIAL use

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Presentation made by Prof. Patrick Okori at the Opening ceremony of the biennial Conference 2012.

Presentation made by Prof. Patrick Okori at the Opening ceremony of the biennial Conference 2012.

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  • 1. SORGHUM BREEDING FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY NUTRITION AND INDUSTRIAL USEPatrick OkoriMakerere University
  • 2. Background: ECA development domainsRepresenting Enabling Development Conditions Domains Each domain supports a Biophysical range of different Production livelihood /development Potential strategies Human Population Density Access To Markets mkt.acc / ag.pot / pop.dens H = high M = medium L = low 2
  • 3. 12/4/2012 Regional GDP Gains to 2015 from Growth in Selected Commodity Sub-Sectors (US$ million) Milk Oilseeds Cassava Sorghum_Millet Vegetable_Fruits Beef Maize Bananas Coffee_TeaPotatoes_Sweetpotatoes Rice Wheat_Barley Beans_Peas Poultry Sugar 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 3
  • 4. Challenge: Low exploitation of agriculturalinnovation Cereal productivity comparisons Cereal production per capita in SSA 6 220 5 200 4 Yield (t/ha) 180 3 Productio (Kg) 160 2 1 140 y = -0.648x + 176.8 0 R² = 0.369 120 2003 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2005 2007 Eastern Africa Southern Africa 100 2005 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 Western Africa Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Source: FAOSTATS (2010) Langyintuo, 2010
  • 5. 12/4/2012 Purpose of our research programmeTo develop specialised sorghum and maize-basedtechnologies, in order to widen the marketopportunities, reduce food and nutrition insecurity andsustainably use natural resources for production. 5
  • 6. Project Results Framework Strategic objective (goal level) Capacity of Uganda’s Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation systems to generate novel technologies and processes that strengthen livelihood strategies of Ugandans developed Strategic objective (purpose level) Specialised sorghum and maize-based production and consumption technologies, developed, harnessed and promoted for increased productivity Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Result 4 Result 5Specialised Novel Improved market Technologies to Researchsorghum and technologies access and mitigate capacity-humanmaize genotypes based on competitiveness environmental resource anddeveloped and specialised for specialised impacts of infrastructuretested sorghum and sorghum and sorghum developed maize developed maize developed and and tested tested 6 12/4/2012
  • 7. Unlocking the potential ofsorghum through breeding
  • 8. The Product Development Trait Discovery Product Development CommercialisationProduct Gene Transfor- GH & Field Line Variety Field Post MarketConcept Discovery mation Evaluation Selection Development Production Market
  • 9. 12/4/2012Result 1a: New varieties-Specialised sorghum andmaizeOver 1500 families of novel sorghum andmaize genotypes have been developed.Materials currently at F6 level.Types• Waxy (high amylopectin) x Normal Waxy sorghum endosperm (maize & sorghum)• Waxy x Quality protein (QPM) (high lysine• New QPM inbred under development Waxy maize & QPM genotypes 9
  • 10. 12/4/2012Result 1b: Breeding tools: Transformation protocolfor sorghum developed(A) Somatic embryos formed on callus, (B) Somatic embryos germinated toform shoots, (C) Shoots cultured on half strength MS rooting medium, (D)Roots formed on plantlets 10
  • 11. PATTERNS TION SEGREGA CE RESISTAN Result 1b: Breeding tools: Mapping resistance loci for MAS 90 80 180 160F2 individuals 70 140 120 60 100 50 80 60 40 40 20 30 0 Resistant Segregating * Susecptible 20 10 0 Epuripuri MUC007/009 Relative AUDPC
  • 12. 1b. One Resistance Locus- based on dominanceIn Maize the HT gene regulate resistanceUsed parents to select for promising lines
  • 13. Modern tools used: Analysis using SSRs- MAS 3 SSR markers were TXP274 found to differentiate the two parents. 1 2 3 4 TXP95 TLB Epuripuri 100 bp allele TXP57 Accession9 allele Segregation pattern of SSR loci txp95
  • 14. 12/4/2012Result 1c: Hybrid systems for specialized sorghumdevelopedAccession Race Presence of seeds Breeding line group Putative genotypeMUC007/51 Caudatum no seed B N(rfrf)MUC007/193 Guinean no seed B N(rfrf)MUC007/64 Guinean no seed B N(rfrf)MUC007/114 Kafir no seed B N(rfrf)MUC007/194 Kafir no seed B N(rfrf)MUC007/144 Caudatum seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/63 Caudatum seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/151 Caudatum seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/178 Caudatum seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/53 Guinean seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/56 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/111 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/12 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/190 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/37 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/172 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF)MUC007/189 Kafir seeds present R N(RfRf), S(RfRF) 14
  • 15. 12/4/2012Result 1c: Hybrid systems for specialized sorghumdevelopedEstimates of specific combining ability of 20 F1 crosses, derived from a cross involving 3 males and 7females for drought tolerance planted at MUARIK December, 2010. Crosses RL SL RL:SL DRW DSW DRW:DSW MUCOO7/56xMUCOO7/167 1.07 3.49** -0.07 0.02 0.44** 0.24* MUCOO7/107Ax MUCOO7/167 -0.49 1.37 -0. 10 0.09** 0.21** -0.54** MUCOO7/193AxMUCOO7/167 0.07 0.84 -0.07 0.28** -0.02 0.51* MUCOO7/64xMUCOO7/167 -3.98** -3.67** -0.18** -0.13** 0.04* -0.18 MUCOO7/111xMUCOO7/167 1.75 1.73 -0.001 -0.02 0.20** -0.05 MUCOO7/51xMUCOO7/167 4.70** -5.91** 0.47** -0.11** -0.32** -0.53** MUCOO7/12xMUCOO7/167 -0.21 0.39 -0.06 -0.14** -0.55** 0.55** MUCOO7/190xMUCOO7/144 -2.80* -13.69** 1.54** 0.05* 0.82** 2.44** MUCOO7/93 x MUCOO7/144 -1.78 5.62** -0.56** -0.02 -0.17** -1.02** MUCOO7/37 x MUCOO7/144 2.13 0.29 -0.20** 0.01 -0.27** 1.18** MUCOO7/63 x MUCOO7/144 0.63 4.92** -0.44** -0.07** -0.07** -1. 20** MUCOO7/83 x MUCOO7/144 -0.62 2.26** -0.43** 0.05* -0.31** 0.04 MUCOO7/151 x MUCOO7/144 3.09** 5.54** -0.34** -0.02 0.01 -1.44** MUCOO7/13C x MUCOO7/144 1.87 -1.21 0.12* 0.04 -0.14** 0.61** MUCOO7/53 x MUCOO7/144 -2.26* -4.84** 0.001 -0.09** -0.45** -0.53** MUCOO7/178 x MUCOO7/144 1.19 4.90** -0.06 0.01 0.76** -0.40* MUCOO7/172 x MUCOO7/144 -1.7 -1.11 -0.06 -0.12** -0.40** -0.85** MUCOO7/189 x MUCOO7/144 0.65 2.39* -0.05 -0.002 0.13** -0.295* MUCOO7/194A x MUCOO7/144 1.77 1.55 0.03 0.09** 0.28** 0.336* MUCOO7/88 x MUCOO7/144 0.34 -1.68 0.04 0.10** -0.19** 1.036** S.E 1. 10 1.08 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.12**, * = Significant at 0.01, 0.05 probability levels, RL=Root length (cm), SL=Shoot length (cm), RL: SL=Root toshoot length ratio, DRW=Dry root weight (g), DSW=Dry shoot weight (g), DRW: DSW=Dry root weight to shootweight ratio. 15
  • 16. Strengthening breeding: AFLP from cDNA 1st 2ndamplification amplification & Electrophoresis Digestion andadapters ligation Mse I Mse IcDNA A B C BStY! BStY1 MseI 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Sequencing of clones Extraction and Elution CLONING of bands,
  • 17. Functional categories of transcript-derived fragmentsfrom cDNA-AFLP from a resistant sorghum genotypechallenged with C. sublineolum • Metabolism (26%), • Stress responses (12%) • Transcription (9%) • • Transport (6%) • Signal transduction (10%), • Photosynthesis (7%) • Unknown function (30%).
  • 18. Verification of resistance via Virus induced gene silencingA: Empty plasmid, B: Cs1, C: Cs2, D: SbLTP1, E: SbZnTF1, F: SbDEFL1, G: SbCDL1, H:SbCKII, J: No BMV construct only fungal inoculation on a susceptible genotype
  • 19. Sb03g006180 flanking an (AAG) repeat region in the third exon of gene with TFIIS_I domain structure.Figure 1: Lane 1, Resistant parent, 2 susceptible parent, 3,4,5 susceptible genotypes, 6,7, 8 F2plants from a cross between 1 and 2, 9-12, resistant genotypes and M is 100bp DNA ladder NB-ARC domain containing protein CS2 Figure 1: Lane 1-6. Resistant genotypes, 7-12, Susceptible genotypes, M is 100bp DNA ladder
  • 20. Value added products for Niche expansion
  • 21. Result 2b Alternative feed products: response to feeds Response of fish to various diet (sorghum, maize and commercial feeds left length and right weight 18.00 100% Sorghum 100% Sorghum 75% Sorghum, 25% 16.00 10.00 Maize 50% Sorghum, 50% 75% Maize 14.00 Sorghum, 25% 9.00 100% Maize Maize 50% Commercial Feed 12.00 Sorghum, 50% 8.00 Maize 100% Maize 7.00 10.00 Weight (g)Total Length (cm) 6.00 8.00 5.00 6.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time in weeks Time in weeks
  • 22. Agribusiness/ Investment policy support
  • 23. Result 3a: Improved market access &competitiveness: Producer preferences for maizeFramework of analysis: • Seed is a productive input with heterogeneous characteristics or traits. Farmers’ subjective perceptions and valuation of these traits can be identified using the Inputs Characteristics model. • The model views inputs as being useful because of the content of their characteristicsKey results1. Attributes of sorghum (short to medium duration and small grain size) associated with price premiums should be exploited during breeding.2. Agro-ecological intensification an option- agro-ecological -specific varieties.3. Socioeconomic characteristics of farmers should be considered in the development of new crop varieties, especially for sorghum.4. Knowledge transfer critical to improve productivity. 23
  • 24. Result 3b: Improved market access &competitiveness: Producer preferences for maizeFramework of analysis: • Seed is a productive input with heterogeneous characteristics or traits. Farmers’ subjective perceptions and valuation of these traits can be identified using the Inputs Characteristics model- used. • A hedonic pricing models underpinned by the fact that price factors that price is determined by both internal and external characteristics of the goods being sold and the external factors affecting i.e. competitionKey results1. Price farmers are willing to pay for seed depends on quality characteristics, exposure and socioeconomic environment such as markets.2. Attributes of maize (short plants and yield) associated with price premiums should be exploited during breeding.3. Different varieties should be targeted to different agro-ecological zones.4. Provision of extension services to farmers to expose them to the benefits of new maize technologies. 24
  • 25. 3c. Seed systems: The issues based on comparative analysis ofwith maize. Farmers’ ranking of released maize varieties 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Dislike Most Dislike 50% Neither like nor dislike Like 40% Like most 30% 20% 10% 0% 2H 3H 6H 1 4 5 l ca e e e Lo ng ng ng e e e ng ng ng Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo Lo
  • 26. Result 3c: Improved market access & competitiveness 26
  • 27. Result 3d Policy analysis matrix for sorghum Results of the PAM-Analysis for Sorghum Production in Uganda Costs Values Revenues Tradable inputs Domestic costs Profits Private 780000 12500 500000 267452 Social 1776000 12500 500000 1263452 Effect -996000 0 0 -996000The PAM shows that sorghum production is socially and privatelyprofitable.Producing sorghum has a private and social profit of 267,452shs/ha(122$/ha) and 1,263,452shs/ha, (602$/ha) respectively.The positive social profit shows that the system uses scarce resourcesefficiently and contributes to national income
  • 28. Result 3e Policy analysis matrix for MaizePAM analysis for maize production Costs Values Revenues Tradable inputs Domestic costs Profits Private 850000 693750 532500 -376250 Social 2227000 693750 532500 1000750 Effect -1377000 0 0 -1377000Producing maize generates a loss of shs 376,250/ha (179$/ha) .Social profits accruing from maize production is shs1, 000,750/ ha (477$/ha).High social revenues as a result of producer maize prices below the worldmarket price equivalent lead to a large negative policy effect on profits.
  • 29. Result 3. Summary findings- Policy1. Uganda has comparative advantage in production of maize and sorghum. This is clearly shown by positive social profits (maize 1, 000,750shs/ha (477$/ha) and sorghum 1, 263, 452shs/ha) (602$/ha). Given a good policy environment maize and sorghum can be profitable.2. The Domestic Resource Cost ratio (DCR) - determines whether production of processes efficiently use domestic resources per unit of value added for sorghum and maize was 0.28 and 0.34 respectively implying that Uganda has a comparative advantage in sorghum and maize production.3. The Private Cost Ratio (PCR) for sorghum and maize was found to be 0.65 and 3.4 respectively. A higher PCR index represents a reduction of competitive advantage. Therefore maize production is less competitive compared to sorghum production.4. Sorghum and maize sub-sectors are not protected. The Nominal Protection Coefficients for Output (NPCO) are 0.43 and 0.38 for sorghum and maize respectively.
  • 30. Result 5 (i). Strengthening innovation capacity 1. Researchers (15 next generation scientists trained over six years) • Breeders (3 PhD + 1 Post Doc) • Agronomists (2 MSc) • Food processing and bioengineering (I PhD and 1 MSc) • Agribusiness and economics (4 MScs) • Crop protection (3 MScs) • Extension and knowledge management (1 PhD) 2. Partnerships (Marshaling resources) • HOPE- ICRISAT • Bioinnovate/ BioEarn Community • NARI’s (NASAARI, KARI, MARI) • Universities (Moi, Univ, Addis Univ., SLU) • Farmer Organisations (P’KWI, UNFE) • Makerere University Private sector Foundation • USDA- Sorghum Scientists. Hawaii Agricultural Research Centre
  • 31. Future work1. Final variety development and release. 1. Multi-locational field testing for stability and adaptability being done. 2. Participatory variety selection ongoing After that there is the need to disseminate the new varieties.2. Business incubation 1. Conduct pilot scale business incubation trials for fish feeds and cereals (ice cream cones and breakfast cereals) 2. Piloting a Private /Public partnership to handle novel seed packaged as hybrid seed.3. New areas 1. Millets and rice addressing related issues 2. Nutrition elements, vale added products
  • 32. Thank you World Bank GOU