Respiration Pre-AP
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Respiration Pre-AP






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    Respiration Pre-AP Respiration Pre-AP Presentation Transcript

    • ENERGY PART 3: Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration  Process that releases energy (chemical) by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen  “Steals” chemical energy from glucose to produce ATP  Occurs in all organisms  There are 2 main types of respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration - With OXYGEN - Without OXYGEN
    • Glycolysis (“sugar breaking”)  Glycolysis is the first process in both aerobic AND anaerobic respiration.  Once glucose is imported into the cell through facilitated diffusion glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid) by using 2 molecules of ATP (energy).  Glycolysis produces a total of 4 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose  2 of the 4 ATP molecules are “used” up leaving a net gain of 2 ATP molecules produced for the cell to use for energy.  Whole purpose of glycolysis is to break glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Location: Cytoplasm Glycolysis 1 Glycolysis 2
    • Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Mitochondrion
    • Pyruvate (pyruvic acid) can then go on two different paths depending on whether or not oxygen is available to the cell Pyruvate Fermentation Aerobic respiration  Anaerobic  No Oxygen  Occurs in cytoplasm  Glucose is broken into pyruvic acid and ATP  Examples-  Alcoholic fermentation  Lactic Acid fermentation  Oxygen present  Occurs in mitochondria  Divided into 2 stages:  Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle)  Electron Transport Chain No O2 With O2
    • If no oxygen is present, cells can undergo anaerobic Respiration (fermentation)  2 steps of Anaerobic respiration  1- Glycolysis  2- Fermentation  Location: Cytoplasm  Why anaerobic respiration?  Some organisms prefer it (eg. yeast)  Some organisms have no choice if oxygen levels are low (eg. animals).  Makes some ATP, but not much (only 2 ATP).  Regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue to produce small amounts of ATP
    • Anaerobic Respiration: 2 types  Isn’t a “clean burn” so nasty, or intoxicating, waste products are left behind  There are 2 types – both regenerate NAD+ Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation -Pyruvate is converted to ethanol (alcohol) and CO2 is released -Common in yeast, used for producing beer, wine, and bread -Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid (no gas produced) -Common in bacteria, so is used for producing yogurt, cheese, pickles and sauerkraut -Occurs in muscles during hard work
    • Alcoholic Fermentation
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation 2 Lactic Acid
    • If Oxygen is present:
    • Aerobic Respiration  Requires oxygen  More effective (makes 16x more ATP!!)  Location: mitochondria
    • Aerobic Respiration  C6H12O6 + 6O2  6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP glucose + oxygen  water + carbon dioxide + energy Three major steps:  1) Glycolysis  2) Kreb’s Cycle  3) Electron Transport Chain (E.T.C.)
    • Step 1: Glycolysis (in cytoplasm)  Once glucose is brought into the cell:  Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate  4 ATP per glucose is produced but 2 ATP are also used up to break glucose apart  Pyruvate enters the mitochondria and provides the materials needed for step 2: the Kreb’s cycle Goes into mitochondria Glucose pyruvate pyruvate 2 ADP 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 ATP (net gain)
    • Step 2: Kreb’s Cycle (in mitochondrial matrix)  Breaks pyruvate down into CO2 and produces electron carriers  Makes 2 turns of the “cycle” for every glucose (1x for each pyruvate)  Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix  Produces ATP  NAD+ & FAD+ charged into NADH & FADH2 . NADH and FADH2 are considered “high-energy electron carriers” and are carrying chemical energy  The carbon dioxide produced here diffuses out of the mitochondria, out of the cell and into the bloodstream where it is carried to the lungs and diffuses into the air that we exhale. pyruvate 3 CO2 2 ATP 2 ADP 8 NAD+ 2 FAD+ 8 NADH 2 FADH2 (exhaled) Krebs-1 Krebs-2
    • Citric Acid Production
    • Total yield of the Kreb’s Cycle  Produces 1 ATP per pyruvate  Produces 4 NADH & 1 FADH2 per pyruvate  FADH2 and NADH provide power for the ETC  Total yield per Glucose molecule:  2 ATP  8 NADH  2 FADH2  The main purpose of the krebs cycle is to make electron carriers to be used in the electron transport chain pyruvate 3 CO2 2 ATP 2 ADP 8 NAD+ 2 FAD+ 8 NADH 2 FADH2 (exhaled)
    • H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ Step 3: Electron Transport Chain (in mitochondrial inner membrane) FADH2 and NADH pass some of their electrons onto the inner mitochondrial membrane proteins in the ETC  ETC is like a game of hot potato, where electrons from FADH2 and NADH are the potato, and proteins in the mitochondrial membrane are the people passing the potato. OXYGEN IS REQUIRED.  The flow of electrons down the chain provides power to pump H+ ions through the membrane. They then flow with their concentration gradient through a special protein, called “ATP synthase,” which synthesizes (makes) ATP  Whole purpose of ETC is to make tons of ATP!!!- Produces 32 ATP per glucose! Electron Transport Chain animation NADH FADH2 NAD+ O2 2 H2O H+ H+ H+ H+ Mitochondrial Inner Membrane E.T.C. ATP Synthase ATP
    • Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement ATP Production ATP synthase Channel Matrix Intermembrane Space Inner Membrane
    • ATP Totals (per 1 glucose)  Anaerobic Respiration  2 ATP  Aerobic Respiration  Step 1: Glycolysis  2 ATP  Step 2: Kreb’s Cycle  2 ATP  Step 3: E.T.C.  32 ATP Total: 36 ATP
    • Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Function Energy capture Energy release Location Chloroplast Mitochondria Reactants CO2 and H2O C6H12O6 and O2 Products C6H12O6 and O2 CO2 and H2O Equation CO2+H2O  C6H12O6 + O2 C6H12O6+ O2  CO2 +H2O ATPSun