The Listening Process Dianne Siriban English One DLSC
Hearing vs Listening HEARING - Physiological Process LISTENING – involves a series of cognitive steps Receiving Understanding Remembering Evaluating Responding
Receiving Verbal and non-verbal messages Words, gestures, facial expression, variation in volume and rate. The expressed and the omitted.
Receiving (how to improve) Focus your attention on the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages, on what is said and on what isn’t said. Avoid distractions in the environment. Focus your attention on the speaker rather than on what you’ll say next. Maintain your role as listener and avoid interrupting
Understanding Learning what speaker “means.” How to improve:
Relate the new information to what you already know.
See the speaker’s messages from his/her point of view; avoid judging until you fully understand the intention.
Ask questions for clarification details, examples.
Rephrase (paraphrase) the speaker’s ideas.
Remembering Retaining information Augmenting memory: notetaking, recording, etc. Memory is reconstructive (not reproductive). What you remember is not actually what was said but what you think (or remember) was said.
Look at the words and try to remember as many as you can for 15 seconds. Bed Rest Wake Tired Dream Awake Night Eat Comfort Sound Slumber Snore
Remembering (how to improve) Identify the central ideas and the major support advanced. Summarize the message in a more easily retained form, but be careful not to ignore crucial details or qualification. Repeat names and key concepts to yourself or, if appropriate, aloud.
Evaluating Judging, putting value (gradient: positive to negative) Critical Analysis. For example, in listening to project proposals, as in group work, you might ask: Is it practical? Will everybody be given a chance to participate? Will it gain a good grade?
Evaluating (how to improve) Resist evaluation until you fully understand the speaker’s point of view. Assume goodwill, give benefit of any doubt, clarify positions to which you feel you might object. Distinguish facts from inferences, opinions, and personal interpretations. Identify any biases, self-interests, or prejudices that may lead the speaker to slant unfairly what is presented.
Responding Feedback 1) back-channeling cues (the speaker know that you are listening; modify or modulate) 2) responses after the speaker has finished delivering the message (more elaborate and might include empathy, asking for clarification, challenging, and agreeing. )
Responding Be supportive of the speaker throughout the speaker’s talk by using and varying your back channeling cues; using only one back-channeling cue—for example saying “uh-huh” throughout—will make it appear that you’re not listening but are on automatic pilot. Express support for the speaker in your final responses. Be honest; the speaker has the right to expect honest responses, even if they express disagreement. Own your responses; state your thoughts and feelings as your own, and use I-messages.