A. Process of Communication
B. Methods of Communication
C. Influence of Communication
D. Communication with Health Care Team
E. Therapeutic vs. Non-therapeutic Communication
F. Nurse-Client Communication
Communication Is “a process by which two or more peopleexchange ideas, facts, feelings orimpressions in ways that each gains a‘common understanding’ of meaning, intentand use of a message.”-Paul Leagens
Process of Communicationsender receivermessageresponse(feedback)
Sender The sender (communicator) is the originatorof the message. Sender formulates, encodes and transmitsthe information which he/she wants tocommunicate. The impact of the message will depend onsenders communication skill, social status(authority), knowledge, attitude and prestigein the community.
Message A message is the information/desiredbehavior in physical form which thecommunicator transmits to his audience toreceive, understand, accept and act upon. The message may be in the form of words,pictures or signs.
Receiver Who receives messages from the sender,decoding, interprets the meaning and givingfeedback.
Response/Feedback The response is the message that thereceiver returns to the sender. It can be either verbal, non-verbal, or both.
Therapeutic Communication Is a process in which the nurse consciouslyinfluences a client or helps the client to abetter understanding through verbal ornonverbal communication.
Therapeutic Communication Techniques Using silence Providing general leads Being specific and tentative Using open-ended questions Using touch Restating or paraphrasing Seeking clarification Perception checking
Therapeutic Communication Techniques Offering self Giving information Acknowledging Clarifying time or sequence Presenting reality Focusing Reflecting Summarizing and planning
Non-therapeutic CommunicationTechniques Overloading Value Judgments Incongruence Underloading False reassurance Invalidation Focusing on self Changing the subject Giving advice Internal validation