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Different culture different yahoo ruping Different culture different yahoo ruping Document Transcript

  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo! Different Culture Different Yahoo!: How Cultural Factors Influence Web Design Ru-Ping, Kuo1 Introduction According to Hofstede (1991, 2010), culture is "Every person carries within him or herselfpatterns of thinking, feeling and potential acting which were learned throughout their lifetime".His cultural model provides a great framework for adherents who have different disciplines to cleartheir problem up. It certainly includes the field of HCI. Since earlier of 90’, many papers useHofstede’s cultural model to evaluate software systems and websites design. (Katharina Reinecke,Abraham Bernstein, 2011; Reece George, Keith Nesbitt, Patricia Gillard, Michael Donovan , 2010)Most of them confirm the theory, and some of them extend or modify Hofstede’s finding.However, Hsieh et al., (2009) claim that there is no single model can support all cross-culturalwebsites design in their paper. Therefore, in this exploratory study, I will start from a literaturereview in order to find suitable evaluate frameworks. Then use them to compare Yahoo! andYahoo! China’s homepages, and see how these cultural factors affect Yahoo’s cross-cultural designdecision.2 Literature Review 2.1 Hofstede’s cultural model Through standard statistical analysis of large data, Hofstede was able to determine culturalpatterns of similarities and differences among many countries. (Aaron Marcus, EmilieWest Gould,2000) His five dimensions of culture are introduced as follows: Power Distance Index (PDI): The extent to which the less powerful people expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Individualism Index (IDV): The extent to which people prefer to act as individuals or as members of groups. Masculinity Index (MAS): The extent to which people believe whether social gender roles are clearly distinct. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): The extent to which people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. Long-Term Orientation Index (LTO): The extent to which people foster virtue oriented views towards current or future rewards.Page 1 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo! 2.2 Cultural factors in UI and Web design Reinecke & Bernstein (2010, 2011) based on his researches, suggests that Hofstede’s theoryimpact user interface designs, and can be used to explain layout differences between variouscountries. And they compiled a list of adaptation rules which summarize from Literature review(Appendix 1). Those rules are used to create their cultural adaptively framework as follows: Adaptation Rules (Low value) Adaptation Rules (High value) Non-linear navigation preferred. Users expect to get instructions, high level of support and PDI High information density, most information at first sight. many navigation cues. Less structured data Low information density. Many options of functionalities. Strong hierarchy in the information presentation. Reduce choice of functionalities. Use traditional colors Color-code objects that belong to each other IDV Multimodal interfaces possible High text to image ratio Colorful interfaces preferred Use monotonous colors Colors do not necessarily have to structure the interface Use contrasting colors to distinguish between different interface areas Non-linear navigation preferred Navigation oriented towards exploration and control MAS Design for aesthetics Explanatory images Less saturated and contrasting colors Complementary colors ( to structure the User interface) Complex user interfaces Focus on simplicity UAI Non-liner navigation. Leave room for exploration. Provide linear navigation paths Maximal content and choices in functionality. Spatial organization of the screen can be complex, but has to be clearly arranged Low information density High information density, most information at first sight, LTO Strong hierarchy in the information presentation menus should have only few levels Less structured data Singh & Matsuo (2004) reviewed many related research papers and suggests that studies byHall (1976), Hofstede (1980, 1991), and Trompennars (1994) provided evidence that cultural valueorientations differ significantly across cultures and countries. Thus, they developed the culturalcategories for Websites analysis (Appendix 2). Besides the result of this study provides evidencethat their proposed framework can serve as a guide fordeveloping culturally congruent Web sites. This framework wasused and verified by many following researchers. And both Singh (2004) and Reinecke’s (2011) frameworks areused for this study. Yahoo! Homepage3 Findings and discussions Yahoo! China Homepage3.1. First glance of two Yahoo! homepages These two screenshots were captured from Yahoo! andYahoo! China websites recently. The most obvious difference isthat the length of homepage. Many user studies showed that firstscreen of web pages is received most attention from users,therefore, designers always try to avoid long page design in manyfamous western websites. However, most of China websites Or check Appendix 4 for bigger screenshotsPage 2 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!have an extreme long homepage. Take Yahoo! China as an example, the length of Yahoo! Chinahomepage is nearly 3 times longer than Yahoo! homepage. Both homepages follow the same page layout and color design guideline. Yahoo! China hasmore advertising placements (both banner and text link) and images than Yahoo!. And Yahoo!makes clear label for each advertising placement, on the contrary, Yahoo! China blurs them withother content areas, for example, news areas. Yahoo! and Yahoo! China provide many similar features or services, such as news, search, andfree email. On the other hand, they have a very different strategy of content arrangement. Forexample, Yahoo! focuses on video content. And Yahoo! china provides plentiful links of variouscategories of news. In addition, Yahoo! China shows more features than Yahoo, it also has morenews items and pictures than Yahoo!. And Yahoo! provides tools for users to customize thehomepage which Yahoo! China doesn’t. Below is the summary table of both homepages’ contentexamination (A complete list is presented in Appendix 3.). Contents Yahoo! Yahoo! China List of Yahoo sites 20 items (with customize function) 52 items (some items are grouping, more EC & community related) Search bar Search options includes: web, images, video, Search options includes: web, news, EC1,2,3, local, apps, and more Group purchase, music, images, maps, knowledge (with more hidden items) With text advertising (looks like keywords) News content Total items: 44, Total images:12 Total items: 441, Total images: 22 1 headline area, 9 news areas 1 headline area, 22 news areas (with customize function) Other content Total items: 26 , Total images:11 Total items:142, Total images:27 Weather, stock market, poll, market place, Yahoo 16 EC areas original videos Graphic advertising 3 banners 9 banners3.2. Culture effect on two Yahoo! homepages According to Hofstede’s studies, U.S. and China have 87100 80 91 distinct difference in four cultural value dimensions: 66 61 30 46 Power distance, Individualism, Uncertainty avoidance, and 25 PDI 50 40 20 Long-term orientation. In sum, compare to U.S., China IDV 0 China MAS has larger power distance, lower individualism score US UAI LTO IDV MAS UAI (China is a collectivist), slight lower score of uncertainty PDI LTO avoidance, and stronger long-term orientation. And both China and U.S. have stronger tendency on masculinity dimension. After carefully examination with China and U.S.’ values of Hofsted’s 5 cultural dimensions Reinecke and Singh’s appraised frameworks, my finding ofeach culture dimension of two homepages is described as follows: Power Distance (PDI)Page 3 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo! According to Reinecke & Bernstein’s (2011) study, high PDI countries’ websites are low information density, high level of support and many navigation cues, and reduce choice of functionalities. Yet, this study got an adverse discover. Yahoo! China’s homepage provides 52 items in the list of “yahoo sites”; compare to Yahoo! only has 20 items in this list. Moreover, news is main content for both homepages; Yahoo! has 9 news placements with less than 50 links and Yahoo! China has 22 news placements with more than 440 links. In other words, the homepage of Yahoo! China is high information density, provides many options and try to put all information at first sight, which is the characteristic of low PDI countries (Katharina Reinecke, Abraham Bernstein, 2011). And U.S. Yahoo! uses “more” option to balance different users’ need, and many symbols or clues are used to guide users’ navigation. Some of these attributes are more related to high PDI countries. Individualism vs. Collectivism (IDV) Chinese consumers in general, frequently use Word-of-Mouth or referrals from friends and relatives to gather information. (Martin Spethman, Maria Laura Rosas, Hui Zhu, Nitish Singh, 2009) In other words, websites create by collective countries usually highlight more features related to sociability, such as forums, newsletter, membership and loyalty programs (Singh, 2004). And Most of these criteria are supported from this study. For example, Yahoo! China provides many community services, such as forum, knowledge sharing, newsletter subscribe, and group purchase services in their homepages. For Reinecke & Bernstein’s framework, I observed that Yahoo! has smaller and fewer images than Yahoo! China. And Yahoo! also uses background color or leave purposely white spaces to distinguish different areas. However, Yahoo! China may have higher image to text ration, it follows the same theme color principle like Yahoo! (In Feb. 2010, Yahoo! China released this new version of homepage. And the color theme has changed from red (Chinese traditional color) to purple1.). Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) In this dimension, both U.S. and China have a greater tolerance for uncertainty. And China’s score even lower than U.S.. Reinecke & Bernstein’s (2011) study suggests those low UAI countries’ websites have complex user interfaces, and maximal content and choice. And most of them are low PDI countries’ design attributes, too. Therefore, from prior description, we know that Yahoo! China meets these rules. However, Yahoo! homepage provide lesser content and choices than Yahoo! China and seems try to focus on simplicity (like provides “more” link instead of display all items directly). Therefore, it doesn’t totally support Reinecke & Bernstein’s (2011) suggestion in this dimension, either. In addition, Singh (2004) claims that guided navigation, customer service (FAQ, help,1 Yahoo! China announced they have a new homepage. http://news.cn.yahoo.com/10-02-/1495/2jwvn.htmlPage 4 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo! contact us etc.), and free service are also important for high UAI countries. But both Yahoo! and Yahoo! China’s homepage provides customer service and free service (email). Long-term vs. Short-term Oriented (LTO) For members of short-term oriented societies, it is important to seek immediate results (Chang, 2011). In other words, those users are more willing to use a personal web portal when they found it is easy to use. (Xin Li, Traci J. Hess, Anna L. McNab, & Yanjun, Yu, 2009). In this assessment, I found that Yahoo! homepage highlight instant customize function and it confirm Li’s study. Again, Reinecke & Bernstein (2011) suggested that websites created by LTO country, for example, China, usually has high information density and most of information shows at first sight. From this point of view, this study confirmed their assumptions.4 Conclusion This exploratory study uses both Singh & Matsuo (2004) and Reinecke & Bernstein’s (2011)frameworks examined Yahoo! and Yahoo! China’s homepages in order to find how their designsreflect national culture value. And results show that two dimensions of Hofstede’s cultural model:IDV and LTO are confirmed with both frameworks mostly. But for the Reinecke & Bernstein’framework, they show the opposite outcome in PDI dimension. In addition, Yahoo! China alsoconfirms more rules in UAI dimension than Yahoo!. And for the dimension of MAS, I cannot formany conclusion with two frameworks. There are more reasons may influence website design. For example, some experts ofwebsites design suggest that Chinese webpage looks complicate is because of Chinese characters,and the slow Internet connection speed make designers put plentiful links into a page. (Tan, 2011)Therefore, Yahoo! China’s homepage provides plentiful links may effects by the assumption of slowconnection speed or the custom of Chinese long webpages design. And global companies usuallyuse design guidelines to maintain the consistence of their cross-culture websites. Therefore, it’sreasonable to assume that Yahoo! China changed their theme color from red to purple is based onthis requirement. In sum, through associated literatures review and carefully examined with cultural assessmentmodels, this study may successfully conclude that both Yahoo! and Yahoo! China homepages designreflect some existent culture design patterns and values. But it will be too abrupt to claim thatthese characteristics are only result from cultural factors. Meanwhile, for those finding that areunsupported will need following studies to clarify the relationship between other influences.Page 5 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!References:Aaron Marcus, EmilieWest Gould. (2000). Crosscurrents: Cultural Dimensions and Global Web User-Interface Design. interactions.Chang Hui-Jung. (2011). Multinationals on theWeb: Cultural Similarities and Differences in English-Language and Chinese-LanguageWebsite Designs. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw Hill.Hsiu Ching Hsieh, Ray Holland, and Mark Young. (2009). A Theoretical Model for Cross-Cultural Web Design. HCD 09.Katharina Reinecke, Abraham Bernstein. (2011). Improving Performance, Perceived Usability, and Aesthetics with Culturally Adaptive User Interfaces. Computer-Human Interaction Vol. 18, No. 2.Katharina Reinecke, Sonja Schenkel, Abraham Bernstein (2010). Modeling a User’s Culture. BlanchardG.Emmanuel, & (eds.)AllardDanièle, The Handbook of Research in Culturally-Aware Information Technology: Perspectives and Models.Martin Spethman, Maria Laura Rosas, Hui Zhu, Nitish Singh. (2009). The Website Globalization and E-Business China. access url: www.globalizationpartners.com.Reece George, Keith Nesbitt, Patricia Gillard, Michael Donovan . (2010). Identifying Cultural Design Requirements for an Australian Indigenous Website. 11th Australasian User Interface Conference (AUIC2010).Nitish Singh, Hisako Matsuo (2004). Measuring cultural adaptation on the Web: a content analytic study of U.S. and Japanese Web sites. Journal of Business Research, 864– 872.TanChuiChui. (2011). UPA 2011 - Chinese web design patterns: how and why they re different. ’ https://www.usabilityprofessionals.org/upa_conference/app/schedule/by_presenter/for:2011/#TXin Li, Traci J. Hess, Anna L. McNab, & Yanjun, Yu. (2009). Culture and Acceptance of Global Web Sites: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects of National Cultural Values on Acceptance of a Personal Web Portal. The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems.Page 6 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!Appendix 1: studies on the effect of Hofstede’s dimensions on UI or web design . (Katharina Reinecke, Abraham Bernstein, 2011)Page 7 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!Appendix 2: Singh’s appraised framework (Singh & Matsuo , 2004)Page 8 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!Appendix 3: Content examination table of Yahoo! and Yahoo! China’s homepage. Yahoo! Yahoo! China List of Yahoo sites Total: 20 items (User could customize) Total: 52 items (some items are grouping together) Position : first column 8 items are different with Yahoo! China Provide more EC and Community Attribute: Icon with label related items Search Function Search options includes: web, images, Search options includes: web, news, EC, video, local, apps, and more (with more Group purchase, music, images, maps, options hidden) knowledge, EC2, and EC3 Position : top of the page Content areas Headline area (text and video link): 1 Headline area (text link only): 1 main with main with bigger image and 5 sub with bigger image and 4 sub with small image small image (total 30) (total 8) Position : second column News area 1: a list of news News area 1: a list of news with 4 tabs Total 10 items with 6 sub categories link Total more than 100 items, each tab have (Politics, Video, Photos, Local, Opinion, about 30 items Trending Now) News area 2: Entertainment News area 2: Stock markets Total 28 items ( with one image) News area 3: Entertainment Banner 1 Total 5 items News area 3: Sports News area 4: Local news and weather Total 28 items ( with one image) Total 4 items News area 4: life and health New area 5: Technology Total 28 items ( with one image) Total 4 items New area 5: Finance News area 6: Sports Total 28 items ( with one image) Total 4 items News area 6: Autos Provide customize functions for users Total 28 items ( with one image) Banner 2 News area 7: Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 8: Travel Total 18 items ( with one image) Banner 3 EC area 1: Total 20 items ( with 3 image) EC area 2: Total 12 items ( with 3 image) News area 9: welfare Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 10: Forum Total 18 items ( with one image) Content areas News area 7: Trending Now (top 10) Banner 4 Banner 1 News area 11: User opinion/discussion Total 16 items Position : Third column News area 8: Must see video (5 items)Page 9 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo! News area 12: overseas Poll Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 9 : Autos (2 images) EC area 3: Total 6 items ( with 3 image) Market place area (1 item) News area 13 : Fashion Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 14 : Military Total 18 items ( with one image) EC area 4: Male clothes Total 10 items ( with 1 image) News area 15 : Stock market Total 13 items ( with one image) News area 16 : home Total 17 items ( with one image) Banner 5 News area 17: Technology, digital Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 18: Culture Total 21 items ( with one image) News area 19:Kids, health Total 22 items ( with one image) News area 20:Pets, knowledge Total 18 items ( with one image) News area 21:Education Total16 items ( with one image) News area 22:horoscope Total 18 items ( with one image) Bottom areas Yahoo original videos : 5 items (total 10) Banners Global navigation: Global navigation (set yahoo as your List of yahoo sites, follow yahoo(FB, homepage, about us, help, contact us, Twitter), for business partner, about career, partner, advertising, list of Yahoo (company info, career, developer services, notice of security, list of network, Yahoo blog, help, feedback) company websites, policy agreements)Page 10 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3
  • Research paper for HCDE 512 Topic: Different Culture Different Yahoo!Appendix 4: Yahoo! China and Yahoo!’s homepagePage 11 Ruping, kuo 2011/12/3