Long ago, human beings used leaves, barks
of trees and skins of animals to cover their
bodies then they learnt the art of weaving
and started making cloth. There are two
types of the clothes they are
1.natural fibres 2.artificial fibres
CLIMATE AND CLOTHES
We wear clothes depending on the climate.
In summer we wear loose and light colored cotton
clothes. In winter ,we wear thick, dark colored
clothes made of wool, fur , or leather. During the
rainy season we usually wear cotton clothes.
Some of our clothes are made from yarn
derived from animal fibres . These are a type
of natural fibres as they are obtained from
nature. certain fibres are not made from
These include cotton the most widely used of all
textile fibres,flax,hemp,jute etc.the bas of the
vegetable fibres Is cellulose which is the material
used by nature as a structural material in the plan
• These include wool and silk. Wool comes
from mainly from fleece of sheep. We get
wool also from goat ,yak, camel and rabbit
and silk is produced from silk worms.
• Wool, common name applied to the soft, curly
fibers obtained chiefly from the fleece of
domesticated sheep, and used extensively in
textile manufacturing. Wool may be differentiated
from hair mainly by the nature of the scales that
cover the outer surface of each fiber.
OTHER TYPES OF WOOL
• ALPACA ,LLAMA,CAMEL :-these hair yarns
are spun from the fleece o of the animals
that are the members of he camel family.
CASHMERE :- is an extremely soft resilient,
and easy to dye fibre.these fibre comes from
the cashmere goat.
ANGORA:- this fibre comes from the angora
MOHAIR :- comes from the angora goat.
YAK WOOL :- is popular in Tibet and ladakh.
WOOL PRODUCING ANIMALS
FROM HAIR TO WOOL
• REARING :- sheep are reared mainly for their
wool. They are mainly reared in areas with low
• SHEARING:- once a sheep develops a thick coat
of hair , it is shave for getting wool. the removal
of wool from a sheep is called shearing.
• SCOURING :- the sheared hair is moved through
tubs filled with soapy water to remove dust ,dirt
• SORTING :- sorting consists of separating hair of
REMOVING BURR :- burrs are soft
Fluffy fibres in wool these are removed
DYEING :- the natural hair of the sheep is
white , brown or black. It is dyed in different
MAKING YARN :- next the wool is straightened
combed and spun into yarn after spinning the
wool is either woven or knitted.
• Silk, fiber produced as a cocoon covering by the
silkworm, and valuable for its use in fine fabrics
and textiles. The silkworm, in fact, is not a worm
but a caterpillar. Although cocoon coverings of
fiber are made by a large number of insects.
Life cycle of silk worm
• Sericulture, or the raising of silkworms,
involves the incubation of the tiny eggs of
the silkworm moth until they hatch and
HEALTH CONDITIONS OF WORKERS
IN THE SERICULTURE INDUSTRY
Workers employed in almost all processes
of the sericulture industry are adversely
affected by a number of diseases.
Sorter’s disease: People working in the
wool industry sometimes get infected by a
bacterium called anthrax. It leads to a
fatal blood disease called sorter’s disease.
Respiratory diseases: Inhalation of vapors
arising from cocoons undergoing steaming,
cooking and reeling produces breathing problems,
asthma and other bronchial ailments.
Scabies and other skin infections: the first step
in reeling is the boiling of cocoons in water to kill