PANGASINAN STATE UNIVERSITY- SAN CARLOS CITY CAMPUSSAN CARLOS CITY PANGASINANAA LectureinPrinciples of Teaching 1Unit III: Chapter 2Selection and Organization ofContentPresented by: REA R. TIANGSON
Something to ponder:There are dull teachers, dull textbooks, dull films, butno dull subjects.
Motive questions:What knowledge is truly esssential?What is worth teaching and learning?What guiding principles must beobserved in the selection andorganization of content?
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization ofContent 1. Observe the following qualities in theselection and organization of the contentSignificanceValidityBalanceSelf-sufficiencyFeasibilityUtilityInterest
2. At the base of the structure of cognitivesubject matter content is facts.Take Note:We can’t do away with facts but besure to go beyond facts by constructingan increasingly richer and moresophisticated knowledge base andworking out a process of conceptualunderstanding.
Few ways cited by Ormrod (2000) to helpstudents Providing opportunities for experimentation Presenting the ideas of others Emphasizing conceptual understanding(conceptual teaching: less is more)Working out a process of conceptualunderstanding means teaching and learningbeyond facts. This can be done by the use ofthe thematic or the integrated approach.
Specific Strategies that can helpDevelop Coceptual Understanding Organize units around a few core ideas andthemes Explore each topic in depth Explain how ideas relate to students’ ownexperiences and to things they have previouslylearned Show students Ask students to teach to others what they havelearned Promoting dialogue Using authentic activities
3. Subject matter content is an integration ofcognitive, skill, and affective elementsSubject matter content is anintegration of facts, concepts,hypotheses, theories, and laws,thinking skills, manipulative skills,values and attitudes
SUBJECT MATTER INCLUDES:Cognitive-facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories, and lawsSkills- Thinking and manipulative skillsAffective component- realm of values and attitudes
Cognitive Fact- an idea or action that can be verified Concept- a categorization ofevents, places, people. Ideas, tables, beds, anddesks Principle- relationships between and amongfacts and concepts Hypotheses-educated guesses aboutrelationships Theories- set of facts, concepts and principlesthat describe possible underlying unobservablemechanisms that regulate human
Personal Theories – learners’ general beliefsystems Laws- firmly established, thoroughly testedprinciple or theoryExamples:Thorndike’s law of effect; law on theconservation of matter and energy; law of supplyand demand.
Skills Thinking skills- skills beyond recall andcomprehension- skills concerned with the application ofwhat was learned, synthesis, evaluationand critical and creative thinking.- Divergent Thinking is FFOE:Fluent, flexible, original and elaborativethinking
Convergent thinking- narrowing down frommany possible thoughts to end up on a singlebest thought or answer to a problem Problem-solving- is made easier when theproblem is well-defined “ The proper definition of a problem is alreadyhalf the solution.”
What are sometechniques tobetter define aproblem?
Ormrod (2000) suggests: Break large problems into well-defined ones Distinguish informationneeded Identify techniques to findneeded information
Problems can be solved byusing algorithms or a heuristicstrategy.Answer:
What is algorithm andheuristics? Followsspecific, step-by-step instructions General strategyforproblem-solving, fora solution Informal, intuitive,speculativestrategies thatsometimes lead toan effective solutionAlgorithm Heuristics
Metaphoric thinking/ AnalogicThinking Uses analogic thinking, a figure of speechwhere a word is used in a mannerdifferent from its ordinary designation tosuggest or imply parallelism or similarity Example: Teaching is lighting a candle.
Critical Thinking- evaluating information orarguments in terms of their accuracy andworthVerbal reasoningArgument AnalysisHypothesis testingDecision making
Creative thinking-producing something that isboth original and wortwhile“ACIFFOEP” Awareness-notice attributes of things Curiosity-inclination to wonder Imagination-ability to speculate things Fluency- produce large quantity of ideas Flexibility- look at things from severalperspectives Originality-produce new one Elaboration-add on to an idea Perseverance-keep trying to find answer
Manipulative Skills Manipulative skills begin with naïvemanipulation and ends up in expert andprecise manipulation. Examples: Focusing the microscope Mounting specimens on the slide Operating simple machines and othergadgets Mixing chemicals
What are othermanipulative skillsthat you can thinkof?
Interactive attitudes and valuesValues are the apex of the triangle in thethree-level approach to teaching.This is because it is in teaching ofvalues that the teaching offacts, skills, concepts becomeconnected to the life of thestudents, thus acquiring meaning.
Yes! Values are taught andcaught! I think, because of thebelief that values cannot betaught, many teachers relegatein the background. Values canbe taught, because like anysubject matter,they too have acognitive dimension,in additionto the affective and behavioraldimension. (Aquino, 1990)
How do we teachcognitive dimension,affective dimension andbehavioral dimension?
Here is how:Cognitive Dimension: When we teach thevalue of honesty we ask the following questions: What is meant by honesty ? Why do I have to be honest?Affective DimensionYou have to feel something towardshonesty.You have to be moved towards honesty aspreferable to dishonesty.Behavioral DimensionYou lead an honest life.
How can we teach values? By deutero-learning – Your student learns by beingexposed to the situation, by acquainting himselfwith a setting, by following models, pursuinginspirations and copying behavior. Your critical role asmodels in and outsidethe classroom cannotbe overemphasized.
By positively reinforcing behavior By teaching the cognitive component ofvalues in the classroom
Unit III Chapter 3Selectionand Use ofTeachingStrategies
Something to ponder:“Different folks, different strokes.”
Focus Questions: What principlesshould guide us inthe selection anduse of teachingstrategies? What are theimplications ofthese principles tothe teaching-learning process?
Guiding Principles in the Selectionand Use of Teaching Strategies 1.Learning is an active process.This means that we have to actively engagethe learners in the learning activities if we want themto learn what we intend to teach.2. The more senses that are involved in learning,the more and the better the learning.Humans are intensely visual animals. Theeyes contain nearly 70 % of the body’s recceptoreand send millions of signals along the optic nervesto the visual processing centers of the brain... Wetake in more information visually than through any ofthe other senses” (Wolfe, 2001)
The Contribution of Senses toLearning75% 13% 3%6% 3%SightHearing TouchTasteSmell
3. A non-threatening atmosphereenhances learning.A non-threatening and conduciveclassroom is not only a function of thephysical condition of the classroom butmore a function of the psychologicalclimate that prevails in the classroom.
The Classroom Atmosphere Proper lighting Ventilation Order Tidiness Painting of the room Offshoot of ourpersonality as ateacher Rapport between usand ourstudents/pupils Relationship betweenand among usteachers and amongour studentsPhysical ConditionPsychologicalClimate
How do we create apositive,supportive andhealthy classroomatmosphere/environment?
The Answer:1. Cultivate a culture of respect in ourschools2. Believe in our student’s capacity(TRUST)3. Create a sense of belongingness(COMFORT)4. Give allowance for mistakes
Pine and Horne (1994) state:The learning process requires thechallenge of new and differentexperiences, the trying of the unknown,and therefore, necessarily must involvethe making of mistakes. In order forpeople to learn, they need theopportunity to explore new ideas wthoutbeing penalized or punished formistakes which are integral to theactivity of learning.
Harvey Silver (2000)says: Buildingcomfort intolearning isessential if weexpectstudents torespondpositively and
Our own experience validates that we rememberfor a longer time events that elicit emotion in us.-Wolfe,2001 4. Emotion has thepower to increaseretention andlearning.We tend toremember and learnmore those that strikeour hearts!
For meaning, connect your teaching to yourstudents’ everyday life.5. Learning ismeaningful when it isconnected to students’everyday life.Abstract concepts aremade understable when wegive sufficient examplesrelating to the students’experiences.
6. Good Teaching goes beyond recall andinformationGood thinkingconcerns itself with higher-order-thinking skills todevelop creative andcrirical thinking.Ideally, our teachingshould reach the levels ofapplication, analysis,sysnthesis, and evaluationto hone students’ thinkingskills.
7. An integrated teaching approach is far moreeffective than teaching isolated bits of information.Corpuz andSalandanan (2003) claimthat an instructionalapproach is integratedwhen it considers themultiple intelligencces (MI)and varied learning styles.
Collecting Classroom ExamplesIntelligence Examples of Classroom ActivitiesMasteryExercise-practiceDirect instructionDrill and repetitionDemonstrationsCompetitionsInterpersonalExperience-personalizeTeam games, group investigation,Learning circlesRole-playing, peer tutoringUnderstandingExplain-proveInquiry,debate, problem-solving,independent study, essays, logicproblemsConcept formationSelf-expressive Divergent thinking. Open-ended
An integrated approach incorporates successful,research-based and brain-based instructionalstrategies.Anintegratedapproachincorporatesresearchfindingsabout thebrain Some research findings about thebrain ( Wolfe, 2001):1. Without rehearsal or constantattention, information remains inworking memory for only about 15-20 seconds.2. Learning is a process of buildingneural works. The three levels oflearning are concrete, symbolicand abstract (CSA).
3. Our brains have difficulty comprehending verylarge numbers because we have nothing in ourexperience to hook them to.4. The eyes contain 70 % of the body’s sensoryreceptors and send millions of signals everysecond along the optic nerves to the visualprocessing of the brain.5. There is little doubt that when information isembeded in music or rhyme, its recall is easierthan when it is in prose.
Brain-based Srategies1. Involving students in real-life orauthentic problem-solving2.Using projects to increasemeaning and motivation3. Simulations and Role-plays
4. Classroom strategies using visualprocessing5. Songs, jingles, and raps6. Mnemonic Strategies assist studentsin recalling important information
7. Writing strategies-Make students write theirown word problems and make them ask theirclassmates to solve them8. Active review- Students are given thechance to interview9. Hands-on-activities- “What we have to learnto do, we learn by doing.
8. There is no such thing as best teachingmethod. The best method is the one that works,the one that yields results.There isnosinglebestmethod.1.Instructionalobjective2. The natureof the subjectmatter3. Thelearners4.Theteacher5. SchoolpoliciesFactors to consider whenchoosing a strategy
I. Direct/ Expositive InstructionApproaha.Direct Instruction- teacher-directed andteacher dominated. It is meant for teaching ofskills.b. Deductive Method/approach is teacher-dominated. Itbegins with the abstract rule, generalization, principle andends with specific examples.c. Inductive Method is less teacher-directed than thedeductive method. It begins with specific details, concretedata and examples and ends with an abstract generalization.
II. Guided/ ExploratoryApproacha. Inquiry Approachb.Problem-solving Methodc. Project Methodd. Metacognitive approache. The Constructivist Approach
It is also called discovery or problem-solving method. The teacher guides thestudents as they explore and discover. It is modeled after the investigativeprocesses of the scientist. It puts premium in obtaining directexperiences.a. Inquiry Approah
It is a teaching strategy that employs thescientific method in searching forinformation The five basic steps of scientific are:1.Sensing and defining a problem2. Formulating hypothesis3. Testing the likely hypothesis4.Analysis, interpretation and evaluationof evidence5.Formulating conclusionsb.Problem-solving Method
It is a hands-on and minds-on method. It rquires students to present inconcrete form a learned concept orprinciple. The project may be a task or a product. It emphasizes “learning by doingc. Project Method
Constructivist view learning as an activeprocess that results from self-constructedmeanings. A meaningful connection isestablished between prior knowledge andthe present learning activity. It is anchored on the belief that everyindividual constructs and reconstructsmeanings depending on past experiences.e. The Constructivist Approach