Participatory mapping for the systematic monitoring of biodiversity

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Biodiversity sustains a wide variety of genetic traits that are very valuable for the potato's adaption to changing environments and successful cultivation in the future. However, several factors are threatening biodiversity in the Andes. For this reason, it is necessary for monitoring to be done with a standardized system and common observation parameters. Here we explain how participatory mapping and survey methods are used for the systematic monitoring of potato landraces in the Andes.

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Participatory mapping for the systematic monitoring of biodiversity

  1. 1. Participatory mapping for the systematic monitoring of agro-biodiversity of potatoes Henry Juárez, Severin Polreich, Franklin Plasencia, Alejandra Arce, Raúl Ccanto, Domingo Begazo & Stef de Haan Esri User Conference | July 14–18, 2014 San Diego Convention Center Session Title: Global Modeling - CGIAR
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”) • Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling • Conclusions
  3. 3. Biodiversity…  sustains a wide variety of genetic traits very valuable for adaption of the potato genepool.  threatening (changing) factors in the Andes (biotic, abiotic, climate change, socio-cultural etc.)  monitoring for in-situ conservation requires standardized approaches and common parameters and indicators. Introduction
  4. 4. Measuring Dynamics at landrace and landscape level:  Survey: landrace level (objective: red list, which are varieties more/less frequent and what is the reason behind?).  Mapping landscape level (objective: do landscape relevant changes affect the distribution of floury-landraces, bitter- landraces and improved varieties with specific properties?).  Mixed approach: is the potato diversity (and related indicators) depending on altitude (likely threatened by climate change)? Introduction
  5. 5. Rationale for Long Term- Monitoring: Most on-farm conservation projects do not allow for systematic comparison of loss or enrichment because:  Lack of historical data does not allow for timeline comparison;  There is little agreement on methods and metrics to be used for baseline research + monitoring;  Researchers still think short-term with a lack of attention to benchmark site selection and accessible databases. • Total diversity • Relative diversity • Spatial diversity • Threats to conservation • Collective knowledge Introduction
  6. 6. • Introduction • The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”) • Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling • Conclusions Outline
  7. 7.  A network for the long-term monitoring of in-situ conserved potato genetic diversity in light of socio-environmental changes.  An inter-disciplinary approach to conserve the dynamic aspects of potato diversity in its center of origin and to contribute to the well-being of farmers who are custodians of ancestral varieties. The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”)
  8. 8. Diversity hotspot identification and establish consortia for long-term monitoring.  Multilateral Agreements Recurrent measurements to show tendencies and trends Timeline Prognostics and Scenarios Future Models and Prevention Plans Step 1 Step 3 Step 2 Step 4 Strategic steps of Chirapaq Ñan… The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”) Analyzing the actual status of diversity and impact factors: Level 1: Genes, Alleles, Chromosomes Level 2: Varieties, Classes and Species Level 3: Landscape and Spatial Dynamics Level 4: Collective Knowledge Inventory and Baseline
  9. 9. Selection of hotspots:  Passport data  Species distribution  Proximity CWR  Expert opinion  Ethnicity & Language  Geographic distance between hotspots  Partnership strength  Threat level  Others …..  Geo-spatial diversity assessment was applied in five Peruvian monitoring sites with high potato diversity (Huancayo, Pasco, Apurimac, Huancavelica & Cusco).  In the near future these assessments will be part of baseline studies in diversity hotspots in Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Chile. The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”)
  10. 10. • Introduction • The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”) • Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling • Conclusions Outline
  11. 11. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling Participatory mapping Analyze the actual status of diversity of potatoes at level of varieties, landscape and spatial dynamics.  Selection of target communities and talk with community leaders and selection of farmers  Training on GPS use, understanding maps, map drawing, survey taking.  Carry out the participatory mapping + surveying (3-4 months)
  12. 12. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling
  13. 13. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling Cultivar sampling  A random harvest of 200 plants per plot was evaluated to record the variety content of the field  Several workshops were carried out to define a master list of local (vernacular) names and synonyms.
  14. 14. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling  Sample size Region Communities Households Fields Apurimac 3 141 579 Cusco 3 98 1,775 Huancavelica 3 176 1,063 Junin 4 104 1,098 Pasco 2 147 1,932 5 15 666 6,447 Potato cultivar categories:  improved varieties (bred potatoes)  native or traditional varieties (native-floury and native-bitter)
  15. 15. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling  Number of varieties Potato cultivar categories:  improved varieties (bred potatoes)  native or traditional varieties (native-floury and native-bitter) N % N % N % Apurimac 189 172 88.7 11 7.8 6 3.5 Cusco 158 125 59.4 17 12.2 16 28.5 Huancavelica 199 174 82.9 13 8.0 12 9.2 Junin 194 172 46.2 5 5.6 17 48.2 Pasco 192 184 74.2 1 0.0 7 25.7 Region Number of varieties (n) Native-floury Native-bitter Improved
  16. 16. 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% Native-floury Native-bitter Improved varieties Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling  Diversity of varieties by altitude gradient (Huancavelica Region) 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 Native-floury Native-bitter Improved varieties
  17. 17. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling  Diversity of varieties by altitude gradient (Cusco Region)
  18. 18. Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 Families(n=16) Within Field Distribution of Varietal Diversity (%) Villa Hermosa, Huancavelica Number of plots per family: 9.1 Number of varieties per plot: 32.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 Families(n=15) Within Field Distribution of Varietal Diversity (%) Huayta Corral, Huancavelica Number of plots per family: 5.1 Number of varieties per plot: 3.2
  19. 19. Overall Cultivar Frequency (OCF)  A measure of evenness based on the number of households conserving a specific cultivar OCF = (CCF community 1 + CCF community 2 + …..) / N communities sampled Community Cultivar Frequency (CCF) = (Number of households conserving a specific cultivar / total household sample size of the community) * 100% Very few households : OCF < 1% Few households : OCF < 5% Many households : OCF < 25% Most households : OCF > 25% Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling
  20. 20. Overall Cultivar Frequency (OCF) Region Cultivar category N Very few households Few households Many households Most households Native-floury 172 71 47 39 15 Native-bitter 11 5 3 2 1 Improved 6 0 3 3 0 Native-floury 125 42 44 29 10 Native-bitter 17 4 5 5 3 Improved 16 1 4 4 7 Native-floury 174 69 50 39 16 Native-bitter 13 2 7 3 1 Improved 12 1 4 5 2 Native-floury 172 62 64 36 10 Native-bitter 5 1 1 3 0 Improved 17 2 3 8 4 Native-floury 185 59 55 51 20 Native-bitter 1 0 1 0 0 Improved 6 2 2 1 1 Apurimac Cusco Huancavelica Junin Pasco Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling
  21. 21. Native-floury Peruanita Larga Amarilla Yana Puqya Camotillo Chiqchi Pasña Aqu Suytu Puka Wayru Kuchipa Akan Yana Winqu Trajin Waqachi Dusis Huamantanga Suytu Puqya Allqa Palta Botiguela Allqay Walas Muru Wayru Witqis Puka Llumchuy Waqachi Tantas Tarmeña Puka Chiqchi Pasña Qala Suytu Wayru Machu Chungya Yana Palta Taragallo Markina Yuraq Suytu Sangre De Toro Yuraq Puqya Promesa Runtus Yana Ñata Yuraq Gaspar Logrogina Vayo Zapato Waripa Taklla Maco Uqi Ruyru Angelpa Tantan Rosada Prescos Puka Wakapa Qallun Imillicay Yana Wakapa Qallun Cordovina Yuraq Wayta Puka Suytu Witu Wara Suru Qalapa Waran Wamanpa Uman Murunki Leona Yuraq Ñata Yana Suytu Yana Papa Tongina Ritipa Sisan Puka Pasña Yana Allqa Caramelo Suytu Yuraq Pasña Acero Suytu Muru Luqu Alkaraza Allqa Suytu Wamanpa Qallun Azul Ñawi Gaspar Chileno Yana Chiqchi Pasña Yana Murunki Achanqayra Qillu Ipillu Kichka Matanka Yuraq Wayru Cocharcas Yana Pumapa Makin Bayo Botas Qolqi Tupu Walas Wachwapa Qallun Yuraq Tuqu Misipa Makin Wiripa Takllan Puka Murunki Quri Markina Allqa Ipillu Allqa Papa Maswa Papa Pampa Ustu Puka Prescos Uqi Palta Puka Puqya Amillica Azul Reboso Churquillay Leonpa Makin Qillu Camotillo Yana Pasña Winqu Tumbay Allqa Cordovina Azul Ñawi Pasña Cachi Suytu Gaspar Morado Kuchipa Chupan Puka Ñawi Pasña Qala Wawa Rosas Ruyru Puqya Yana Gaspar Yana Poncho Yana Tullu Yutupa Runtun Cucharquina Puka Cocharcas Puka Markina Qillu Suytu Suytu Murunki Azul Palta Gaspar Rosado Llamapa Sullun Romano Suytu Sumchillay Supa Puchquchi Suytu Dusis Uqi Puqya Yuraq Winqu Allqa Imilla Alqu Yupi Asno Qara Ayrampu Azul Chiqchi Pasña Azul Wayta Casa Blanca Chikñas Morado Chiqci Wali Clavelina Duraznillo Guindo Camotillo Ikichina Kuchipa Qallun Liwlipa Runtun Muru Gaspar Muru Kututu Muru Toro Ojos De Caiman Puka Camotillo Puka Dusis Puka Masa Waqachi Puka Ritipa Sisan Puka Sunqu Puka Sunqu Gaspar Puka Wara Qala Wipe Riti Waqachi Ruywash Saywa Suytu Oca Suytu Peruanita Tuqra Papa Uki Ipillu Wayry Peruana Yaku Ñawi Yana Churchillos Yana Tarmeña Yana Wayru Yuraq Ipillu Yuraq Llumchuy Waqachi Yuraq Oca Native-bitter Yana Manua Yuraq Waña Qanchillu Yuraq Siri Azul Qanchillu Azul Waña Yana Siri Yana Waña Yuraq Manua Cayhua Siri Azul Siri Ruyru Siri Azul Manua Improved Yungay Canchan Capiro Perricholi Tomasa Liberteña Mariva Revolución Andina Amarilis Renacimiento Overall Cultivar Frequency in Huancavelica Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling 39.6% Native-floury varieties => very few households 68.3% Native-floury varieties => (very few households + few households)
  22. 22. • Introduction • The Chirapaq Ñan initiative (“the rainbow route”) • Participatory mapping + cultivar sampling • Conclusions Outline
  23. 23. Conclusions  Model can be expanded to other crops and regions: • Systematic long-term monitoring provides robust intelligence about landrace conservation status. • Baseline research will allow for future time series comparison, genetic gap analysis and spatial distribution mapping.  Participation of custodian farmers, NGO’s, governments and indigenous organizations is key – a common language is essential (standardized methods and interdisciplinary communication tools).  Challenge: Common names are site-specific and may vary between farmers and communities. But, as long as researchers use the right tools (well trained enumerators, following up the surveys, getting advice from older farmers, conducting participatory workshops, etc) this will provide robust knowledge about landrace conservation status.
  24. 24. Awards 2011 (ESRI/Society for Conservation)
  25. 25. Gracias

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