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The inverted classroom and peer instruction: designing classes for meaningful learning experiences
 

The inverted classroom and peer instruction: designing classes for meaningful learning experiences

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(Keynote presentation given at the annual conference of the Michigan Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges, Detroit, MI on October 5, 2013.) ...

(Keynote presentation given at the annual conference of the Michigan Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges, Detroit, MI on October 5, 2013.)

The way we traditionally design college classes -- with lecture front and center in class and homework outside of class -- suffers from two serious flaws: There is no natural way to find and repair student misconceptions by the end of class, and students' access to expert help is inversely proportional to their need for help. The inverted or "flipped" classroom is a solution to those design flaws. In this presentation we discuss flipped course design, best practices for designing a flipped lesson, and lessons learned from flipping.

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    The inverted classroom and peer instruction: designing classes for meaningful learning experiences The inverted classroom and peer instruction: designing classes for meaningful learning experiences Presentation Transcript

    • the inverted classroom and peer instruction designing classes for meaningful learning experiences Robert Talbert, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University MichMATYC Conference10.5.2013Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seier/ Friday, October 4, 13
    • Mathematics Department Grand Valley State University talbertr@gvsu.edu @RobertTalbert on Twitter http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/castingoutnines This presentation: http://bit.ly/MichMATYCkeynote Friday, October 4, 13
    • Friday, October 4, 13
    • Friday, October 4, 13
    • Q: Did students learn what they needed to learn? Friday, October 4, 13
    • Q: Did students learn what they needed to learn? A: We don’t know. Friday, October 4, 13
    • Q: Did students learn what they needed to learn? A: We don’t know. Maybe we won’t know until after homework. Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework given Homework assessed Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework given Homework assessed http://www.flickr.com/ photos/atoach/ Misconceptions Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework given Homework assessed http://www.flickr.com/ photos/atoach/ Misconceptions Design flaw #1: No mechanism for catching/ repairing misconceptions Friday, October 4, 13
    • Friday, October 4, 13
    • More difficulty Less difficulty Friday, October 4, 13
    • Lecture{ More difficulty Less difficulty Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework { Lecture{ More difficulty Less difficulty Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework { Lecture{ More difficulty Less difficulty Help less accessible Help more accessible Friday, October 4, 13
    • Homework { Lecture{ More difficulty Less difficulty Help less accessible Help more accessible Design flaw #2: Accessibility to help is inversely proportional to cognitive level Friday, October 4, 13
    • Friday, October 4, 13
    • Wouldn’t it be better if class time... Friday, October 4, 13
    • Wouldn’t it be better if class time... Were spent on students learning what they need, how they need to learn it Friday, October 4, 13
    • Wouldn’t it be better if class time... Were spent on students learning what they need, how they need to learn it Offered students help in direct proportion to their needs Friday, October 4, 13
    • Wouldn’t it be better if class time... Were spent on students learning what they need, how they need to learn it Offered students help in direct proportion to their needs Had built-in mechanisms for catching and repairing fundamental misconceptions in real time Friday, October 4, 13
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/d_e_s_t_a/ model 1: music rehearsal Friday, October 4, 13
    • model 2: sports practice Friday, October 4, 13
    • Active, guided work on sense-making activities Differentiated instruction Catch/repair misconceptions in real time Friday, October 4, 13
    • Active, guided work on sense-making activities Differentiated instruction Catch/repair misconceptions in real time PROBLEM Not enough time in class to do this and information transfer Friday, October 4, 13
    • Active, guided work on sense-making activities Differentiated instruction Catch/repair misconceptions in real time PROBLEM Not enough time in class to do this and information transfer SOLUTION Move the information transfer outside of class. Friday, October 4, 13
    • The inverted classroom The flipped or inverted classroom is a course design model in which information transfer takes place outside the class meetings and assimilation of information takes place inside the class meeting. Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped class model does Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped class model does Out of class { Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped class model does In class { Out of class { Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped class model does In class { Out of class { More difficulty Less difficulty Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped class model does In class { Out of class { More difficulty Less difficulty Help more accessible Help less accessible Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped classroom also does Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped classroom also does Clear lecture before class Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped classroom also does Clear lecture before class Active, challenging work during class Friday, October 4, 13
    • What the inverted/flipped classroom also does Clear lecture before class Active, challenging work during class End of class: Measurable understanding Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Allows differentiated instruction Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Allows differentiated instruction Gives students control over info flow Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Allows differentiated instruction Gives students control over info flow Pays off for instructor over time Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Allows differentiated instruction Gives students control over info flow Pays off for instructor over time Addresses core learning skills Friday, October 4, 13
    • Why might the inverted classroom make particular sense for two-year college students? Allows differentiated instruction Gives students control over info flow Pays off for instructor over time Addresses core learning skills More like the real world Friday, October 4, 13
    • Designing an inverted class Friday, October 4, 13
    • 1. Start with the basic workflow Friday, October 4, 13
    • GIVEN: Print/video resources for basic information List of clearly-stated learning objectives Exercises on basic skills 1. Start with the basic workflow Friday, October 4, 13
    • Viewing/reading for basic information Guided practice for basic skills Quiz (to reinforce individual mastery) ASSIMILATION PROBLEMS Further problems/HW On to the next topic INTO THE CLASS MEETING GIVEN: Print/video resources for basic information List of clearly-stated learning objectives Exercises on basic skills 1. Start with the basic workflow Friday, October 4, 13
    • 2. Enumerate learning objectives Ask: What should students be able to do ? Higher complexity Lower complexity Friday, October 4, 13
    • 2. Enumerate learning objectives Ask: What should students be able to do ? n. Most advanced objective n-1. Next-to-most advanced objective 2. Next-to-most basic objective 1. Most basic objective Higher complexity Lower complexity Friday, October 4, 13
    • 2. Enumerate learning objectives Ask: What should students be able to do ? n. Most advanced objective n-1. Next-to-most advanced objective 2. Next-to-most basic objective 1. Most basic objective Higher complexity Lower complexity “Lowest advanced objective” “Highest basic objective” Students responsible for these before class Students master these during and after class Friday, October 4, 13
    • 3. Gather the resources needed to help students attain the objectives Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Overview Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Overview Double list of learning objectives Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Overview Double list of learning objectives Resources (high quality, brief, aligned with learning objectives) Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Overview Double list of learning objectives Resources (high quality, brief, aligned with learning objectives) Exercises (aligned with learning objectives) Friday, October 4, 13
    • 4. Give students out-of-class preparation that is highly structured with low-hanging fruit The model of Guided Practice: Overview Double list of learning objectives Resources (high quality, brief, aligned with learning objectives) Exercises (aligned with learning objectives) Graded {0,1,2} on completeness and effort Friday, October 4, 13
    • 5. Provide multiple channels of support outside of class Friday, October 4, 13
    • 6. Give Q&A time and a means of accountability Friday, October 4, 13
    • Vygotsky (1978) (yet) 7. Give in-class work that is “homework” level, engages students in their proximal zones Friday, October 4, 13
    • Vygotsky (1978) (yet) 7. Give in-class work that is “homework” level, engages students in their proximal zones Basic learning objectives, attained through Guided Practice Friday, October 4, 13
    • Vygotsky (1978) (yet) 7. Give in-class work that is “homework” level, engages students in their proximal zones Basic learning objectives, attained through Guided Practice attained through further practice Advanced learning objectives attained through Class Work Friday, October 4, 13
    • Vygotsky (1978) (yet) 7. Give in-class work that is “homework” level, engages students in their proximal zones Basic learning objectives, attained through Guided Practice attained through further practice Advanced learning objectives attained through Class Work See also: concept of “flow” (Csíkszentmihályi, 1990) Friday, October 4, 13
    • Mini-case study: Inverted MTH 201 (Calculus) at GVSU Friday, October 4, 13
    • Another form of the inverted classroom: Peer instruction Highly recommended: “Confessions of a Converted Lecturer” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwslBPj8GgI Friday, October 4, 13
    • Peer instruction Brief presentation of concept Conceptual question Students vote using classroom response system Debrief, address any remaining misconceptions Next topic Peer discussion -- students argue for right answer + against wrong answers Revisit concept < 30% correct 30-75% correct > 75% correct Friday, October 4, 13
    • Data from MTH 227-02, 2013-01-28 “Solutions Sets of Linear Systems” System: Learning Catalytics http://www.learningcatalytics.com Friday, October 4, 13
    • Data from MTH 227-02, 2013-01-28 “Solutions Sets of Linear Systems” System: Learning Catalytics http://www.learningcatalytics.com Friday, October 4, 13
    • Data from MTH 227-02, 2013-01-28 “Solutions Sets of Linear Systems” Friday, October 4, 13
    • Data from MTH 227-02, 2013-01-28 “Solutions Sets of Linear Systems” Friday, October 4, 13
    • Data from MTH 227-02, 2013-01-28 “Solutions Sets of Linear Systems” Friday, October 4, 13
    • Evidence for effectiveness of PI Friday, October 4, 13
    • • Students in university physics courses using PI showed normalized gains 2 sd’s higher on the Force Concept Inventory versus students in traditional courses (Hake 1997) Evidence for effectiveness of PI Friday, October 4, 13
    • • Students in university physics courses using PI showed normalized gains 2 sd’s higher on the Force Concept Inventory versus students in traditional courses (Hake 1997) • Students in PI physics courses showed improved computation skills even though there was little/no direct instruction on computation (Mazur 1997) Evidence for effectiveness of PI Friday, October 4, 13
    • • Students in university physics courses using PI showed normalized gains 2 sd’s higher on the Force Concept Inventory versus students in traditional courses (Hake 1997) • Students in PI physics courses showed improved computation skills even though there was little/no direct instruction on computation (Mazur 1997) • PI effectively eliminated the gender gap in STEM class performance (Lorenzo, Crouch, & Mazur 2005) Evidence for effectiveness of PI Friday, October 4, 13
    • • Students in university physics courses using PI showed normalized gains 2 sd’s higher on the Force Concept Inventory versus students in traditional courses (Hake 1997) • Students in PI physics courses showed improved computation skills even though there was little/no direct instruction on computation (Mazur 1997) • PI effectively eliminated the gender gap in STEM class performance (Lorenzo, Crouch, & Mazur 2005) • PI measurably improved student engagement in and out of the classroom (Bates & Galloway 2012) Evidence for effectiveness of PI Friday, October 4, 13
    • Words of advice/ encouragement Friday, October 4, 13
    • 1. Take a long view toward implementation This semester: Flip one class meeting. Next semester: Flip a recurring series of meetings. AY 2014-2015: Try a whole class. Lesson learned: Use a partner Friday, October 4, 13
    • 2. Prepare for frank conversations This class takes up too much time. I am paying you to teach me. School is about learning information, not learning how to learn. I learn best by the instructor showing me what to do and then I do it. I can’t teach myself math. Friday, October 4, 13
    • 3. Students are receptive to the flipped classroom if it’s explained to them Friday, October 4, 13
    • Students are human beings with unique life stories and a unique ability to learn independently. College is about developing those stories and that ability. Friday, October 4, 13
    • Mathematics Department Grand Valley State University talbertr@gvsu.edu @RobertTalbert on Twitter http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/castingoutnines This presentation: http://bit.ly/MichMATYCkeynote Friday, October 4, 13