Diversity and Inclusion

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Diversity and inclusion in the workplace.

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  • Diversity typically refers to the similarities and differences between individuals that account for all aspects of one’s personality and individual identity. The dimensions of diversity typically include, but is not limited to, the following: age, ethnicity, disability, education, gender, gender identity, geographic background, language, religion, sexual orientation, physical characteristics, and family status. Inclusion describes the extent to which each person in an organization feels welcomed, respected, supported, and valued as a team member. Inclusion is a two-way accountability; each person must grant inclusion to others and accept inclusion from others. In such an environment, every member will tend to feel more engaged and more enabled to fully contribute toward the organization’s business results. This requires people from diverse backgrounds to communicate and work together, and understand each others’ needs and perspectives—in other words, cultural competence.
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) Prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Equal Pay Act 1963 (EPA) Protects men and woman who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination. The EPA is the oldest workplace civil rights law enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). It is unlawful for employers to reduce the wages of either sex to equalize pay between men and women. An employer is permitted to base salary differences on seniority, merit, and quantity or quality of production, or any other business-related factor. Employers found in violation of the EPA can be compelled to pay back pay, punitive relief, and liquidated damages if the violation is shown to be willful. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) Protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older. Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Prohibits employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector and also in state and local governments. On July 26, 1990, President George H. W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) – the world's first comprehensive civil rights law for people with disabilities. ADA prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment (Title I), in public services (Title II), in public accommodations (Title III), and in telecommunications (Title IV). ADA has been described as the Emancipation Proclamation for the disability community. Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities who work in the federal government. Civil Rights Act of 1991 Provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.
  • Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) concerns fairness and equality of treatment for specific designated protected classes as defined by law. EEO means that the employer gives equal consideration for a job and in terms and conditions of employment to all individuals; and that the employer does not discriminate based on race, color, religion, age, marital status, national origin, disability, or sex. EEO does help to create a workplace that is more supportive of all people and more diverse in terms of the specific included dimensions of diversity. Diversity programs grow out of a company’s EEO and affirmative action programs. Companies began seeing business opportunities in terms of focusing on awareness and sensitivity training – and, later on, building inclusion and intercultural competence. But the diversity discipline has evolved well beyond EEO and affirmative action compliance. Diversity and inclusion are aimed at realizing competitive advantage and business opportunity.
  • Work with the organization to utilize the Gestalt Cycle of Experience as an orienting principle within the organization. According to Nevis, this process theory allows one "to see it as a way of helping people look at their behavior while trying to solve a problem or make a decision" (Nevis, 2005, p. 40).
  • Awareness Allow the cultural differences to become figural through awareness. Energy Allow energy to develop around the stimulating power of awareness. Action and contact Bring together the energy created with behavioral skills, knowledge, or competence. Contact is point of learning and can result in transformation. Resolution and closure Extract meaning, withdrawal from the division that the differences create, and gradual subsiding and interest in the differences take place, making possible readiness for new awareness to develop.
  • With the  Gestalt Cycle of Experience in place, a consultant working within organization can resolve differences through Gestalt Model for Intervention: "An intervention conveys what is involved in trying to help an organization: intervention means to enter into an ongoing system for the purpose of helping it in some way" (Nevis, 2005, p. 48).
  • To attend, observe, and selectively share observations of what you see, hear, feel, etc., and thus, establish your presence in doing so. To attend to one's own experience and to selectively share these, thus, establishing your presence in doing so. To focus on energy in the client system and the emergence or lack of themes or issues for which there is no energy. To facilitate clear, meaningful and heightened contacts between members of the client system. To help the group achieve heightened awareness of its overall process in contemplating units of work; and to learn to complete units of work so as to achieve closure around problem areas of unfinished business. (Nevis, 2005, p. 57)
  • Therefore, a solution to helping an organization overcome cultural differences is to "teach through the display of personal behavior" which is the emphasis and essence of the Gestalt perspective. Miller and Katz agree and offer in their book, The Inclusion Breakthrough, the importance of "an environment in which every member of the organization can add value and enhance the organization's performance and competitive advantage for today and tomorrow" (p. 135).
  • Build a platform for change: Leverage and enhance strengths of an organization. Create momentum: Link organizational initiatives so that they connect with overall goals. Make diversity and inclusion a way of life: Leadership should model the behavior and hold each person accountable. Leverage learning and challenge the status quo: Learning takes place when change occurs; and understand that making mistakes is part of the process and is also part of the learning process.
  • Thomas and Woodruff (1999) suggest that "individuals at all organizational levels are responsible for helping to create an organizational environment that works for all" (p. xii). Managers at all levels of a hierarchy experience diversity differently. To be effective, consultants need to engage not only with the top, but facilitate interactions with all levels so that the whole organization is involved.
  • As consultants, we can expect to face some form of resistance from clientele. As Block (2000) asserts, “the key to understanding the nature of resistance is to realize that resistance is a reaction to an emotional process taking place within a client” (p. 139). Furthermore, Block states that “resistance is a predictable, natural and necessary part of the learning process” (p. 139). While resistance can often feel like an obstacle, it is a necessary process that can benefit both the consultant and client. In order to encourage authenticity from one’s client, Block (2000) suggests that the consultant displays authentic behavior as well (p. 161). Dealing with resistance means that consultants should encourage and elicit clientele to express their concerns in order for them to let them go (Block, 2000, p. 162). Once you are able to move past any reservations or resistance from the client, there are a plethora of solutions that can encourage inclusion and diversity within an organization. In her article “Diversity and Inclusion Are Priorities for Top Executives, SHRM Research Finds,” Hastings (2009) shares the following examples to encourage diversity and inclusion: Diversity programs that focus on changing the company’s own culture to make employees receptive to differences of background and view Setting clear diversity targets, establish metrics and track progress and offer appropriate management incentives Internal communications and training Use training programs to learn from employees Emphasize mentoring and coaching Include employees through employee networks Allocate resources for team-building Pay attention to diversity of thought and focus on the business case for diversity
  • Often, clients will ask consultants how they should deal with cultural differences. In terms of best diversity practices, consultants should advise their clients to avoid ignoring, dismissing or minimizing culture. Both diversity and inclusion can significantly impact individual staff members as well as the organization as a whole. Moran et al. (2007) assert that culture is often considered the driving force behind human behavior. Furthermore, culture can impact behavior, morale, and productivity at work, and includes values and patterns that influence company attitudes and actions (p. 6). Moran et al. (2007) also note that culture is a complex system of interrelated parts that must be understood holistically – in terms of work habits and practices, beliefs and attitudes, values and norms, communication and language, sense of self and space, and relationships (p. 7-10).
  • Another practice that best serves the client is to take a look at the managerial structure and also the leadership influence exuded by top-level executives. Moran et al. (2007) shares how a leadership style that is sensitive to cultural differences, appreciates distinctiveness, and effectively communicates with individuals from different cultures can persevere (p. 23-24). Moran et al. (2007) also states that “cross-cultural and inclusive experiences allow individuals to think more expansively in terms of cultural ‘uniqueness’” such as age, ethnicity, race, religion and disabilities (p. 24). Taking the time to understand other cultures will minimize cultural shock and hopefully increase opportunities for intercultural experiences (p. 24). Using such measures allows room for national variation in implementation and revising business processes in order to support diversity; while opening up opportunities for organizations to leverage these cross-cultural qualities in support of business objectives. (Hastings, 2009, p. 1).
  • The Cohen-Bradford Influence Without Authority Model depicts a leadership style that is sensitive to cultural differences, appreciates distinctiveness and easily communicates with individuals from different cultures and backgrounds (Moran et al., 2007, p. 23-24). This model advocates for an authentic and organic process to establish communication between top-level executives, staff members and clients (p. 23-24). It exemplifies the “buy-in” that is necessary from top-level management in order to encourage staff members to do the same. IWA Model copyrighted: 2004 A. Cohen and D. Bradford
  • An analysis of the consultant’s role: The Diversity Agenda at Booz Allen acknowledges that “diversity of backgrounds contributes to different ideas, which in turn drives better results for clients.” The way to drive this message to its employees was to create a deliberate diversity initiative to encompass current state and future desired state. What each phase might looked like: Process: Data gathering and analysis included determining the current population of the company. It also looked at the recruiting and retention strategy and succession and advancement plan for the organization. Each team within the company created a specific diversity action plan that aligned to the overall plan. Who’s involved : Senior leadership for buy-in was the first step. Diverse members of the organization made up the working group to ensure various perspectives were taken into consideration. 30-60-and 90-day action plans were established to ensure that the project remained on task. A communication campaign was launched to keep employees informed. Outcome: The outcome was that a cohesive and intentional diversity plan was rolled out based on the feedback and prioritization of initiatives that would have a positive long-term impact on the company. This ensured that the diversity agenda had a positive impact on the culture of the organization. This includes being part of an effective recruiting strategy; holding every singe employee accountable through the performance evaluation process; and outside recognition based on the diversity agenda. Unique opportunities, challenges in each phase One challenge was getting buy-in from all senior leaders. In addition, the working group was quite large; therefore, it was important that the working group remain focused on the long-term agenda and ensuring that not one initiative or group was more important than the other throughout each phase of the project. Knowledge, skills, and competencies required of the consultant Effective communication skills and remaining flexible and adaptable in accomplishing all of the goals of the projects were essential KSA’s throughout the project.
  • Leadership Commitment Accountability for diversity success Human Capital Work force, new hires, management by levels, promotions and retention Work/life benefits and recruitment strategies, including those aimed at LGBT people and people with disabilities Corporate and Organizational Communications Internal factors as employee-resource groups, mentoring and employee surveys External factors as philanthropic contributions, multicultural marketing, and web-site communication of diversity branding Supplier Diversity Procurement budgets spent with suppliers owned by Blacks, Latinos, Asians, American Indians, women, LGBT people, and people with disabilities. It also examines whether supplier-diversity numbers are audited and have third-party certification; whether companies include supplier diversity in their requests for proposals (RFPs); and whether they mentor suppliers and offer them financial assistance Source: The Diversity Inc.
  • Focus on similarities not differences According to Watson Wyatt, people cited the following factors as important: They supported their company's business plan They had a chance to use their skills on the job Their reward package was competitive The company acted on employee suggestions. Source: http://humanresources.about.com/od/diversity/a/diversity.htm
  • “ Conversity is defined here as an intentional focus on commonalities leading to attitudes and behaviors that capitalize on human differences for organizational success. Arguably the word diversity does not build support for stronger teams. Specifically, the word diversity: focuses on differences rather than commonalities seems divisive carries negative baggage and elicits negative thoughts in some people may generate defensiveness and hinder further dialogue. Conversity , on the other hand, sounds more positive and proactive. Its Latin roots are: con —with, together, for verse —to familiarize by experience, study, or practice. Conversity is an active and deliberate search for the kinds of commonalities that bring people together.” (Wildermuth & Gray, 2005, p.3)
  • Diversity and Inclusion

    1. 1. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    2. 2. <ul><li>Definitions, laws, and theories </li></ul><ul><li>How can we respond to cultural differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and sustaining diversity </li></ul><ul><li>An intervention in conversity </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? Comments? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    4. 4. <ul><li>Distinct or unlike qualities, such as gender, sexual orientation, race, disability, religion, family status, and age </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion describes the extent to which each person in an organization feels welcomed, respected, supported, and valued as a team member </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Pay Act 1963 (EPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) </li></ul><ul><li>Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1991 </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) is primarily a matter of legal compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity programs are proactive initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and inclusion are aimed at realizing competitive advantage and business opportunity </li></ul>
    7. 7. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    8. 8. <ul><li>“ A way of helping people look at their behavior while trying to solve a problem or make a decision.&quot; </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Action and contact </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution and closure </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>&quot;An intervention conveys what is involved in trying to help an organization. Intervention means to enter into an ongoing system for the purpose of helping it in some way.&quot; </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>To attend, observe, and selectively share </li></ul><ul><li>To attend to one's own experience and to selectively share </li></ul><ul><li>To focus on energy and themes in the client system </li></ul><ul><li>To facilitate clear, meaningful, heightened contacts </li></ul><ul><li>To help the group achieve heightened awareness </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>“ Teach through the display of personal behavior&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ An environment in which every member of the organization can add value and enhance the organization's performance and competitive advantage for today and tomorrow&quot; </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Build a platform for change </li></ul><ul><li>Create momentum </li></ul><ul><li>Make diversity and inclusion a way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage learning and challenge the status quo </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>“ Individuals at all organizational levels are responsible for helping to create an organizational environment that works for all&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Different experiences of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with all levels </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Resistance is part of the learning process for both consultants and clientele </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity plays a key role in client-consultant relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on changing the company’s culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set clear diversity targets, establish metrics and track progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal communications and training </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Ignoring, dismissing or minimizing culture can significantly impact organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is often considered the driving force behind human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a complex system of interrelated parts that must be understood holistically </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Leadership style that is sensitive, appreciative and effective when communicating with individuals from different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural and inclusive experiences allow individuals to think more expansively in terms of cultural “uniqueness” </li></ul><ul><li>Leave room for national variation in implementation and revise business processes in order to support diversity </li></ul>
    18. 19. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    19. 21. <ul><li>Leadership commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate and organizational communications </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier diversity </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>Focus on similarities not differences </li></ul><ul><li>Important factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the business plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to use their skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to employees </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    22. 24. <ul><li>Conversity : </li></ul><ul><li>An intentional focus on commonalities leading to attitudes and behaviors that capitalize on human differences for organizational success. </li></ul><ul><li>(Wildermuth & Gray, 2005, p.3) </li></ul>
    23. 25. Bob Travis | Danica Williams | Kevin Bradley | Laila Salguero-Saeed | Mike Ochse
    24. 26. <ul><li>Block, P. (2000). Flawless consulting: A guide to getting your expertise used (2 nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Booz Allen Hamilton. (2009). Retrieved July 9, 2009 , from http://www.boozallen.com/careers/a_great_place_to_work/diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Bye, P. (2009). Introduction to the human resources discipline of diversity. Retrieved July 4, 2009, from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/Diversity/Pages/DiversityIntro.aspx. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity (business). (2009). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diversity_(business)&oldid=285218668. </li></ul><ul><li>Everett (WA) Community College. (2009). Diversity perspective interviews . Retrieved July 6, 2009 from http://www.everettcc.edu/faculty_staff/tlc/diversityteaching/index.cfm?id=8814. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws. (2004). Retrieved July 4, 2009, from http://www.eeoc.gov/abouteeo/overview_laws.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Gorski, P. C. (2009). Knowing the community: Sharing activity. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/activities/activity2.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Hastings, R. R. (2009). Diversity and inclusion are priorities are priorities for top executives. Retrieved June 29, 2009, from http://moss07.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/Diversity/Articles/Pages/DiversityandInclusionAreTop.asx. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the human resources discipline of diversity. (2009). Retrieved July 4, 2009, from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/Diversity/Pages/DiversityIntro.aspx. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, F. A., & Katz, J. H. (2002). The inclusion breakthrough . San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler. </li></ul><ul><li>Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., & Moran, S. V. (2007). Managing cultural differences: Global leadership strategies for the 21 st century (7 th ed.). Oxford, UK: Elsevier. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevis, E. (2005). Organizational consulting: A gestalt approach . Orleans, MA: Gestalt Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Roberson, Q. M. (2006). Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations. Group Organization Management , 31, 212–236. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, R. R., & Woodruff, M. I. (1999). Building a house for diversity: How a fable about a giraffe & elephant offers new strategies for today's workforce . AMACOM: A Division of American Management Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildermuth, C., & Gray, S. (2005). Diversity training . Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press. </li></ul>

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