GENERAL JARUZELSKI: LEADER OFPOLISH COMMUNIST PARTY Declared Martial Law in Dec. 1981. Banned Solidarity in Oct. 1982. Introduced limited economic reforms in 1982. Failed to deal with huge foreign debt problems and low industrial productivity. http://www.polishnews.com/index
SOLIDARITY: POLISH TRADE UNIONFEDERATION Founded in September 1980 at the Gdansk Shipyard. It was originally led by Lech Walesa. First non-communist party controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. It constituted a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement. In October 1982, General Jaruzelski banned the trade union movement. June 1987: Pope John Paul II showed his support of Solidarity.
LIFTING OF MARTIAL LAW 1983 Martial Law was declared in December 1981 by Jaruzelski. When lifted in 1983, Solidarity was weakened and divided. In 1986 Jaruzelski granted a general political amnesty. This allowed many leading members of Solidarity to be released from prison.
THE REFERENDUM ON REFORM 1987 Between 1982 and 1986: Poland’s foreign debt increased by 35%. Jaruzelski decided that in order to strengthen the regime’s political position that they political reform was required. October 1987: The government held a referendum in November on a package of economic and political reform proposals. It backfired, Solidarity urged its supporters to boycott it. The government failed to win 50% of the votes to endorse its proposals.
PRICE REFORM 1988 February: Jaruzelski introduced massive price increases. Food prices went up 40-50%. More increases would start in May. The increases provoked large strikes in May and August. They were not organized by Solidarity, but they helped negotiate an end to the strikes. Leading Solidarity members acknowledged that radical economic reform was essential, regardless of how painful.
THE GROUP OF THREE’S PROPOSALS They were a committee of analysts. August: Jarulzelski accepted a report on political reform by them. They proposed a new senate and parliament. 40% of parliament to be decided from open elections. This led to the government to start discussing with the Solidarity leaders. 5 months passed before real negotiations began. Jaruzelski and other leading ministers had to threaten resignation before the Party (Jan 1989). Negotiations were approved with Solidarity.
APRIL ACCORDS• Took place between February and April of 1989.• “The final attempt by Polish reform communists to transform the system while maintaining control of the process of change” Historian Frances Millard• There were to be free elections to the Senate.• Open elections for 35% of the seats in Parliament, with 65% remaining for the Communist Party.• Office of president, elected by the Parliament and Senate, was to be created.
THE JUNE ELECTIONS Two rounds of elections. Solidarity candidates won all but one of the seats open to nonofficial candidates. In July 1989, General Jaruzelski was elected President. Solidarity leaders felt they had to keep to this undertaking. If Jaruzelski was not elected they feared a coup by hardliners within the Communist Party or Soviet intervention.
APPOINTMENT OF A SOLIDARITY-LEDCOALITION GOVERNMENT With their electoral triumph in June Solidarity leaders wanted more political influence. Jaruzelski initially refused to accept a Solidarity Prime Minister. By mid-August Tadeusz Mazowiecki was named Prime Minister. In September 1989, Polish Parliament approved the new coalition government. Lech Walesa of Solidarity was Leah Walesa elected president in 1990. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/ Lech_Walesa_-_2009.jpg
HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION Bloodless revolution and followed on a period of negotiation between the government and opposition groups, similar to Poland. Reform started before it did in Poland. Government had permitted multi-candidate parliamentary elections since 1985. This prevented frustration with economic and political situation in Hungary reaching the levels it did in Poland.
REFORM COMMUNISM IN HUNGARY Hungary’s foreign debt per capita was the highest in the Eastern bloc. In 1987, Janos Kadar appointed Karoly Grosz as the new Prime Minister. Grosz and Imre Posgay undermined Kadar who eventually resigned in may 1988. Grosz favored limited power sharing with non-communist parties. Posgay wanted to demote the Karoly Grosz http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/t humb/7/77/GroszKaroly.jpg/225px- Party from its leading role. GroszKaroly.jpg
IMRE NAGY http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/ a5/ImreNagy.jpg/225px-ImreNagy.jpg Posgay helped push for the rehabilitation of the reputation of Imre Nagy, the reforming Communist leader who had been arrested and executed by the Soviet Government during the 1956 Revolution. In June 1989, Nagy was reburied with honor in a ceremony attended by a quarter of a million Hungarians.
NATIONAL ROUND TABLE TALKS (JUNE 1989) In April 1990, a non-communist coalition government took office in Hungary. Reform in Hungary had a very important effect on the GDR (East Germany). In May 1989, the Hungarian government announced that it was opening its borders. This meant that East Germans could now travel into Hungary and then cross into Austria and then on into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).