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Building Clouds with OpenNebula2.2
 

Building Clouds with OpenNebula2.2

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A two day course of OPenNebula 2.2 using Ubuntu + KVM

A two day course of OPenNebula 2.2 using Ubuntu + KVM

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    Building Clouds with OpenNebula2.2 Building Clouds with OpenNebula2.2 Presentation Transcript

    • Centro de Supercomputación de Galicia May 2011, Spain Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de MadridCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Contents Schedule  Day one  Introduction to Cloud Computing  Installing OpenNebula 2.2  Configure your Cloud (storage, hypervisor and network)  Administration of an OpenNebula Cloud (hosts, users)  Image Management  Networking  Basic VM Managment  Day two  Sunstone GUI  More VM Managment Private Cloud  Configuring an Hybrid Cloud with Amazon EC2 Hybrid Cloud  Public Cloud interfaces: The EC2 Query API Public Cloud  Advance Topics: Adapt OpenNebula 2.2 to your datacenterOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Course Overview What will you learn?  Describe the benefits and characteristics of virtual infrastructures and IaaS clouds  Describe the characteristics and architecture of the different clouds that can be deployed with OpenNebula 2.2  Plan and architect a private cloud  Design, Use and Manage Cloud Applications  Build public and hybrid clouds  Adapt OpenNebula 2.2 to your datacenter This box contains interesting messagesThis is a console output, for hands on, checking configuration files# This is the root prompt$ This is oneadmin promptOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 “An Introduction to Cloud Computing” Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Cloud Computing Disciplines • Infrastructure as a Service • Chanllenges of IaaS Clouds • History of OpenNebula.org • Technical Overview of OpenNebulaCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Cloud Computing Disciplines An Introduction to Cloud Computing What Who Software as a Service On-demand access End-user to any application (does not care about hw or sw) Platform for building Developer Platform as a Service and delivering web (no managing of the underlying applications hw & swlayers) Infrastructure as a Delivery of a raw System Administrator Service computer (complete management of the infrastructure computer infrastructure) Physical InfrastructureOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) An Introduction to Cloud Computing Public Cloud • Simple Web Interface • Raw Infrastructure Resources • Pay-as-you-go (On-demand access) • Elastic & “infinite” CapacityOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) An Introduction to Cloud Computing Public Cloud • Simple Web Interface • Raw Infrastructure Resources Private Cloud • Pay-as-you-go (On-demand access) A “Public Cloud behind the firewall” • Simplify internal operations • Elastic & “infinite” Capacity • Dynamic allocation of resources • Higher utilization & operational savings • Security concernsOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) An Introduction to Cloud Computing Public Cloud • Simple Web Interface • Raw Infrastructure Resources Private Cloud • Pay-as-you-go (On-demand access) A “Public Cloud behind the firewall” • Simplify internal operations • Elastic & “infinite” Capacity • Dynamic allocation of resources • Higher utilization & operational savings • Security concerns Hybrid Cloud • Suplement the capacity of the Private Cloud • Utility Computing dream made a reality!OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) An Introduction to Cloud Computing Public Cloud • Simple Web Interface • Raw Infrastructure Resources Private Cloud • Pay-as-you-go (On-demand access) A “Public Cloud behind the firewall” • Simplify internal operations • Elastic & “infinite” Capacity • Dynamic allocation of resources • Higher utilization & operational savings • Security concerns Hybrid Cloud • Suplement the capacity of the Private Cloud • Utility Computing dream made a reality!OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Challenges of an IaaS Cloud An Introduction to Cloud Computing I’m using virtualization/cloud, and plan a private Cloud (BUT’s) Where do/did I put my web server VM? Monitoring & Scheduling How do I provision a new VM? Image Management & Context Who have access to cloud (and What)? User & Role Management How do I create a new disk? Storage How do I set up networking for a multitier service? Network & VLANs How can I manage the distributed infrastructure? Can I use hypervisor X? Interfaces & APIs Virtualization º Uniform management layer that orchestrates multiple technologiesOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • History of OpenNebula.org An Introduction to Cloud Computing Third party scalability • Develop & innovate tests: 16000 VMs • Support the community • Collaborate Commercial Support TP v1.0 v1.2 v1.4 v2.0 v2.2 v2.4 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 dsa group doing research… 4000 downloads/month European FundingOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • History of OpenNebula.org: Sample Users An Introduction to Cloud Computing Organizations Building Clouds for Development, Testing and Production Projects Building an Open Cloud Ecosystem Around OpenNebula 16,000 VMs!OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Technical Overview of OpenNebula: Vision & Design Philosophy An Introduction to Cloud Computing• One solution can not fit all data-center, requirements and constraints• Open, felxible and extensible architecture that allows multiple components to be orchestrated• Ready for production• Massively scalable deployments• Open Source – Apache License v2.0• Provide basic components, but allow them to be easily replaceableOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Technical Overview of OpenNebula: Key Components An Introduction to Cloud Computing Interfaces & API • CLI (local/remote) • API (java, ruby bindings) • Sunstone • Cloud (EC2, OCCI) VM Networking • VLANs Image Repository of VM disks • Firewall hooks • ACLs (public + private) • User defined • OS and Data types (persistent) • Multiple storage backends User & Roles Hosts: Cluster workernoes to run VMs. Storage • NAS • Multiple hypervisors defined per host • SAN • Grouped in logical clusters • Custom (bittorrent, ssh…) • Custom monitoring probes and technologiesOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 “An Introduction to Cloud Computing” Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Cloud Computing Disciplines • Infrastructure as a Service • Chanllenges of IaaS Clouds • History of OpenNebula.org • Technical Overview of OpenNebulaCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Preparing the Cloud for OpenNebula Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Overview of OpenNebula Components • Runtime & Compilation Requirements • Users & File-System • Storage for the Private Cloud • Networking for the Private Cloud • Hypervisor Configuration • ChecklistCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Component Overview Preparing the cloud for OpenNebula  Executes the OpenNebula Services  Usually acts as a classical cluster front-end  Repository of VM images  Multiple backends (LVM, iSCSI..)  Usually in a separate host Modular components to interact with the cluster services Types: storage, monitoring, virtualization and network The same host can be can be athe front-end and a node  Provides physical resources to VMsOpenNebula.org  Must have a hypervisor installed Alike (CC-BY-SA) Creative Commons Attribution Share
    • Runtime Requirements Cluster Front-end Choose your installation mode  system wide (/usr, /etc...)  self-contained (under $ONE_LOCATION) Install software dependencies (runtime)# apt-get install ruby and openssl)  Runtime (also ssh# apt-get install sqlite3# apt-get install libxmlrpc-c3  Check for additional notes at: http://www.opennebula.org/documentation:rel2.2:notesOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Requirements Cluster Front-end  Development libraries and tools (only needed to build OpenNebula)# apt-get install libxmlrpc-c3-dev libsqlite3-dev libssl-dev# apt-get install build-essential g++ scons# apt-get install ruby-dev rubygems rakeThe following will give you a faster XML parser (faster CLI)# apt-get install libexpat1-dev libxml-parser-ruby1.8# apt-get install libxslt1-dev libxml2-dev# gem install xmlparser# gem install nokogiriSET SYSTEM LOCALES TO ENGLISH (oneadmin should be enough...)# cat /etc/default/localeLANG="en_US.UTF-8“OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Users & File-System Layout Cluster Front-end The Users of the private cloud:  oneadmin: Account to run the daemons, manage the system and do all the low-level operations (e.g. start VMs, move images...).  Users: create and manage their own VMs and networks. Need to be defined in OpenNebula Installation layout  We will use the /srv/cloud directory to place the OpenNebula software  /srv/cloud/one will hold the OpenNebula installation  /srv/cloud/images will do our “image repository” in the courseOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Users & File-System Layout Cluster Front-end Installation layout# tree /srv/srv/`-- cloud |-- images `-- one |-- SRC The oneadmin account must be created system wide (i.e. front-end and all the nodes) you can use NIS, or a local account with the same IDs in all the hosts. Users do not need a UNIX account in the nodes, nor in the front-end.OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Users & File-System Layout Cluster Front-end Hands on: Create the installation dirs and oneadmin account# groupadd -g 3000 cloud# mkdir /srv/cloud# chgrp cloud /srv/cloud# chmod g+ws /srv/cloud# mkdir /srv/cloud/images# chmod g+w /srv/cloud/images# useradd -d /srv/cloud/one -g cloud -u 3000 -s /bin/bash -m oneadminCreate the file-system hierarchy with the oneadmin account$ iduid=3000(oneadmin) gid=3000(cloud) grupos=3000(cloud)We will place the OpenNebula source code in SRC$ mkdir SRC$ cd SRC$ wget http://dev.opennebula.org/attachments/download/339/opennebula-2.2.tar.gzOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Storage for the Priv ate Cloud Component Overview  Image Repository: Any storage medium for the VM images (usually a high performing SAN). In this course a fs-based repo.  Cluster Storage  OpenNebula supports multiple back-ends (e.g. LVM for fast cloning)  VM Directory: The home of the VM in the cluster node  Stores checkpoints, description files and VM disks  Actual operations over the VM directory depends on the storage medium  Should be shared for live-migrations  You can go on without a shared FS and use the SSH back-end  Defaults to $ONE_LOCATION/var/$VM_IDOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Storage for the Priv ate Cloud Example, a shared FS architecture Dimensioning the Storage... Example: A 64 core cluster will typically run around 80VMs, each VM will require an average of 10GB of disk space. So you will need ~800GB for /srv/cloud/one, you will also want to store 10-15 master images so ~200GB for /srv/cloud/images. A 1TB /srv/cloud will be enough for this example setup. In this course we will use NFS to share the VM directories The Image Repository is /srv/cloud/imagesOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Storage for the Priv ate Cloud Configuring NFS backend Hands on: set up the storage# apt-get install nfs-kernel-serverExport /srv/cloud to your nodes - only need /srv/cloud/one/var - we also export $HOME of oneadmin for easy SSH key configuration - No need to export /srv/cloud/images# vim /etc/exports/srv/cloud 193.144.33.YY(rw,async,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)# service nfs-kernel-server restart# service ufw stop# iptables -FOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Networking for the Private Cloud Component Overview  OpenNebula management operations uses a ssh connections, it does not require a performing NIC  Image traffic, may require the movement of heavy files (VM images, checkpoints). Dedicated storage links may be a good idea  VM demands, consider the typical requirements of your VMs. Several NICs to support the VM traffic may be a good idea  OpenNebula relies on bridge networking for the VMsOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Runtime Requirements Cluster Worker-nodes  Install software dependencies  We need SSH daemon running in the cluster nodes (check it!)  Runtime dependencies:# apt-get install ruby  Users  Create the oneadmin account (use same UID and GID)# groupadd -g 3000 cloud# useradd -d /srv/cloud/one -g cloud -u 3000 -s /bin/bash oneadmin  Set language environment to english# cat /etc/default/localeLANG="en_US.UTF-8“OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Storage for the Private Cloud Example, Configuring NFS backend in the Worker-nodes  Storage: recreate the installation layout and configure NFS to mount the VM dirs# mkdir /srv/cloud# chmod g+ws /srv/cloud# chgrp cloud /srv/cloud# ls -l /srv/total 8drwxrwsr-x 2 root cloud 4096 2011-05-02 14:09 cloud# apt-get install nfs-common# vi /etc/fstab193.144.33.x:/srv/cloud /srv/cloud nfssoft,intr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,rw 0 0Note: Add the previous in just one line# service stop ufw (beware of any firewall rule)# iptables –F# mount –t nfs -aOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Runtime Requirements Configuring SSH access • Enable password-less SSH access to cluster (oneadmin)Do not protect the private key with a password$ ssh-keygenGenerating public/private rsa key pair....Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):Enter same passphrase again:$ cp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub ~/.ssh/authorized_keysTell ssh client not to ask to add hosts to known_hosts (optional)$ cat /srv/cloud/one/.ssh/configHost * StrictHostKeyChecking no$ ssh 193.144.33.yy You may need to exchange keys with the nodes (not here as we share /srv/cloud/one the oneadmin home, and so the ~/.ssh directory )OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hypervisor Configuration Example, configuring KVM in the Worker-nodes  Installing the Hypervisor  OpenNebula supports KVM, Xen and Vmware (even simultaneously). This course applies to KVM and Xen  Refer to the hypervisor documentation for additional (and better information) on setting up them.  Setting up KVM and libvirt (Ubuntu 10.04)  Install the packages (should be already installed)#apt-get install qemu-common qemu-kvm libvirt-binOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hypervisor Configuration Example, configuring KVM in the Worker-nodes  Add oneadmin to the libvirt group# usermod -G kvm,libvirtd oneadmin  Test the installation for the oneadmin account$ virsh –c qemu:///system list Id Name State----------------------------------  Fix apparmor issue with libvirt# tail /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/libvirt-qemu # https://launchpad.net/bugs/457716 #include <abstractions/private-files-strict> owner @{HOME}/ r, owner @{HOME}/** rw, /srv/cloud/one/var/** rw,# service apparmor restartOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Networking for the Private Cloud Network Configuration in the Worker-nodes  Setting up KVM and libvirt (Ubuntu 10.04)  Networking for this course 193.144.33.x br0 VM VM 192.168.0.1 192.168.2.1  Disable virbr0#rm /etc/libvirt/qemu/networks/autostart/default.xml#ifconfig virbr0 down#brctl delbr virbr0#service libvirt-bin restartOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Networking for the Private Cloud Network Configuration in the Worker-nodes  Disable ubuntu network manager# vim /etc/network/interfacesauto loiface lo inet loopbackauto br0iface br0 inet static address 193.144.33.150 netmask 255.255.255.192 network 193.144.33.128 broadcast 193.144.33.191 gateway 193.144.33.129 bridge_ports eth0 bridge_stp on bridge_maxwait 0 bridge_fd 0  Check the network configuration (ifconfig, brctl show)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installation Checklist Preparing the cloud for OpenNebulaOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Preparing the Cloud for OpenNebula Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Overview of OpenNebula Components • Runtime & Compilation Requirements • Users & File-System • Storage for the Private Cloud • Networking for the Private Cloud • Hypervisor Configuration • ChecklistCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Installing & Configuring OpenNebula Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Installing OpenNebula 2.2 • Configuring OpenNebula 2.2 • Managing Hosts & Clusters • Managing Users • Logging and Debugging InformationCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing OpenNebula 2.2 Compiling the Software Grab the source code and compile it! (oneadmin)~/SRC$ wget http://dev.opennebula.org/attachments/download/339...~/SRC$ tar xzvf one-2.2.tar.gz~/SRC$ cd opennebula-2.2/~/SRC$ scons Install the software in /srv/cloud/one (ONE_LOCATION)$ export ONE_LOCATION=/srv/cloud/one/$ ./install.sh -d $ONE_LOCATIONCheck install.sh -h for other options Check and explore the installation tree~$ ls -Fbin/ etc/ examples.desktop include/ lib/ share/ SRC/ var/OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing OpenNebula 2.2 Installation layoutOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula 2.2 Configuration Interface  $ONE_LOCATION/etc/oned.conf  General configuration  Defines the drivers used in the private cloud  Match-making scheduler (default)  Placement policies configured per VM  $ONE_LOCATION/etc/im_*/im_*.conf $ONE_LOCATION/etc/vmm_*/vmm_*.conf  Defines monitoring probes Defaults values for the hypervisor  $ONE_LOCATION/etc/tm_*/tm_*.conf  Defines action for generic storage operationsOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file General configuration attributes  Monitoring intervals:  HOST_MONITORING_INTERVAL  VM_POLLING_INTERVAL  Global Paths  VM_DIR: Path to the VM directory in the cluster nodes.  SCRIPTS_REMOTE_DIR: to store driver actions in the cluster nodes  PORT : Port where oned will listen for xml-rpc calls  DEBUG_LEVEL  DB, configuration for the DB backend driver:  Sqlite  MySQL  VNC_BASE_PORT, for VNC port generation (BASE + ID)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file#MANAGER_TIMER=30HOST_MONITORING_INTERVAL = 60VM_POLLING_INTERVAL = 60#VM_DIR=/srv/cloud/one/varSCRIPTS_REMOTE_DIR=/var/tmp/onePORT=2633DB = [ backend = "sqlite" ]VNC_BASE_PORT = 5900DEBUG_LEVEL=3OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file Networking  MAC_PREFIX, for MAC address generation  NETWORK_SIZE, default value Image Repository  IMAGE_REPOSITORY_PATH, to store the images  DEFAULT_IMAGE_TYPE: OS, CDROM, DATABLOCK  DEFAULT_IMAGE_PREFIX: hd, sd, xvd, vdMAC_PREFIX = "00:02"NETWORK_SIZE = 254IMAGE_REPOSITORY_PATH = /srv/cloud/imagesDEFAULT_IMAGE_TYPE = "OS"DEFAULT_DEVICE_PREFIX = "hd"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file Information Drivers, to monitor cluster nodes  name: identifies the driver  executable: absolute or relative to $ONE_LOCATION/lib/mads  arguments:  hypervisor probe set (remotes dir)  Number of retries (-r)  Concurrency (-t number of threads)IM_MAD = [ name = "im_kvm", executable = "one_im_ssh", arguments = “-r 0 –t 15 kvm" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file Transfer Drivers, to interface with the storage  name: identifies the driver  executable: path to driver executable  arguments: storage commands configuration fileTM_MAD = [ name = "tm_nfs", executable = "one_tm", arguments = "tm_nfs/tm_nfs.conf" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file Virtualization Drivers, to interface the hypervisors  name: identifies the driver  executable: absolute or relative to $ONE_LOCATION/lib/mads  arguments: same as Information Drivers  default: default values for the hypervisor  type: format of the VM description used by the driver: xen, kvm or xmlVM_MAD = [ name = "vmm_kvm", executable = "one_vmm_ssh", arguments = “-t 15 –r 0 kvm", default = “vmm_ssh/vmm_ssh_kvm.conf", type = "kvm" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oned.conf file Other sections, to interface the hypervisors  Hooks  Auth Manager Hands on!  Check and adjust the values of oned.conf for your cloudOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oneadmin account Accounts in OpenNebula  oneadmin, has enough privileges to perform any operation on any object. It is created the first time OpenNebula is started using the ONE_AUTH data  Regular user accounts must be created by oneadmin and they can only manage their own objects. Configuring the oneadmin account  Environment variables: ONE_AUTH, ONE_LOCATION and ONE_XMLRPC$ tail .bashrcexport ONE_LOCATION=/srv/cloud/oneexport ONE_AUTH=$HOME/.one/one_authexport PATH=$PATH:$ONE_LOCATION/binOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring OpenNebula The oneadmin account  Create the password file$ mkdir .one$ cd .one$ cat one_authoneadmin:onecloud Start OpenNebula using the init scripts$ source .bashrc$ echo $ONE_AUTH/srv/cloud/one/.one/one_auth$ one start$ less $ONE_LOCATION/var/oned.logThu May 05 18:03:11 2011 [ONE][I]: Init OpenNebula Log system... Be sure to configure the oneadmin account (specially, create the ONE_AUTH file) before starting OpenNebula for the first time.OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing hosts and clusters  Hosts are cluster worker-nodes defined with  Hostname of the node or IP  Information Driver to be used to monitor the host  Storage Driver to clone, delete, move or copy images into the host  Virtualization Driver to boot, stop, resume VMs in the host  Hosts are managed with the onehost utility  Create & delete hosts  List the hosts  Show detailed information from a host  Enable/Disable a hostOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing hosts and clusters  Hands on! Register the hosts of your private cloud (front-end will also act as a worker node)$ onehost add pcaulaX im_kvm vmm_kvm tm_nfs$ onehost add pcaulaY im_kvm vmm_kvm tm_nfs$ onehost listID NAME CLUSTER RVM TCPU FCPU ACPU TMEM FMEM STAT 0 pcaulaX default 0 0 0 100 0K 0K on 1 pcaulaY default 0 0 0 100 0K 0K on...$ cat $ONE_LOCATION/var/oned.logMon May 2 18:06:35 2011 [InM][I]: Monitoring host pcaula7 (0)Mon May 2 18:06:35 2011 [InM][I]: Monitoring host pcaula10 (1)Mon May 2 18:06:38 2011 [InM][D]: Host 0 successfully monitored.Mon May 2 18:06:39 2011 [InM][D]: Host 1 successfully monitored....$ onehost listID NAME CLUSTER RVM TCPU FCPU ACPU TMEM FMEM STAT 0 pcaula7 default 0 200 199 200 1.9G 1.5G on 1 pcaula10 default 0 200 200 200 1.9G 1.5G onOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing hosts and clusters  By default, all hosts belong to the default logical cluster. Clusters are managed using the onecluster command  Create & delete clusters  List the available clusters  Add & remove hosts from the clustersOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing hosts and clusters  Hands on!  Use the onehost command to view detailed information of the hosts  Use the onehost command to enable/disable hosts  Use the onecluster command to view the clusters  Use the onecluster command to create/add hosts/remove a clusterOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing Users  Users are defined within OpenNebula by:  ID unique identifier for the user  Name of the user, used for authentication  Password used for authentication  Users are managed with the oneuser utility  Create & delete users  List the users in the clusterOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Managing Users Hands on!  List current users of your Cloud  Create a new user$ oneuser create helen mypassUser “Helen” should put helen:mypass in $ONE_AUTH$ oneuser list UID NAME PASSWORD ENABLE 0 oneadmin c24783ba96a35464632a624d9f829136edc0175e True 2 helen 34a91f713808846ade4a71577dc7963631ebae14 True$ oneuser delete helenOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Private Cloud Logging and debugging information  The operations of the OpenNebula daemon and scheduler are logged in:  oned: $ONE_LOCATION/var/oned.log, Its verbosity is set by DEBUG_LEVEL in $ONE_LOCATION/etc/oned.conf.  Scheduler (mm_sched): All the scheduler information is collected into the $ONE_LOCATION/var/sched.log file.  VM logs and files are in $ONE_LOCATION/var/<VM_ID>, more in a few slides...  Drivers can activate ONE_MAD_DEBUG in the associated RC file (or in $ONE_LOCATION/etc/defaultrc)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Installing & Configuring OpenNebula Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Installing OpenNebula 2.2 • Configuring OpenNebula 2.2 • Managing Hosts & Clusters • Managing Users • Logging and Debugging InformationCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Basic Usage of the Private Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Virtual Networks • Images • Virtual MachinesCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Networks Overview  A Virtual Network (vnet) in OpenNebula  Defines a separated MAC/IP address space to be used by VMs  A vnet is associated with a physical network through a bridge  Virtual Networks can be isolated (at layer 2 level)  Virtual Network definition  Name, of the network  Type Fixed, a set of IP/MAC leases Ranged, defines a network range  Bridge, name of the physical bridge in the physical host where the VM should connect its network interface.  Virtual Networks are managed with the onevnet utilityOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Networks Example, create and manage Virtual Networks  Hands on!  Define and create two networks $ vi red.net NAME = "Red LAN" TYPE = RANGED BRIDGE = br0 NETWORK_SIZE = C NETWORK_ADDRESS = 192.168.XX.0 $ vi blue.net NAME = "Blue LAN" TYPE = FIXED BRIDGE = br0 LEASES = [IP=192.168.YY.5] LEASES = [IP=192.168.YY.10] LEASES = [IP=192.168.YY.15] LEASES = [IP=192.168.YY.20] LEASES = [IP=192.168.YY.25]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Networks Example, create and manage Virtual Networks  Hands on!  Use the onevnet command to list and show networks  Modify the fixed network to add/remove leases with the (addleases and rmleases option)  Leases can be public or private to the user, check and modify the network statusOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Networks Using Virtual Networks within your VMs  Define NICs attached to a given virtual network. The VM will get a NIC with a free MAC in the network and attached to the bridge#A VM with two interfaces each one in a different vlanNIC=[NETWORK="Blue LAN"]NIC=[NETWORK="Red LAN"]#Ask for a specific IP/MAC of the Red vlanNIC=[NETWORK="Red LAN", IP=192.168.0.3]  Prepare the VM to use the IP. Sample scripts to set the IP based on the MAC are provided. IP: 10.0.1.2 IP to MAC correspondence MAC: 02:01:0A:00:01:02 oned.conf IP AddressOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Overview An Image in OpenNebula’s repository  A virtual machine disk to be used as OS or DATA device.  Images can be presistent and/or public  Images modifications can be saved as another image Image Types:  OS: contains a working operative system  CDROM: readonly data  DATABLOCK: A storage for data. Can be created either from previous existing data, or as an empty drive. Images are stored in the repository (/srv/cloud/images in this course)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Automatic Disk Layout for Images OS hda • Prefix (hd,sd): set as default in oned.conf Context ISO hdb • Can be set per image in its template CD-ROM hdc • Target (hda…): can be set in the VM template for the DISK swap hdd Data 1 hde … Data N hdnOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Defining a Virtual Machine Disk Image#---------------------------------------# Name of the Image#---------------------------------------NAME = "vm-example" # Mandatory#---------------------------------------# Image Meta-Data#---------------------------------------TYPE = OS | CDROM | DATABLOCKDESCRIPTION = "of the contents of the Image"PUBLIC = YES | NOPERSISTENT = YES | NO#---------------------------------------# VM Attach attributes#---------------------------------------DEV_PREFIX = "to generate disk targets"BUS = "type of device to emulate (ide,scsi,virtio)"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Defining a Virtual Machine Disk Image#---------------------------------------# Source of the Image (use just one)#---------------------------------------PATH = "URL to copy the image to the repo"SOURCE = "raw disk source (no copy)"#---------------------------------------# DATABLOCK generation (no path given)#---------------------------------------SIZE = "for the data disk in MB"FSTYPE = "to format the image"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Example, Register Images  Hands on!  Define and create two images $ vi ttylinux.img NAME = “ttylinux" TYPE = OS PUBLIC = yes DESCRIPTION = “ttylinux with context. Root passwd is password“ PATH = <put_the_path_here> PERSISTENT = no $ vi data.img (bug in 2.2, include /sbin in PATH) NAME = “data" TYPE = DATABLOCK DESCRIPTION = “user data” PUBLIC = no PERSISTENT = yes SIZE = 100 FSTYPE = ext2OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Example, Register Images  Hands on!  Check images with oneimage list and show  Change public and persistent attributes  Check the contents of the repository (/srv/cloud/images)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Images Using Images with your Virtual Machines  Define DISKs attached to the virtual machine.  Select the image by name or id (IMAGE_ID preferred)  Overwrite attributes if needed (TARGET, BUS)  Prepare the VM to use the disk layout to ease usage # OS image, mapped to sda. DISK = [ IMAGE = "Debian 5.0" ] # First DATABLOCK image, mapped to sde DISK = [ IMAGE_ID = 4 ] # swap, sdd DISK = [ TYPE = swap, SIZE = 1024, READONLY = "no" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Overview A Virtual Machine in OpenNebula  A capacity in terms memory and CPU  A set of NICs attached to one or more virtual networks  A set of disk images, to be “transfered” to/from the execution host.  A state file (optional) or recovery file, with the memory image of a running VM plus some hypervisor specific information. Virutal Machines are defined in a VM template Each VM has an unique ID in OpenNebula the VMID All the files (logs, images, state files...) are stored in $ONE_LOCATION/var/<VMID>OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Template# Name of the VMNAME = "vm-example" # Optional, Default: one-$VMID# CapacityCPU = "amount_of_requested_CPU"MEMORY = "amount_of_requested_MEM"VCPU = "number of virtual cpus"# OS and boot optionsOS = [ kernel = "path_to_os_kernel", # para-virtualization initrd = "path_to_initrd_image", # para-virtualization kernel_cmd = "kernel_command_line", root = "device to be mounted as root" bootloader = "path to the boot loader exec” boot = "device to boot from" ]# Features of the hypervisorFEATURES = [ pae = "yes|no", # Optional, KVM acpi = "yes|no" ] # Optional, KVMOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Template# VM Disks# Using the Image RepositoryDISK = [ image = "name of the image (deprecated)", image_id = "id of the image", bus = "override image attribute”, target = "override default layout", driver = “override image attribute" ]# Using a source URLDISK = [ type = "floppy|disk|cdrom|swap|fs|block", source = "path_to_disk_image_file|physical_dev", format = “type for fs disks”, size = "size_in_GB", target = "device_to_map_disk", bus = "ide|scsi|virtio|xen", readonly = "yes|no", clone = "yes|no", save = "yes|no" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Template# Network InterfacesNIC = [ network = "name_of_the_virtual_network", ip = "ip_address", bridge = "name_of_bridge_to_bind_if", target = "device_name_to_map_if", mac = "HW_address", script = "path_to_script_to_bring_up_if", Model = "NIC model"]# I/O InterfacesINPUT = [ type = "mouse|tablet", bus = "usb|ps2|xen" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Template# I/O InterfacesGRAPHICS = [ type = "vnc|sdl", listen = "IP-to-listen-on", port = "port_for_VNC_server", passwd = "password_for_VNC_server" ]# Raw Hypervisor attributesRAW = [ type = "xen|kvm", data = "raw_domain_configutarion"] Not all the parameters are supported for each hypervisor. Complete reference and examples for all sections in http://opennebula.org/documentation:rel2.2:templateOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Example, define a simple VM Hands on!, create a simple VM  Use the ttylinux image  Use the Red network  Enable VNC access to monitor the boot processNAME = ttylinuxCPU = 0.1MEMORY = 64DISK = [ IMAGE_ID = 0 ]NIC = [ NETWORK_ID = 0 ]FEATURES = [ acpi="no" ]GRAPHICS = [ type="vnc", listen="0.0.0.0", keymap="es" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Example, define a simple VM Hands on!  Check the progress of the VM with onevm top  Check the log with $ONE_LOCATION/var/0/vm.log  Check that the image boot with a vnc client onevm command options:  Operations: create, deploy shutdown, livemigrate, stop, cancel, resume, suspend, delete, restart  Information: list, show, top, historyOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Life-cycle of a VM (simplified)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Example, manage a simple VM Hands on!  Check status of the vnets and images in use by the VM  Stop/Resume the Virtual Machine, check VM directory  Migrate the Virtual Machine (cold migration)  Live Migrate the VM  Update the QEMU protocol to “qemu+ssh” in $ONE_LOCATION/var/remotes/kvm/kvmrc  onehost sync (wait to monitor) – check /var/tmp/one  Create another VM and check connectivity  Add another disk with the datablock (use TARGET hdc, qemu IDE limitation)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Example, manage a Simple VM Hands on!  Enable network access by adding a NIC to Red and Blue networks (no needed with VNC…) Add a tap interface to the physical host and put it un “Red LAN” # apt-get install openvpn # openvpn --mktun --dev tap0 # ifconfig tap0 192.168.XX.50/24 up # brctl addif br0 tap0 # route del -net 192.168.XX.0/24 tap0 # route add -net 192.168.XX.0/24 br0  Test ssh, ping and VM connectivityOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machines Guidelines to Prepare a Virtual Machine  You can use any VM prepared for the target hypervisor  Hint I: Place the vmcontext.sh script in the boot process to make better use of VLANs  Hint II: Do not pack useless information in the VM images: swap. OpenNebula can create swap partitions on-the-fly in the target host Scratch or volatile storage. OpenNebula can create plain FS on- the-fly in the target host  Hint III: Install once and deploy many; prepare master images  Hint IV: Use the Image Repository and default layout  Hint V: Do not put private information (e.g. ssh keys) in the master images, use the CONTEXT  Hint VI: Pass arbitrary data to a master image using CONTEXTOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Basic Usage of the Private Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Virtual Networks • Images • Virtual MachinesCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Advance Usage of the Private Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Context for Virtual Machines • Scheduling Virtual Machines • SunstoneCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machine Context Overview • Block device (ISO9660) with configuration data needed at boot time • Information includes variables and arbitrary files • VM should be prepared to make use of context (mount + read)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machine Context Overview • Context is defined in the VM template #--------------------------------------- # Context for the VM # values can be: # $<template_variable> # $<template_variable>[<attribute>] # $<template_variable>[<attribute>, <attribute2>=<value2>] # $<vm_id>.<context_var> #--------------------------------------- CONTEXT = [ var_1 = "value_1",#In context.sh as var_1=”val_1” (sh syntax) var_n = "value_n",#In context.sh as var_N=”val_N” (sh syntax) files = "space-separated list of paths to include in context dev", target= "device to attach the context device" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machine Context Example, create a Virtual Machine with Context  Hands on!  Check the boot process of ttylinux (rc.local and vmcontext)  Mount context cd-rom  Source context.sh  Execute target initialization scriptCONTEXT = [ files = “<path_to>/init.sh /srv/cloud/one/.ssh/id_rsa.pub", root_pubkey = "id_rsa.pub"]$ more init.sh#!/bin/bash. /mnt/context/context.shif [ -f /mnt/context/$ROOT_PUBKEY ]; then cat /mnt/context/$ROOT_PUBKEY >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keysfiOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Virtual Machine Context Example, create a Virtual Machine with Context  Hands on!  Create and define a VM with context  Study and modify init.sh to set up hostname  Check password-less ssh with id_rsa.pubOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Scheduling Virtual Machines Placement constraints  Tunning the placement of VMs with the Match-making scheduler  First those hosts that do not meet the VM requirements are filtered out (REQUIREMENTS)  RANK is evaluated for the remaining hosts  That with the highest RANK is used for the VM  Placement policies are specified per VM#---------------------------------------# Scheduler#---------------------------------------# Use Host Monitor attributesREQUIREMENTS = "Bool_expression_for_reqs"RANK = "Arith_expression_to_rank_hosts"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Scheduling Virtual Machines Sample Placement Heuristics  Packing (Minimize the number of cluster nodes in use)  Heuristic: Pack the VMs in the cluster nodes to reduce fragmentation  Implementation: Use those nodes with more VMs running first ( RANK = RUNNING_VMS )  Striping Policy (Maximize the resources available to VMs)  Heuristic: Spread the VMs in the cluster nodes  Implementation: Use those nodes with less VMs running first (RANK = "- RUNNING_VMS“)  Load-aware Policy (Maximize resources)  Heuristic: Use those nodes with less load  Implementation: Use those nodes with more FREECPU first (RANK = FREECPU)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Scheduling Virtual Machines Example, guide the scheduling of the VMs  Hands on!  Try VM pinning (choose a variable from onehost show) - REQUIREMENTS  Experiment with the previous policies - RANKOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Sunstone Overview  Web application to perform admin tasks  Sunstone is not a public cloud user tool  Server must have access to the XML-RPC APIOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Sunstone Installation & Configuration  Install ruby gems needed by the serve# apt-get install libopenssl-ruby# gem install json sinatra thin rack  Add /var/lib/gems/1.8/bin to PATH  Start the server as oneadmin  -H hostname for the server  -p port  Log information in $ONE_LOCATION/var/sunstone.log$ sunstoner-server –H pcaulaXX.cesga.es startOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Sunstone Example, use the GUI  Hands on!  Manage the cloud (hosts, vnets, images, vms…) through sunstoneOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Advance Usage of the Private Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Context for Virtual Machines • Scheduling Virtual Machines • SunstoneCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Hybrid Cloud Computing Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Hybrid Cloud Computing • Installing a Hybrid Cloud with EC2 • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud • Using the OpenNebula-EC2 CloudCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hybrid Cloud Computing Overview VMs can be local or remote VM connectivity has to be configured, usually VPNs  External Clouds are like any other host  Placement constraints  OpenNebula distribution includes EC2 driversOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing the Hybrid Cloud Runtime Requirements (front-end) EC2 libraries and tools.# apt-get install ec2-ami-tools ec2-api-tools EC2 tools credentials:$ export EC2_PRIVATE_KEY=/srv/cloud/one/ec2/pk.pem$ export EC2_CERT=/srv/cloud/one/ec2/cert.pem Add those variables to .bashrc and test the tools$ ec2-describe-imagesIMAGE ami-0742a66e /rubensm-amis.s3.amazonaws.com/image.manifest.xml 418314910487available private i386 machineIMAGE ami-e142a688 rubensm-amis.s3.amazonaws.com/image.manifest.xml 418314910487available private i386 machineOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing the Hybrid Cloud OpenNebula drivers for EC2 Configure OpenNebula to use the EC2 driversIM_MAD = [ name = "im_ec2", executable = "one_im_ec2", arguments = "im_ec2/im_ec2.conf" ] # No. of instances of each typeVM_MAD = [ name = "vmm_ec2", executable = "one_vmm_ec2", arguments = "vmm_ec2/vmm_ec2.conf", # Defaults, e.g. keypair type = "xml" ]TM_MAD = [ #No actual transfers are made by OpenNebula to EC2 name = "tm_dummy", executable = "one_tm", arguments = "tm_dummy/tm_dummy.conf" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing the Hybrid Cloud OpenNebula drivers for EC2 Configure the OpenNebula account (will use bashrc)$ vim $ONE_LOCATION/etc/vmm_ec2/vmm_ec2rc#--------------------------------------------------------------------# EC2 API TOOLS Configuration.#--------------------------------------------------------------------EC2_HOME=“/usr/”#EC2_PRIVATE_KEY="/srv/cloud/one/ec2/certs/pk.pem"#EC2_CERT="/srv/cloud/one/ec2/certs/cert.pem" Configure the capacity to be outsourced$ vim $ONE_LOCATION/etc/im_ec2/im_ec2.conf#-------------------------------------------------------------------# Max number of instances that can be launched into EC2#--------------------------------------------------------------------SMALL_INSTANCES=5LARGE_INSTANCES=EXTRALARGE_INSTANCES=OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing the Hybrid Cloud OpenNebula drivers for EC2 Amazon EC2 cloud is managed by OpenNebula as any other cluster node. Restart the oned, and check that the new drivers are loaded$ one stop; one start$ more $ONE_LOCATION/var/oned.logFri Jan 15 18:16:46 2010 [VMM][I]: Loading Virtual Machine ManagerdrivFri Jan 15 18:16:46 2010 [VMM][I]: Loading driver: vmm_kvm (KVM)Fri Jan 15 18:16:47 2010 [VMM][I]: Driver vmm_kvm loaded.Fri Jan 15 18:16:47 2010 [VMM][I]: Loading driver: vmm_ec2 (XML)Fri Jan 15 00:16:47 2010 [InM][I]: Loading Information Managerdrivers.Fri Jan 15 00:16:47 2010 [InM][I]: Loading driver: im_kvmFri Jan 15 00:16:47 2010 [InM][I]: Driver im_kvm loadedFri Jan 15 00:16:47 2010 [InM][I]: Loading driver: im_ec2OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud Register the EC2 Cloud Hands on!  Register the EC2 Cloud  Check the information and characteristics of the new host$ onehost create ec2 im_ec2 vmm_ec2 tm_dummy$ onehost list ID NAME RVM TCPU FCPU ACPU TMEM FMEM STAT 0 host01 0 200 200 200 2017004 1667080 on 1 host02 1 200 200 200 2017004 1681676 on 2 ec2 0 500 500 500 8912896 8912896 onOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud Using EC2 zones and multiple accounts You can use several accounts by adding a driver for each account (use the arguments attribute, -k and –c options). Create a host that uses the driverVM_MAD = [ name = "vmm_ec2", executable = "one_vmm_ec2", arguments = "vmm_ec2/vmm_ec2.conf –k /srv/cloud/...", type = "xml" ] You can use multiple EC2 zones, add a driver for each zone (use the arguments attribute, -u option). Create a host that uses the driverVM_MAD = [ name = "vmm_ec2", executable = "one_vmm_ec2", arguments = "vmm_ec2/vmm_ec2.conf –u http://...", type = "xml" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Hybrid Cloud Defining an EC2 Virtual Machine Virtual Machines can be instantiated locally or in EC2  The template must provide a description for both instantiation methods.  The EC2 counterpart of your VM (AMI_ID) must be available for the driver account  The EC2 VM template attribute:EC2 = [ AMI = "ami_id for this VM", KEYPAIR = "the keypair to use the instance", AUTHORIZED_PORTS = "ports to access the instance", INSTANCETYPE = "m1.small...", ELASTICIP = "the elastic ip for this instance", CLOUD = "host (EC2 cloud) to use this description with"]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Hybrid Cloud Example, Use the OpenNebula –Ec2 Hybrid Cloud Hands on!  Add an EC2 counterpart to the ttylinux image$ vi ttylinux.one#EC2 template machine, this will be use if this VM is created in EC2EC2 = [ AMI="ami-ccf405a5", KEYPAIR="keypair", AUTHORIZED_PORTS="22", INSTANCETYPE=m1.small]#Add this if you want to use only EC2 cloudREQUIREMENTS = "HOSTNAME = "ec2""OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Hybrid Cloud Example, Use the OpenNebula –Ec2 Hybrid Cloud Hands on!  Check progress  Check VM information with onevm show and Sunstone$ onevm list ID USER NAME STAT CPU MEM HOSTNAME TIME 5 oneadmin ttylinux runn 0 0K ec2 00 00:00:59$ ec2-describe-instancesRESERVATION r-53599b3f 418314910487 defaultINSTANCE i-a884b7c7 ami-ccf405a5 ec2-50-19-44-30.compute-1.amazonaws.com ip-10-85-65-203.ec2.internal runningkeypair 0 m1.small 2011-05-03T01:14:08+0000us-east-1d aki-407d9529 monitoring-disabled50.19.44.30 10.85.65.203 ebsBLOCKDEVICE /dev/sda1 vol-ed935186 2011-05-03T01:14:31.000ZOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Hybrid Cloud Example, Use the OpenNebula –Ec2 Hybrid Cloud$ onevm show 17...VIRTUAL MACHINE TEMPLATECPU=0.5...EC2=[ AMI=ami-ccf405a5, KEYPAIR=keypair ]IP=ec2-50-19-44-30.compute-1.amazonaws.com...$ ssh -i keypair.pem ubuntu@ec2-50-19-44-30.compute-1.amazonaws.comLinux ip-10-212-134-128 2.6.21.7-2.fc8xen-ec2-v1.0 #2 SMP Tue Sep 110:04:29 EDT 2009 i686…ubuntu@ip-10-85-65-203:~$ exitThis costs money!$ onevm shutdown 17$ onehost disable ec2$ onehost listOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Hybrid Cloud Computing Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Hybrid Cloud Computing • Installing a Hybrid Cloud with EC2 • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud • Using the OpenNebula-EC2 CloudCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Public Cloud Computing Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Public Cloud Computing with OpenNebula • Installing a Public Cloud with EC2 API • Configuring the Public Cloud • Using the Public Cloud (EC2)Copyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Public Cloud Computing with OpenNebula Overview  You can use multiple interfaces for the Cloud  Transparent to your setup:  Hypervisor  Storage Model  Hybrid configuration  Client tools uses EC2 libraries  Potential integration with EC2 tools (EC2_URL problems for example)  Shipped with OpenNebula  Includes a simple S3 replacement Supports HTTP and HTTPS protocols EC2 authentication based on OpenNebula credentials Public Cloud users need an OpenNebula accountOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Installing the Public Cloud Runtime Requirements (front-end) OpenNebula distribution supports two Cloud interfaces: the EC2 Query API and OCCI Additional requirements: EC2 development library, web server and web framework# gem install amazon-ec2 uuid# gem install sequel# apt-get install curl libcurl3 libcurl4-gnutls-dev# gem install curb# gem install sqlite3-rubyAdd a “FQDN” for our Public Cloud# vim /etc/hosts127.0.0.1 localhost#127.0.1.1 pcaulaX193.144.33.y pcaulaX pcaulaX.opennebula.orgOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud Server Options and Instance types The EC2 service is configured in $ONE_LOCATION/etc/econe.conf Hands on!  Study the configuration file and adjust it to your cloud # OpenNebula sever contact information ONE_XMLRPC=http://localhost:2633/RPC2 # Host and port where econe server will run SERVER=pcaulaX.opennebula.org PORT=4567 # SSL proxy that serves the API (set if is being used) #SSL_SERVER=fqdm.of.the.server # VM types allowed and its template file (inside templates directory) VM_TYPE=[NAME=m1.small, TEMPLATE=m1.small.erb]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud Define the Instances You have to define the correspondence between types (simple) and local instantiation of VMs (hard, you should be fine by now)  Capacity allocated by this VM type (CPU, MEMORY)  Your cloud requirements, e.g. force to use a given kernel (OS) or place public VMs in a given set of cluster nodes (REQUIREMENTS)  The network used by Public VMs (NIC) VM Types are defined in econe.conf. Templates for the VM templates are in $ONE_LOCATION/etc/ec2query_templates Templates for VM Types are erb files <% Ruby code here %>, you should not need to modify that.OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud Define the Instances$ more m1.small.erbNAME = eco-vm#Adjust Capacity for this instance typeCPU = 0.1MEMORY = 64DISK = [ IMAGE_ID = <%= erb_vm_info[:img_id] %> ]NIC = [ NETWORK_ID = 0 ]IMAGE_ID = <%= erb_vm_info[:ec2_img_id] %>INSTANCE_TYPE = <%= erb_vm_info[:instance_type ]%><% if erb_vm_info[:user_data] %>CONTEXT = [ EC2_USER_DATA="<%= erb_vm_info[:user_data] %>", TARGET="hdc” ]<% end %>OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud Start the EC2 Server Hands on!  Start the EC2 server  Adjust the m1.small template  Create additional “public” users with oneuser create$ econe-server start$ /usr/sbin/lsof -PiCheck $ONE_LOCATION/var/econe-server.log for errorsOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Public Cloud The econe Toolset  The econe-tools are a subset of the functionality provided by the onevm utility, and resembles the ec2-* cli  EC2 ecosystem can be used (e.g. elasticfox, euca2ools…)  Image related commands are:  econe-upload, place an image in the Cloud repo and returns ID  econe-describe-images, lists the images  econe-register, register an image  Instance related commands are:  econe-run-instances, starts a VM using an image ID  econe-describe-instances, lists the VMs  econe-terminate-instances, shutdowns a VMOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Public Cloud The econe Toolset  User authentication is based in the OpenNebula credentials  AWSAccessKeyId is OpenNebulas username  AWSSecretAccessKey is OpenNebulas password  Pass your credentials to the econe-tools by (in this order)  Command arguments (-K <username>, -S <pass>)  Environment EC2_ACCESS_KEY and EC2_SECRET_KEY  Environment ONE_AUTH  Point econe-tools to your target cloud  Command arguments (-U <http|https>://<fqdn>:<port>) port needed if not the default for the protocol  EC2_URL environmentOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Public Cloud Example, Running a VM through the EC2 Interface  Hands on!  Check the images in your cloud and start using it  Compare the econe-* (public view) and one* and sunstone (local view) evolution and information  Check the template build by the econe server (onevm show)  Upload the ttylinux image again and instance itOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Using the Public Cloud Example, Running a VM through the EC2 Interface$ econe-upload -U http://node-x.opennebula.org:4567 --access-key ec2-user --secret-key ec2-pass /srv/cloud/images/ttylinux/ttylinux.imgSuccess: ImageId ami-00000003$ export EC2_URL=http://pcaulax.opennebula.org:4568$ export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=ec2-user$ export EC2_SECRET_KEY=ec2-pass$ econe-describe-images -HOwner ImageId Status Visibility Location-----------------------------------------------------------------------ec2-user ami-00000003 available private 23151fac850e5...This is the local view not accessible to public cloud users$ oneimage listID NAME TYPE REGTIME PUB PER STAT #VMS...3 ec2-user ec2-71654e30-0872-01 OS Jan 22, 2011 No No rdy 0$ oneimage show 3OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud Register the EC2 Cloud$ econe-run-instances ami-00000003ec2-user ami-00000004 i-16 m1.small$ econe-describe-instances -HOwner Id ImageId State IP Type------------------------------------------------------------------------------ec2-user i-10 ami-00000003 running 172.16.10.7 m1.smallThis is the local view not accessible to public cloud users$ onevm list ID USER NAME STAT CPU MEM HOSTNAME TIME 1 oneuser ttylinux runn 99 63.5M n04 01 02:41:14 10 ec2-user eco-vm runn 99 63.8M n04 00 01:05:28$ onevm show 14VIRTUAL MACHINE 14 INFORMATIONID : 14NAME : eco-vmSTATE : ACTIVE...OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud SSL Security to access the EC2 Server  SSL security is handle by a proxy that forwards the request to the EC2 Query Service and takes back the answer to the client  Requirements:  A server certificate for the SSL connections  An HTTP proxy that understands SSL  EC2Query Service configuration to accept petitions from the proxyOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud SSL Security to access the EC2 Server  Hands on!  Install the proxy (lighttpd in our course)  Generate the server certificates for your cloud  Configure the proxy  Restart the services and test the new SSL enabled Cloud (https://pcaulaX.cesga.es:443)# apt-get install lighttpd# apt-get install ssl-cert# /usr/sbin/make-ssl-cert generate-default-snakeoil# cat /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem > /etc/lighttpd/server.pemOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud SSL Security to access the EC2 Server# vim /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.confserver.modules = (... "mod_compress", "mod_proxy"...## bind to port (default: 80)server.port = 443...#### proxy moduleproxy.server = ( "" => ("" => ( "host" => "127.0.0.1", "port" => 4567 ) ) )#### SSL enginessl.engine = "enable"ssl.pemfile = "/etc/lighttpd/server.pem"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Public Cloud SSL Security to access the EC2 Server$ vim /srv/cloud/one/etc/econe.conf#SERVER=node-15.opennebula.orgSERVER = 127.0.0.1PORT=4568# SSL proxy that serves the API (set if is being used)SSL_SERVER = pcaulaX.opennebula.org$ econe-server stop$ econe-server start# service lighttpd restart$ econe-describe-instances -K oneadmin -S onecloud -Uhttps://pcaula7.cesga.es:443oneadmin i-6 0 running192.168.169.1 m1.smallOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Public Cloud Computing Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Public Cloud Computing with OpenNebula • Installing a Public Cloud with EC2 API • Configuring the Public Cloud • Using the Public Cloud (EC2)Copyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Customizing your Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Adapting & Customizing OpenNebula • The Storage Subsystem • The Information Subsystem • Using Hooks • Fault Tolerance • Network Isolation • More CustomizationCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Customizing & Extending OpenNebula Overview  You can customize your cloud by:  Tunning or adapting the transfer operations to your storage back- end  Adding new monitorization probes to improve the VM placement  Adjusting VM operations to your hypervisor installation  Trigger custom actions on specific VM events (e.g. “on VM creation update the accounting DB” or “on VM shutdown send an email”)  You can extend your cloud by:  Developing new drivers for other hypervisors  Developing new drivers for other storage back-ends  Developing Cloud applications using the OpenNebula API or the Cloud APIs OpenNebula is very scripting friendly, drivers can be written in any language. You can modify thecurrent ones or use them as templates for new ones.OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Storage Backend Overview OpenNebula issue generic storage operations (check var/<vm_id>/transfer.*) Transfer Driver process the core script Action programs interpret the semantics of generic actions depending on the storage back.-end Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)OpenNebula.org
    • The Storage Backend Transfer Manager Operations  OpenNebula requests the following abstract operations over a VM image  CLONE: This action will basically make a copy of the image from ORIGIN to DESTINATION.  LN: Creates a symbolic link in DESTINATION that points to ORIGIN  MKSWAP: Generates a swap image in DESTINATION. The size is given in ORIGIN in MB.  MKIMAGE: Creates a disk image in DESTINATION and populates it with the files inside ORIGIN directory.  DELETE: Deletes ORIGIN file or directory.  MV: Moves ORIGIN to DESTINATION.OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Storage Backend The Transfer Manager Action Scripts  Actions are defined in $ONE_LOCATION/etc/tm_<storage>/tm_<storage>.conf$ more /srv/cloud/one/etc/tm_ssh/tm_ssh.confCLONE = ssh/tm_clone.shLN = ssh/tm_ln.shMKSWAP = ssh/tm_mkswap.shMKIMAGE = ssh/tm_mkimage.shDELETE = ssh/tm_delete.shMV = ssh/tm_mv.sh  Actions scripts are placed in $ONE_LOCATION/lib/tm_commands/<storage>/$ ls /srv/cloud/one/lib/tm_commands/ssh/tm_clone.sh tm_delete.sh tm_mkimage.sh tm_mv.shtm_context.sh tm_ln.sh tm_mkswap.shOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Storage Backend Example, Customize your storage  Hands on!  Study the tm_clone.sh script  Check the semantics of Storage operations for the ssh backend  Delete and create a host using ssh backend  Example 1: Make swap partitions in local storage  Take a look to tm_mkswap from ssh  Link the swap partition to original DST path  Example 2: Make the clone script aware of compressed images (*.gz)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Storage Backend Example, Customize your storage $ cat $ONE_LOCATION/lib/tm_commands/ssh/tm_clone.sh . $TMCOMMON ... log "Creating directory $DST_DIR" exec_and_log "ssh $DST_HOST mkdir -p $DST_DIR" ... case $SRC in http://*) log "Downloading $SRC" exec_and_log "ssh $DST_HOST wget -O $DST_PATH $SRC" ;; *) log "Cloning $SRC" exec_and_log "scp $SRC $DST" ;; esac exec_and_log "ssh $DST_HOST chmod a+w $DST_PATH"OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Information System Overview  OpenNebula gets host information by executing an arbitrary number of probes:  Program that returns a monitor metric (METRIC_NAME = VALUE)  Placed in $ONE_LOCATION/var/remotes/im/<hypervisor>.d  Monitor probes can be executed:  Remotely using the one_im_ssh driver  Locally to integrate it with an external monitor system (Ganglia, Nagios…)  Remote probes are cached at the cluster nodes and sync with onehost sync command (next time the host is monitored)  Probe information is mainly used for VM placementOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • The Information System Example, customize the Monitor Information  Hands on!  Study & execute (run_probes kvm) the probes for kvm at $ONE_LOCATION/var/remotes/im/kvm.d  Create a new monitor probe:  Compute the number of running VMS (e.g. MY_RVMS), use virsh list, pgrep kvm…  Sync the cluster nodes  Use the new metric for VM placementOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hooks Overview  Hooks are custom programs executed:  Locally (front-end) or remotely (target host)  Upon VM related events or Host related events  OpenNebula includes:  Fault Tolerance Hooks, to restart VMs when a host crashes or restart VMs when it fails  Network Isolation Hooks, to setup VLANs  Hooks are defined in oned.conf  Name, of the hook  command, to be executed  arguments  on, event that triggers the hook  remoteOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hooks: Fault Tolerance Configuring Fault Tolerance Hooks  Host Hook (on ERROR)  resubmit (-r) or delete (-d) VMs in the host  Including suspended (y) VMs or not (n)HOST_HOOK = [ name = "error", on = "ERROR", command = "host_error.rb", arguments = "$HID -r n", remote = no ]  VM Hook (on FAILURE)VM_HOOK = [ name = "on_failure_resubmit", on = "FAILURE", command = "onevm resubmit", arguments = "$VMID" ]OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Hooks: Network Isolation Overview  IN: Only Ethernet frames from a MAC in Red LAN  OUT: Only Ethernet frames from the MAC assigned by OpenNebula  Networks are isolated at layer 2  You can put any TCP/IP service as part of the VMs (e.g. DHCP, nagios...)OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud Register the EC2 Cloud  Requirements (this has to be done in all the cluster nodes)  Check that ebtables package is installed  Allow oneadmin to use the ebtables command through sudo#visudo...oneadmin ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /sbin/ebtables *...  Configure the hooks for OpenNebulaVM_HOOK = [ name = "ebtables-start", on = "running", command = "/srv/cloud/one/share/hooks/ebtables-kvm", arguments = "one-$VMID", remote = "yes" ]VM_HOOK = [ name = "ebtables-flush",…OpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Configuring the Hybrid Cloud Register the EC2 Cloud  Apply patch for OpenNebula 2.2 bug in share/hooks/ebtables- kvm80 if interfaces.values.flatten.include? tap  Hands on!  Start a couple of VMs in Networks Red and Blue.  Check the ebtables rules in the hosts  Check connectivity between VMs  Change the network mask of the VMs and check connectivity  Shutdown and check the ebtables rulesOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • More Customization Other Components that can be adapted  Authorization & Authentication, can be performed with external drivers  ssh-keys based authentication  ldap based authentication  DB Backend, use MySQL for more performing setups  Use Ganglia, for better scalability  Develop your own components/applications (PaaS,SaaS)  XML-RPC interface  OCA (Ruby, JAVA and Python – contributed - bindings)  EC2 or OCCI APIsOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Customizing your Cloud Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid • Adapting & Customizing OpenNebula • The Storage Subsystem • The Information Subsystem • Using Hooks • Fault Tolerance • Network Isolation • More CustomizationCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Centro de Supercomputación de Galicia May 2011, Spain Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Ruben S.Montero dsa-research.org | OpenNebula.org Distributed Systems Architecture Research Group Universidad Complutense de MadridCopyright 2002-2011 © OpenNebula Project Leads (OpenNebula.org). All Rights Reserved. Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)
    • Building Clouds with OpenNebula 2.2 Summary, You should by able by now to …. • Describe the benefits and characteristics of virtual infrastructures and IaaS clouds • Describe the characteristics and architecture of the different clouds that can be deployed with OpenNebula 2.2 • Plan and architect a private cloud • Design, Use and Manage Virtual infrastructures (cloud applications) • Build public and hybrid clouds • Adapt OpenNebula 2.2 to your datacenterOpenNebula.org Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)