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GEOG101 Chapter 7 Lecture
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GEOG101 Chapter 7 Lecture



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  • 1. Overview
    • Components of Culture
    • Interaction of People and Environment
    • Subsystems of Culture
    • Culture Change
    • Cultural Diversity
    • Language
    • Religion
    • Ethnicity
    • Gender and Culture
    • Other Aspects of Diversity
  • 2. Components of Culture
    • Culture is learned, not biological
      • Through imitation, instruction, example
    • Culture is not homogenous
    • Culture trait
      • Single distinguishing feature of a culture
    • Culture complex
      • Group of culture traits that are functionally interrelated
  • 3. Components of Culture
    • Culture system
      • Shared, identifying traits uniting two or more culture complexes
    • Culture region
      • Portion of the earth’s surface in which common cultural characteristics prevail
    • Culture realm
      • Collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems
  • 4. Interaction of People and Environment
    • Cultural ecology
      • Study of the relationship between a culture group and the natural environment it occupies
    • Environments as controls
      • Environmental determinism
        • The physical environment molds human behavior and conditions cultural development
      • Possibilism
        • People, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development
          • Physical environment offers a set of opportunities and limitations
  • 5. Interaction of People and Environment
    • Human Impacts
      • Cultural landscape
        • The earth’s surface as modified by human action
      • Relationship between technological advancement and impact on the environment
  • 6. Subsystems of Culture
    • Technological subsystem
      • Material objects and techniques people use to carry out their productive activities
      • Technologically advanced countries
        • Many people employed in manufacturing or services
        • High per capita incomes, levels of education and nutrition, life expectancies, medical services
        • Economic and political power
      • Technologically less-advanced countries
        • High percentage of people engaged in farming
        • Lower GNI and per capita incomes, life expectancies, literacy rates
  • 7. Subsystems of Culture
    • Sociological subsystem
      • Common patterns of interpersonal relations
        • Define the social organizations of a culture
      • Social institutions are closely related to the technological subsystem
    • Ideological subsystem
      • Ideas, beliefs, knowledge and means of their communication
    • Cultural integration
      • Interconnectedness of all aspects of culture
  • 8. Culture Change
    • Cultures are always in a state of flux
    • Three types of change
      • Innovation
      • Spatial diffusion
      • Acculturation
  • 9. Innovation
    • Comes from within the social group
    • Premodern societies typically are not innovative or receptive to change
    • Agricultural Revolution
      • Occurred independently in several areas
      • Affected every aspect of society
    • Culture hearth
      • Area of innovation from which key culture elements diffused
    • Innovation is common in modern societies
  • 10. Spatial Diffusion
    • Outward spread of a phenomenon from its point of origin to other areas
      • People move to a new area and take culture with them
      • Information about an innovation spreads
    • Receiver culture may selectively adopt some goods or ideas and reject others
    • Syncretism is a major feature of culture change
      • Fusion of old and new culture elements
  • 11. Acculturation
    • Culture group or individual undergoes major modification by adopting many characteristics of another, usually dominant, culture group
      • May occur in a conquered or colonized region
      • Population relocations
    • Amalgamation theory
      • Multiethnic societies become a merger of the culture traits of their member groups
    • Assimilation
      • Merging into a composite culture and becoming culturally homogenized
  • 12. Cultural Diversity
    • Prominent differentiating culture traits of societies and regions
      • Language
      • Religion
      • Ethnicity
      • Gender
  • 13. Language
    • Most important medium by which culture is transmitted
    • 6000-7000 languages spoken in the world
      • Many languages are disappearing
    • Language family
      • Group of languages thought to have descended from a common ancestral tongue
      • E.g., Indo-European languages
        • Spoken by about ½ the world’s peoples
  • 14. Language Spread and Change
    • Language spreads through dispersion of speakers or acquisition of speakers
    • Evolution and spread of English
      • ≈ 400 million native speakers ≈ 600 million use it as a second language
      • Official language of 60 countries
  • 15. Standard and Variant Languages
    • Standard language
      • Represents norms of syntax, vocabulary, pronunciation
    • Dialect
      • Regional or socioeconomic variation of a language
    • Pidgin
      • Auxiliary language derived from other languages
        • Simplified grammatical structure and reduced vocabulary
    • Creole
      • Native tongue developed from a pidgin
    • Lingua franca
      • Used by people whose native tongues are incomprehensible
  • 16. Language and Culture
    • Gender differences
    • A common language fosters unity
    • Bilingualism or multilingualism complicates national linguistic structure
    • Toponyms
      • Place names
        • Record of past and present cultures
  • 17. Religion
    • Value system that involves formal or informal worship and faith in the sacred and divine
      • Joins adherents into a moral community
    • May affect all facets of a culture
  • 18. Classification of Religions
    • Universalizing religions
      • Claim applicability to all and seek conversion
        • Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
    • Ethnic religions
      • Identified with a particular ethnic group
        • Judaism, Hinduism, Shinto
    • Tribal (traditional) religions
      • Ethnic religions specific to small, preindustrial cultures having close ties to nature
    • Secularism
      • An increasing part of many modern societies
  • 19. Principal Religions
    • Judaism
      • Monotheism laid foundation for Christianity and Islam
      • Emerged 3000-3500 years ago in the Near East
      • Descent from Israel, the Torah, Jewish traditions
      • Diaspora
      • State of Israel was a fulfillment of Zionism
    • Christianity
      • Jesus believed to be the messiah
      • Division of Western Church and Eastern Church
      • Protestant Reformation
      • Catholic vs. Protestant cultural landscape
  • 20. Principal Religions
    • Islam
      • Mohammed revered as the prophet of Allah (God)
      • Observance of “five pillars” and surrender to Allah
      • Spread quickly outward from source region of Arabia
      • Division between Sunnis and Shi’ites
    • Hinduism
      • Oldest major religion
        • No founding event or initial prophet
      • A Hindu is one born into a caste
        • Member of a complex social, economic, religious community
        • Expression of the eternal transmigration of souls
  • 21. Principal Religions
    • Buddhism
      • Founded 6 th century B.C. in northern India
      • Moral philosophy taught by Siddhartha Gautama
      • Enlightenment and salvation lie in “four noble truths”
      • Spread to other parts of Asia
        • Various schools of thought
        • Amalgamated with other belief systems
    • East Asian ethnic religions
      • Confucianism
      • Taoism
      • Japanese Shinto
  • 22. Ethnicity
    • Usually refers to the ancestry of people who share some common characteristic
      • Language, religion, national origin, unique customs
    • Ethnocentrism
      • Feeling that one’s own ethnic group is superior
    • Territorial segregation
      • Strong and sustaining trait of ethnic identity
  • 23. Gender and Culture
    • Socially created distinctions between femininity and masculinity
    • Gender relationships and role assignments differ among societies
      • Influenced by economic development, religion, customs
        • General egalitarianism in hunting and gathering cultures
        • Agriculture altered the structure of gender roles
        • Subordinate role of women changed only in the later 20 th century in more-developed countries
    • Mixed impact of economic globalization
  • 24. Other Aspects of Diversity
    • Culture is the sum total of the way of life of a society
    • Many other elements of culture, including:
      • Architectural styles
      • Music
      • Food
      • Games