Overview <ul><li>Maps as the Tools of Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Locating Points on a Sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Map Projec...
Maps as the Tools of Geography <ul><li>Maps are the primary tools of spatial analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cartography </li><...
The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Set of imaginary lines that intersect at right angles to form a system of reference for locati...
The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Prime meridian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting point for east-west measurement </li></ul></ul><...
The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Time depends on longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwich mean time (GMT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ti...
Land Survey Systems <ul><li>Long-lot system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, narrow rectangles of land partitioned by early Fre...
Map Projections <ul><li>Earth can be represented with reasonable accuracy only on a globe </li></ul><ul><li>Globe properti...
Map Projections <ul><li>Map projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of representing the curved surface of the globe on a f...
Types of Map Projections <ul><li>Equal-area (equivalent) projections  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas are in correct proportio...
Types of Map Projections <ul><li>Equidistant projections  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distances are true in all directions from ...
Scale <ul><li>Ratio between the measurement of something on a map and the corresponding measurement on the earth </li></ul...
Scale <ul><li>Can range from very large to very small </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale maps  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of m...
Types of Maps <ul><li>General-purpose (reference) maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display one or more natural and/or cultural f...
Topographic Maps and Terrain Representation <ul><li>Topographic maps are general-purpose maps  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depic...
Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Qualitative maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the distribution of a particular...
Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Area symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different colors or patterns represent fe...
Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Line symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various symbols represent features that h...
Map Misuse <ul><li>Message conveyed by a map reflects the intent and, perhaps, biases of its author </li></ul><ul><li>Tech...
Remote Sensing <ul><li>Obtaining images of an area from a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial photography </li></ul><ul><ul>...
The Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>Network of satellites orbiting the earth that continuously transmit positions ...
Virtual and Interactive Maps <ul><li>Maps are widely available on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Google Earth </li></ul><u...
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Computer-based set of procedures for assembling, storing, manipulating, analy...
Applications of GIS <ul><li>Various fields for a variety of purposes, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists and ecol...
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GEOG101 Chapter 2 Lecture

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GEOG101 Chapter 2 Lecture

  1. 1. Overview <ul><li>Maps as the Tools of Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Locating Points on a Sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Map Projections </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Information Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Technology: Geographic Information Systems </li></ul>
  2. 2. Maps as the Tools of Geography <ul><li>Maps are the primary tools of spatial analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cartography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The art, science and technology of making maps </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Set of imaginary lines that intersect at right angles to form a system of reference for locating points on the surface of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Key reference points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North and South Poles, equator, prime meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angular distance north or south of the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements ranging from 0 ° (equator) to 90° (poles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines (parallels) are parallel and run east-west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance between each degree ≈ 69 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be subdivided into minutes and seconds </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Prime meridian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting point for east-west measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through Greenwich, England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angular distance east or west of the prime meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements ranging from 0 ° (prime meridian) to 18 0 ° </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines (meridians) are farthest apart at the equator and converge at the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be subdivided into minutes and seconds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Geographic Grid <ul><li>Time depends on longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwich mean time (GMT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time at the prime meridian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Date Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where each new day begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally follows the 180 th meridian </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Land Survey Systems <ul><li>Long-lot system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, narrow rectangles of land partitioned by early French settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metes and bounds system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used physical features, along with directions and distances, to define and describe parcel boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Township and range system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East-west base lines and north-south meridians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Township consisted of 36 mi 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further divided into 36 sections of 1 mi 2 (640 acres) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivided into quarter-sections of 160 acres </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Map Projections <ul><li>Earth can be represented with reasonable accuracy only on a globe </li></ul><ul><li>Globe properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All meridians are equal in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All meridians converge at the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallels decrease in length as one nears the poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scale on the surface of the globe is the same everywhere in all directions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Map Projections <ul><li>Map projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of representing the curved surface of the globe on a flat map </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All flat maps distort some or all of the four main properties of actual earth surface relationships: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Map Projections <ul><li>Equal-area (equivalent) projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas are in correct proportion to earth reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape is distorted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformal projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapes of small areas are accurately portrayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No projection can provide correct shapes for large areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area is distorted </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Map Projections <ul><li>Equidistant projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distances are true in all directions from one or two central points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distances between all other locations are incorrect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A map cannot be both equidistant and equal-area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Azimuthal projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions are true from one central point to all others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directions from other points are not accurate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Robinson projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise between equal-area and conformal </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Scale <ul><li>Ratio between the measurement of something on a map and the corresponding measurement on the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Represented in three ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative fraction </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Scale <ul><li>Can range from very large to very small </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of map to ground distance is relatively large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable detail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small-scale maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of map to ground distance is smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less detail; generalized </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Maps <ul><li>General-purpose (reference) maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display one or more natural and/or cultural features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thematic (special purpose) maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show a specific spatial distribution or category of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and/or cultural phenomena </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Topographic Maps and Terrain Representation <ul><li>Topographic maps are general-purpose maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depict the shape and elevation of terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and human features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USGS topographic map series </li></ul><ul><li>Depicting relief (variation in elevation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot heights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All points along line are of equal elevation above a datum plane, usually mean sea level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contour interval is the vertical spacing between contour lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaded relief </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Qualitative maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the distribution of a particular class of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the spatial characteristics of numerical data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various symbols represent features that occur at a particular point in space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each dot represents a given quantity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated symbol maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of symbol varies according to quantities represented </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Area symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different colors or patterns represent features found within defined areas of the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choropleth maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data are grouped into classes, each represented by a distinctive color, shade, or pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area cartograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of units are drawn proportional to the data they represent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Thematic Maps and Data Representation <ul><li>Line symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various symbols represent features that have length but insignificant width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoline maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of constant value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow-line maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portray linear movement between places </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Map Misuse <ul><li>Message conveyed by a map reflects the intent and, perhaps, biases of its author </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for making misleading maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of a scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple design that omits data or features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors with a strong psychological impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bold, oversized, and/or misleading symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective omission of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate projection </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Remote Sensing <ul><li>Obtaining images of an area from a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard photographic film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>False-color images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonphotographic imagery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lidar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landsat satellites </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>Network of satellites orbiting the earth that continuously transmit positions and time signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPS receivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record positions of multiple satellites simultaneously to determine latitude, longitude, altitude, time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous applications, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision-guided weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental assessment </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Virtual and Interactive Maps <ul><li>Maps are widely available on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Google Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines aerial photos, satellite images, and maps with street, terrain, and other data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mashups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital maps merged with data from other sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive mapping </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Computer-based set of procedures for assembling, storing, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced data </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital record of geographic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maps, surveys, aerial photos, satellite images, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of study determines data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Map generation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Applications of GIS <ul><li>Various fields for a variety of purposes, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists and ecologists: studying environmental problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiologists: studying diffusion of diseases and entomological risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political scientists: evaluating legislative districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociologists: examining patterns of segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private sector companies: site selection, analyzing sales territories, calculating optimal driving routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government: transportation planning, analyzing patterns of crime, responding to disasters </li></ul></ul>

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