Writing, publishing article & plagrism


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Writing, publishing article & plagrism

  1. 1. Writing and Publishing Article & Plagiarism Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 1
  2. 2. “There is no way to get experience except through experience.” Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 2
  3. 3. Few Questions? 1. How many of you have known about Plagiarism earlier? 2. How many of you have published Research article in Any Indexed journals? 3. How Many of you have published Research articles in Nursing and Other Journals of Nepal? 4. How many of you have published any health related article in any journals? 5. How many of you have B&W CV ready? 6. So How contribute to Professor? 7. Visit: www.slideshare.net/rsmehta Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 3
  4. 4. Why write and publish research papers? Ideally – to share research findings and discoveries with the hope of improving healthcare. Practically – to get funding to get promoted to get a job to keep your job! Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 4
  5. 5. “Scientists are rated by what they finish, not by what they attempt” Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 5
  6. 6. Getting a paper published  Competition for space in journals  Rejection rates vary  AJP = 50%  JBC = 65%  NEJM, Science, Nature = 90% Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 6
  7. 7. Major reasons for rejection  Confirmatory (not novel article)  Poor experimental design - Poor controls - Hypothesis not adequately tested  Inappropriate for journal  Poorly written Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 7
  8. 8. Tips 1. Know the journal, its editors, and why you submitted the paper there 2. Pay close attention to spelling, grammar, and punctuation 3. Make sure references are comprehensive and accurate 4. Avoid careless mistakes 5. Read and conformRtoMehta, MSND, BPKIHS for Authors” Dr. S “Instructions 8
  9. 9. Publish or perish Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 9
  10. 10. Publish and perish “The Seven Deadly Sins” 1. Data manipulation, falsification 2. Duplicate manuscripts 3. Redundant publication (unnecessary/useless) 4. Plagiarism 5. Author conflicts of interest 6. Animal use concerns 7. Humans use concerns Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 10
  11. 11. What makes a good research paper?  Good science  Good writing  Publication in good journals Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 11
  12. 12. What constitutes good science? Novel – new and not resembling something formerly known or used (can be novel but not important) Mechanistic – testing a hypothesis - determining the fundamental processes involved in or responsible for an action, reaction, or other natural phenomenon Descriptive – describes how are things are but does not test how things work – hypotheses are not tested. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 12
  13. 13. What constitutes a good journal? Impact factor – average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication. Immediacy Index – average number of times published papers are cited during year of publication. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 13
  14. 14. Journal Citation Report, 2003 Journal Nature Science Impact Factor Immediacy Index 30.979 06.679 AM J MATH 0002-9327 002353 00.962 00.122 29.162 05.589 Hypertens AJ P Heart Physiol Rev 05.630 03.658 36.831 00.838 00.675 03.727 Am J Math Ann Math 00.962 01.505 00.122 00.564 Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 5907 journals14
  15. 15. Things to consider before writing 1. Time to write the paper? - has a significant advancement been made? - is the hypothesis straightforward? - did the experiments test the hypothesis? - are the controls appropriate and sufficient? - can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes? - can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences? “Those who have the most to say usually say it with the fewest words” Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 15
  16. 16. Things to consider before writing 2. Tables and figures - must be clear and concise - should be self-explanatory 3. Read references - will help in choosing journal - better insight into possible reviewers Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 16
  17. 17. Things to consider before writing 4. Choose journal - study “instructions to authors” - think about possible reviewers - quality of journal “impact factor” 5. Tentative title and summary 6. Choose authors Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 17
  18. 18. Authorship Guidelines on authorshop, International committee of Medical Journal Editors, Reprinted by kind permission of the Editor of the British Medical Journal of Sept 14, 1985. J Clin Pathol 39: 110, 1986 Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS Dr. R S 18
  19. 19. Writing the manuscript The hardest part is getting started. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 19
  20. 20. Parts of a manuscript Title Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 20
  21. 21. Write in what order? Title Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 21
  22. 22. Methods and materials  Best to begin writing when experiments still in progress.  Should be detailed enough so results can be repeated by others.  Reference published methods where appropriate.  Include animal/human use approval information.  Use descriptive subheadings  Animals  Surgical procedures  Histochemistry Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 22
  23. 23. Results  Tables and figures must be straight forward and concise  Present main findings referring to tables/figures.  Do not speculate or over discuss results. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 23
  24. 24. Introduction  Build case for why study is important/ necessary  Provide brief background  State hypothesis / central question  Give a one sentence summary of findings Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 24
  25. 25. Discussion  First answer question posed in introduction  Relate your conclusion to existing knowledge  Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies  Explain what is new without exaggerating  Do not repeat results  Conclusion  Implications Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 25
  26. 26. References  Relevant and recent  Be highly selective  Read the references  Do not misquote  Use correct style for journal Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 26
  27. 27. Abstract  Critical part of paper  State main objective  Summarize most important results  State major conclusions and significance  Avoid acronyms  Write and rewrite until flawless •Descriptive/unstructured or informative or structured. •Word limit: 100-400, average 250 •Headings: - Background/Objective - Methodology - Results Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS - Conclusion 27
  28. 28. Title  Will determine whether paper gets read  Avoid long title (see journal rules)  Avoid abbreviations Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 28
  29. 29. Words and expressions to avoid Jargon a considerable amount of on account of a number of Referred to as In a number of cases Has the capacity to It is clear that It is apparent that Employ Fabricate Preferred use much because several called some can clearly apparently use make Day, RA. “How to write and publish a scientific 29 paper,” 5th edition, Oryx Press, 1998. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  30. 30. Revise, revise and revise  All authors should participate  Review order of data presentation  Polish the writing style  Double check references  Double check spelling Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 30
  31. 31. Develop a good writing style Read well written articles Try to get good writers to review Learn from editing changes Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 31
  32. 32. Report Writing: Review • • • • • One idea per sentences only Not more than 20 words per sentences Not more than 5 sentences per paragraph Not more than 3 paragraph per heading Do not use that or which more than one per sentences • Check spelling and grammar • Acknowledge: original source
  33. 33. RULES FOR MAKING A TABLE 1. Should be self explanatory 2. Should always have table number & title 3. Names of the variables (units) must be mentioned 4. Choice of row and column 5. Number should always add to the group total
  34. 34. RULES FOR MAKING A TABLE (contd.) • • • • • Percentages should be rounded to make total 100.0 Number of digits after the decimal place(output) Table and text could co-exist on the same page For binary variable, one category and the total can be given For quantitative variable, specify (mean, SD, median, range, etc.)
  35. 35. RULES FOR MAKING A DIAGRAM 1. 2. 3. 4. As simple as possible and self-explanatory Mostly to show important points Table followed by a diagram, not advisable Must specify: names of variables, units, legends 5. Like tables, graph and text can be on the same page 6. Golden rule is that it should speak by itself
  36. 36. Submission 1. Read instructions carefully 2. Fill out all necessary forms Copyright transfer Conflict of interest 3. Write cover letter (suggest reviewers) 4. Confirm receipt after 6 weeks Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 36
  37. 37. Process of Research Publication Completion of research Preparation of manuscript Submission of manuscript Assignment and review Decision Rejection Revision Resubmission Re-review Acceptance Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS Publication Rejection 37
  38. 38. Responding to reviewers 1. Carefully prepare your responses Each comment should be addressed Each change should be stated Be enthusiastic 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Reviewer may be wrong Be tactful – thank the reviewers Do not respond to reviewers while upset Never call the editor Get help from other authors Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 38
  39. 39. Important Resource  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors website www.icmje.org ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’ Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 39
  40. 40. Remember: Every paper will get published somewhere! Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 40
  41. 41. Plagiarism: Catching the Cheats Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 41
  42. 42. •Deliberate plagiarism is cheating. •Deliberate plagiarism is copying the work of others and turning it as your own. •Whether you copy from a published essay, an encyclopedia article, or a paper from a fraternity's files, you are plagiarizing. •If you do so, you run a terrible risk. You could be punished, suspended, or even expelled. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 42
  43. 43. •The verbatim copying of others work without acknowledgement. • The close paraphrasing of others work by simply changing a few words of altering the order of presentation. • The unacknowledged quotation of phrases. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 43
  44. 44. Catching the Cheats Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 44
  45. 45. Turnitin Programme: The turnitin software programme is widely available for originality checking and submitting the online assignments of the student to their concerned teachers. This programme has the facilities of assignment submission on online, originality checking, peer marking, grading the assignments, marking the assignment and feedback the students. This programme requires individual user account and passwords. Now a day in western universities it is commonly used and in India it’s use is rapidly increasing. The detail of the programme and online audiovisual demonstration is available atMSND, BPKIHS Dr. R S Mehta, www.turnitin.com 45
  46. 46. iThenticate Programme: This programme iThenticate has the facilities of Plagiarism or Duplication prevention, IP Protection, and Doc-to-Doc Comparison. iThenticate offers the ultimate in context verification technology, whether ensuring contents integrity, discouraging, misappropriation of property content or performing textual comparison between documents Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 46
  47. 47. Cross-Check received the Association for Learned and Professional Society Publishers Award for Publishing Innovation in 2008. The details of the programme iThenticate along with audiovisual demonstration is available at www.lithenticate.com Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 47
  48. 48. Thank You Dr. RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 48