Theoretical & conceptual framework

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Theoretical & conceptual framework

  1. 1. Theoretical & Conceptual Frame-work -Theoretical Frame-work -Conceptual Frame-work
  2. 2. Theory Theories are constructed in order to explain, predict and master phenomena (e.g. relationships, events, or the behavior). In many instances we are constructing models of reality. A theory makes generalizations about observations and consists of an interrelated, coherent set of ideas and models.
  3. 3. A theoretical framework is analogous to the frame of the house. Just as the foundation supports a house, a theoretical framework provides a rationale for predictions about the relationships among variables of a research study Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  4. 4. Theoretical Framework What is the central concept(s) integral to the study? Connecting the study to theory: basic research Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  5. 5. 5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Theoretical Framework  Identify the variables investigated in the study.  Illustrate how the variables interact with each other as hypothesised in the research by the aid of diagram/s (if possible). Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  6. 6. Theory  Provides patterns for the interpretation of data  Links one study to another  Supplies frameworks within which concepts and variables acquire special significance  Allows us to interpret the larger meaning of our findings for ourselves and others Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  7. 7. The Conceptual Framework … provides direction for  programs  courses  teaching  candidate performance  scholarship  service  unit accountability Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  8. 8. Fishbone Diagram To find out problem of study: Problem Statement Policies Materials People Process Technology Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  9. 9. The Conceptual Framework … is  knowledge-based  articulated  shared  coherent  consistent with the unit and/or institutional mission  continuously evaluated Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  10. 10. What is a conceptual framework?  A written or visual presentation that: – “explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied – the key factors, concepts or variables - – and the presumed relationship among them”. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  11. 11. What specific forms might a conceptual framework take?  The possibilities include: – Flow charts. – Tree diagrams. – Shape based diagrams – triangles, concentric circles, overlapping circles. – Mind maps. – Software systems. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  12. 12. A ‘flow chart’ of innovation decision making PRIOR CONDITIONS 1. Previous practice 2. Felt needs/problems 3. Innovativeness 4. Norms of the social system COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 1. KNOWLEDGE 2. PERSUASION 4. IMPLEMENTATION3. DECISION 1. Adoption 2. Rejection Confirmed Adoption Later Adoption Discontinuance Continued Rejection Perceived characteristics of innovation 1. Relative advantage 2. Compatibility 3. Complexity 4. Trialability 5. Observability Observations of the decision making unit 1. Socio-economic characteristics 2. Personality variables 3. Communication behaviour 5. CONFIRMATION Rogers 2003 Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  13. 13. A ‘tree chart’ of changing consumer behaviour C u s to m e rs C h a n g i n g c u s to m e rs E x p e rie n c e V a lu e s L i fe s ty le s D e m o g ra p h ic s P ro d u c t e x p e c ta ti o n s Q u a l ity P ric e P u rc h a s in g In fo rm a tio n P h y s ic a l S e rv ic e E a s e F le x i b ility R a n g e In d i v id u a lity H e a lth A g e c o m p o s iti o n S e c u rity L o s s o f lo y a lty V a lu e Im a g e P rio ritie s E x p e c ta tio n s K n o w le d g e A c c e s s C u rre n c y V a rie ty Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  14. 14. A ‘triangle’ of needs Self-actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Maslow 1954 Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  15. 15. A mind map of cruise travel and impacts T r a v e l T yp e s o f t o u r is t s / t r a v e lle r s T yp e s o f t o u r is m Ar e c r u is e r s t o u r is t s o r n o t ? S O C IAL C O N T IN G E N C Y T H E O R Y W h o g e t s t o g o ? H e g e m o n y c la s s In d iv id u a l n o t p a r t o f m a s s P O S T S T R U C T U R AL IS M F o u c a u lt - f r e e d o m a n d c o n t r o l K n o w le d g e - p o w e r s P O S T M O D E R N IS M B a u d s ila r d - H yp e s r e a lit y G o f f m a n - f r o n t s t a g e / B a c k s t a g e a u t h e n t ic it y Culture/ places People Environment C r u is e r im p a c t s Ad v a n t a g e s D is a d v a n t a g e s W h y n o t m a s s t o u r is m W h a t t yp e o f im p a c t a n d w h a t t yp e o f t o u r is t ? Jennings 2001 Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  16. 16. The Use of a Theoretical Framework as a Guide in a Research Study The theoretical framework plays an important role in guiding the entire process of the research study  Theories are constructed in order to explain, predict and master phenomena (e.g. relationships, events, or the behavior). In many instances we are constructing models of reality.  A theory makes generalizations about observations and consists of an interrelated, coherent set of ideas and models. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  17. 17. The Use of a Theoretical Framework as a Guide in a Research Study If the framework is logically sound and substantiated by previous research studies, there is a strong possibility that the predictions or hypotheses evolving from that framework will be supported In some cases, a theoretical rationale in inappropriately used. e.g. a theory is designed to explain a particular behavior in infants may not be appropriate for the study of those behaviors in adults Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  18. 18. Formulating the Theoretical Framework Purpose: • It helps the researcher see clearly the variables of the study; • It can provide him with a general framework for data analysis; • It is essential in preparing a research proposal using descriptive and experimental methods. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  19. 19. conceptual framework  A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  20. 20. How to Develop a Theoretical Framework or conceptual framework 1. Select concepts a concept is an image or symbolic representation of an abstract idea. e.g. health, pain, intelligence … 2. Identify the interrelationships among concepts Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  21. 21. How to Develop a Theoretical Framework… 3.Formulating definitions: concepts must be clearly defined A. Conceptual definition: conveys the general meaning of the concept B. Operational definition: adds another dimension to the conceptual definition by delineating the procedures or operations required to measure the concept Some concepts are easily defined in operational terms, e.g. pulse, other concepts are more difficult to define operationally, e.g. coping Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  22. 22. 4. Formulating the theoretical rationale  Through the literature review, an investigator becomes aware of or confirms identified theoretical connections between variables  In evaluating the formulation of the theoretical rationale, the internal structures, such as concepts and their definitions, should have clarity and continuity, and the approach to understanding phenomena, whether inductive or deductive, should be logical Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  23. 23. Contribution of Nursing Theories or Frameworks to Research When developing a theoretical framework for nursing research studies, knowledge is acquired through: Disciplines other than nursing and borrowed for the purpose of answering nursing questions Identifying and asking questions about phenomena that are unique to nursing Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  24. 24. Contribution of Nursing Theories or Frameworks to Research Theories unique to nursing help nursing define how it is different from other disciplines The central phenomena of interest to nursing are persons, environment, health & nursing Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  25. 25. Examples: Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  26. 26. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  27. 27. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  28. 28. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  29. 29. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  30. 30. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  31. 31. Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  32. 32. Thank You Prof.Dr.RS Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS

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