ResearchDiscover new knowledgeSeek answers to questions
“Scientists are rated bywhat they finish, not bywhat they attempt”
Common Research Process                     Chapter 1 - Introduction                                                     F...
IDEAS OF BASIC RESEARCH 1. Scientific World                            2. Theoretical World•Data valid•Data Reliable      ...
Reading        andEvaluating Research                 5
Critique Nursing Studies:• Important questions that are part of intellectual  research critique are:1. What are the major ...
Reading for Understanding•   Choosing an article•   Reading the abstract•   Reading the introduction•   Reading the method...
How to critically review a paper?• What the hypotheses? How many are there?  Are they clearly stated? Is the number tested...
• What methods are used? Are they  appropriate to test the hypotheses? Are the  questionnaires well established? Are they ...
• How did the authors interpret the findings? Do  you agree with them? Are there other  alternative explanations that they...
• Length of critique: no longer than 2 pages                                         11
Guidelines for Critical Analysis of Research        Report: Critiquing Criteria• Read the research study from beginning to...
Statement of the Research Problem &                Purpose:• Is the problem clearly stated to identify the  research varia...
Objective and Hypothesis:•   Are they appropriately expressed?•   Are they linked to research purposes?•   Are the variabl...
Conceptual / Theoretical Framework:• Does the conceptual framework describe and define  the concepts of interest?• Are the...
Operational Definitions:• Are the variables defined on the basis of  previous research or theories?• Is the operational de...
Literature Review:• Are the previous studies related to research  problem identified and described?• Is the current knowle...
Population and Sample:• Are the setting and the population in which  findings to be generalized clearly identified?• Is th...
Research Instruments:• Are all data collection instruments identified?• Is the rationale for selection is given?• Is the m...
Data collection:• Was the instrument pre-tested?• Was the use of statistic appropriate?• Was the level of measurement for ...
Data Analysis and Interpretation:• Are all of the results pertaining each hypothesis  presented?• Are the results presente...
Conclusion, Implications and            Recommendations:• Was it reported whether findings supported /  not supported the ...
Thank You        23
Identification of Research         Problems           R S MEHTA, MSND   24
Title of the Study• Use capital letters and center it on  the page  –Make it specific and self–explanatory in   regard to ...
Research Question/Problem Statement• State clearly how to identify the research  variable(s), population, and setting• Use...
Feasibility / Requirements:• Time, Equipments / Facilities,  Budget, Ethical Issues, Professional  Knowledge, Experiences,...
Scales for Rating Research Topics         (Scale: 1=low, 2=Medium, 3=High)1.   Relevance/Size of the problem2.   Avoidance...
Selecting a Research Design1.   Level of knowledge2.   Nature of the research phenomenon3.   Nature of the research purpos...
Population, Sample &  Sampling Methods
Population vs. Sample1.Population (Universe)     – All items of interest        “What is the difference                   ...
Parameter and Statistic                 An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.”                   Par...
Parameter and Statistic                 An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.”                   Par...
Parameter and Statistic                  An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.”                   Pa...
Parameter and Statistic                  An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.”                   Pa...
Summary of scientific research•   Selection of area                            no need for study•   Selection of topic    ...
Problems in research projects:• Topics : must be one breath• Selection of project without study• No theoretical base to su...
Problems in research projects:• Must read books• Case study: when empirical data not available• Use multiple sources of da...
“There is no way to getexperience except throughexperience.”
Thank you
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Research

  1. 1. ResearchDiscover new knowledgeSeek answers to questions
  2. 2. “Scientists are rated bywhat they finish, not bywhat they attempt”
  3. 3. Common Research Process Chapter 1 - Introduction FORMULATION PHASE Chapter 2 - Literature reviewCyclic and dynamic interation Chapter 3 – Methodology DESIGN AND EXCUTING PHASE Chapter 4 - Data analysis ANALYTICAL PHASE Chapter 5- Discussion Chapter 6- Conclusion References Appendix
  4. 4. IDEAS OF BASIC RESEARCH 1. Scientific World 2. Theoretical World•Data valid•Data Reliable •Social reliability:•Objective Facts,•Generabiligy Field,•Prediction: on basis of data Poverty,•Add to your field: new idea/knowledge Culture. 3. Empirical World •Idea to real •Opposite direction of theoretical world 4
  5. 5. Reading andEvaluating Research 5
  6. 6. Critique Nursing Studies:• Important questions that are part of intellectual research critique are:1. What are the major strengths of the study?2. Major weakness of the study?3. Findings of the study are accurate reflection of reality.4. Significance of the findings for nurses.5. Findings consistence with previous study. 6
  7. 7. Reading for Understanding• Choosing an article• Reading the abstract• Reading the introduction• Reading the method section• Reading the results section• Reading the discussion 7
  8. 8. How to critically review a paper?• What the hypotheses? How many are there? Are they clearly stated? Is the number tested appropriate? Is there a salient central theme of the paper or are they scattered? Are you convinced by the authors of the significance of their topic and questions? 8
  9. 9. • What methods are used? Are they appropriate to test the hypotheses? Are the questionnaires well established? Are they appropriate? Is the subject selection appropriate?• What findings are reported? Do they support the hypotheses? 9
  10. 10. • How did the authors interpret the findings? Do you agree with them? Are there other alternative explanations that they may have missed, and that may threaten the internal validity of their interpretation/conclusion? How could have they done their study differently?• How a scale of 1 to 7 (1=at not all, 4=average, 7=best), how would you rate the 1) overall significance, 2) the presentation clarity, 3) the methodological soundedness? 10
  11. 11. • Length of critique: no longer than 2 pages 11
  12. 12. Guidelines for Critical Analysis of Research Report: Critiquing Criteria• Read the research study from beginning to end in terms of elements of research process and compare each element to the established criteria. Critique the study by giving answers to the following questions raised as follows: 12
  13. 13. Statement of the Research Problem & Purpose:• Is the problem clearly stated to identify the research variables, settings and Populations?• Does the purpose clarify the focus of the problem to be stated?• Are the findings of previous studies/existing literature used to generate the research problem and purpose? 13
  14. 14. Objective and Hypothesis:• Are they appropriately expressed?• Are they linked to research purposes?• Are the variables identified?• Are there uncontrolled variables to confound the findings to the study? 14
  15. 15. Conceptual / Theoretical Framework:• Does the conceptual framework describe and define the concepts of interest?• Are the relationships among variable clearly stated?• Is the model of framework provided for the clarity?• Does the framework reflect all the variables of the study?• Is it consistent with what is being studied? 15
  16. 16. Operational Definitions:• Are the variables defined on the basis of previous research or theories?• Is the operational definition consistent with conceptual definition?Limitations of the study:• Are the biases present in the study identified/ 16
  17. 17. Literature Review:• Are the previous studies related to research problem identified and described?• Is the current knowledge of research problem described?• Are the references current?• Is it organized to demonstrated progressive development of idea through previous research?• Does it provide rationale for the study?• Are primary sources mainly used?• Does it follow the purposes of the study? 17
  18. 18. Population and Sample:• Are the setting and the population in which findings to be generalized clearly identified?• Is the sample representative?• Is sample size sufficiently large?• Is the sample selection procedure clearly described?• Is the human rights protected in carrying out sampling technique? 18
  19. 19. Research Instruments:• Are all data collection instruments identified?• Is the rationale for selection is given?• Is the method used appropriate to the problem being studied?• Does it measure the variables as defined?• Does it describe how it was developed?• Is it reported how the validity and reliability had been established?• Were the observers trained how to use it, if they were used. 19
  20. 20. Data collection:• Was the instrument pre-tested?• Was the use of statistic appropriate?• Was the level of measurement for each variable appropriate/• Are the same phenomena/variables being observed as described in problem instrument?• Where the procedures for data collection adequately described?• Where institutional permission obtained?• Is there enough information present to come into conclusion?• Is the presentation of data adequate and agree with the text? 20
  21. 21. Data Analysis and Interpretation:• Are all of the results pertaining each hypothesis presented?• Are the results presented objectively/• Has the level of significance reported/• Does the table have appropriate heading and precise labels and the figures agree with the text?• Are the results interpreted in the context of ht problem/purpose/hypothesis/theoretical framework? 21
  22. 22. Conclusion, Implications and Recommendations:• Was it reported whether findings supported / not supported the hypothesis?• What generalizations were made?• Was the relevance of research to nursing and other field identified?• Was a recommendation for future research made?• Was it reported what study had validity fro generalization and replication of there study in another research setting? 22
  23. 23. Thank You 23
  24. 24. Identification of Research Problems R S MEHTA, MSND 24
  25. 25. Title of the Study• Use capital letters and center it on the page –Make it specific and self–explanatory in regard to research problem –It must contain: = Problem, Population, Purpose, Place, Time. R S MEHTA, MSND 25
  26. 26. Research Question/Problem Statement• State clearly how to identify the research variable(s), population, and setting• Use literature search to general research problem• Research Variable• Identify all independent and dependent variables R S MEHTA, MSND 26
  27. 27. Feasibility / Requirements:• Time, Equipments / Facilities, Budget, Ethical Issues, Professional Knowledge, Experiences, permission. R S MEHTA, MSND 27
  28. 28. Scales for Rating Research Topics (Scale: 1=low, 2=Medium, 3=High)1. Relevance/Size of the problem2. Avoidance of Duplication3. Urgency4. Political Acceptability5. Feasibility6. Applicability7. Ethical Acceptability R S MEHTA, MSND 28
  29. 29. Selecting a Research Design1. Level of knowledge2. Nature of the research phenomenon3. Nature of the research purpose4. Ethical considerations5. Feasibility6. Validity and availability of data7. Precision8. Cost
  30. 30. Population, Sample & Sampling Methods
  31. 31. Population vs. Sample1.Population (Universe) – All items of interest “What is the difference between sample and2.Sample population?” – Portion chosen from population3.Parameter – Characteristic of a population4.Statistic – Characteristic of a sample
  32. 32. Parameter and Statistic An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.” Parameter Population
  33. 33. Parameter and Statistic An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.” Parameter Population Sample
  34. 34. Parameter and Statistic An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.” Parameter Population“The mean height of Mrs. Jones’tenth graders is 60 inches.” Statistic Sample
  35. 35. Parameter and Statistic An Example“The mean height of all 10thgraders is 60 inches.” Parameter Population“The mean height of Mrs. Jones’tenth graders is 60 inches.” Statistic Sample
  36. 36. Summary of scientific research• Selection of area no need for study• Selection of topic answer found• Crude research question literature review•• no answer• Refined research question• Research hypothesis, goals and objectives• Study design ethical issue• Population & sampling• Variables confounding bias• Research tools• Pilot study• Work plan• Collection of data• Data management• Interpretation• Reporting
  37. 37. Problems in research projects:• Topics : must be one breath• Selection of project without study• No theoretical base to support empirical data• Conceptual frame work not clear• Objective maximum three• Title must be like dani ( bamboo stick for paddy removal using oxes)• Objectives moves round the title• Methodology to achieve objectives• Conceptually and theoretically clear 37
  38. 38. Problems in research projects:• Must read books• Case study: when empirical data not available• Use multiple sources of data for validity• Include advanced development in field• Visit library, book shops regularly• Find more original articles• In literature : Killing many darlings• Basis of conceptual frame work: Literature, Theories, Experiences & Focus of research.• Use triangulation methods of data collection: qualitative, quantitative and both. 38
  39. 39. “There is no way to getexperience except throughexperience.”
  40. 40. Thank you
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