Knowledge about hiv aids among nurses [compatibility mode]
Knowledge about HIV Infection andAttitude towards People Living withHIV/AIDS among the Nurses Working in BPKIHS Mehta RS, Karki P, Rijal S B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
Introduction Everybody is atrisk of getting HIV. However certainPersons have high risk.
Some Facts about HIV/AIDS• 4th biggest killer world wide• More than 95 % cases in low & middle income countries• Symptom free period up to 10 years or More• HIV transmission is 10 times more on STIs• ART Cost: very expensive
• About 1/3 are aged 15-24 years• Most people do not know they are infected• Gravity of Different mode of Transmission: * Sexual intercourse = 80-90 % * Blood Transfusion = 3-15 % * Injecting Drug users = 5 -10 % * Equipments/Needles = < 0.1 % * Perinatal = 0.1%
HIV positive to AIDS – 33 % = Only develop AIDS – 64 % = Till death live without Symptoms – 5-10- 20 yrs = A symptomaticConcentrated epidemic:Sex workers (4%), Migrant Population (4-10%) & IVDUs(51%)
No of Reported Cases ( HIV Infection)1st case in Nepal --July 1988Since then increasing1988 - 41992 - 771996 - 1352000 - 7002004 - 44422007 - 10546 Dec.15th
Objectives:The main objective of this studywas to find out the knowledgeabout HIV infection and explorethe attitude of nurses towards thePLWHA working in BPKIHS.
Research Design and Methodology:• Descriptive cross-sectional study• Conducted among the nurses (Staff Nurses & ANMs)• Using stratified random sampling method the wards were selected• Using population proportionate method the nurses were selected
• Total 60 nurses were involved in the study out of 240 nurses• The nurses working in Psychiatric and Maternity units were excluded from the study.• The data was collected during the first week of October 2007.• The collected data was entered in SPSS software package and analyzed.
Results:Demographic profile of the subjects:• Out of 60 nurses 60 % were below 25 years and only 8.3% were of age group of 30-35 Years.• The mean age was 24.8 years with SD 3.88 and range 20-35 years.
• Majority of them (91.7%) were Hindu, Staff Nurses (78.3%), Unmarried (63.3%), from villages (71.7%), cared the admitted AIDS patients in ward(68.3%), not taken HIV/AIDS training previously (100%), and belongs to Sunsari(25%), Morang (15%) and Kathmandu (10%) districts.
Table-IKnowledge Profile of the Subjects about HIV/AIDS (n=60)SN Knowledge Profile about HIV/AIDS Percentage Score1 What is AIDS? a. Life threatening disease 61.7 b. Preventable disease 11.7 c. Contagious disease 16.7 d. I do not know 102 Causes of AIDS a. Bacteria 13.3 b. HIV virus 86.7 c. Mosquito 0 d. I do not know 0
Table-I (continue)3 Risk of getting HIV/AIDS A. High risk 70 b. May be 28.3 c. No risk 1.74 Cared the Patients with AIDS a. Yes ( Cared) 68.3 b. No ( Not Cared) 37.7
5 HIV infection is diagnosed by blood test 806 Knowledge about confirmation of by lab test a. Yes 45 b. No 28.3 c. Do not know/Not sure 26.77 HIV virus is found in a. Saliva and tears 8.3 b. Blood 83.7 c. Semen/Vaginal Secretion 76.78 T-Lymphocytes damaged by HIV virus 68.39 HIV/AIDS is a communicable disease a. yes (communicable) 78.3 b. No (non-communicable) 10 c. Do not know 11.7
Ways of Transmission of HIV/AIDSa. shaking hands, hugging, kissing 30b. Eating from same plate 13.3c. If one is transfused with HIV positive blood. 90d. Making tattoos on the body 58.3e. Children born to HIV infected mothers 75f. By the bite of mosquito 25g. Using common syringes 78.3h. Sharing utensils and clothes 21.7
11 Symptoms of HIV/AIDS a. Anorexia/Wt. Loss 90 b. Fatigue/Weakness 70 c. Pain 6.7 d. Shortness of Breath 26.7 e. Nausea/Vomiting 20 f. Cough 26.7 g. Anxiety/Depression 55 h. Skin Breakdown 15 i. Diarrhoea 80 j. Confusion/Dementia 8.3 k. Constipation 20 l. Fever 2512 HIV virus survive in body fluids inside living human body 63.313 HIV/AIDS is a curable disease 8.3
Table- II Knowledge about prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS (n=60) PercentageSN Knowledge Profile (+ Responses) Score (%)1 Applying the principles of Universal Precautions 98.32 Use and administer blood and blood products only after 86.7 screening3 Not touching the infected person 18.34 Not sharing the needles, razors and blades 905 Not to conceive if one has HIV/AIDS 756 Practice safe sex 91.7
7 Be faithful to the partners 808 Heared about the term highly active anti-retroviral 36.7 therapy ( HAART) ( yes)9 AIDS patients are more prone to develop opportunistic 60 illness ( yes)10 Vaccine is available against HIV (yes) 2511 Knowledge about post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) 4512 Bleaching/Chlorine is used to clean blood spillage on 80 surface ( Yes)13 Linen of AIDS patients should be send to laundry only after 73.3 disinfection on in chlorine/bleaching (yes)14 Using condom during sex 98.315 Having no sexual relationship with multiple partners 91.7
16 Having sex with single faithful husband and wife 9517 Avoiding homosexual activities 86.718 Not having sex with commercial sex workers 83.319 Receiving safe blood transfusion 10020 Using of disposable or sterilized syringe only 96.721 Avoid to use common syringe by intravenous drug abuser 96.7
Table- III Extent of knowledge about HIV/AIDS Related services available at BPKIHS (n=60)SN Knowledge Profile Percentage Score1 VCT services a. Adequate 8.3 b. Inadequate 15 c. Not at all 76.72 PMTCT services a. Adequate 13.3 b. Inadequate 13.3 c. Not at all 73.43 ART services a. Adequate 8.3 b. Inadequate 10 c. Not at all 81.7
4 STIs/IDCs/OIs clinics a. Adequate 11.7 b. Inadequate 16.7 c. Not at all 71.75 CD -4 count test a. Adequate 13.3 b. Inadequate 11.7 c. Not at all 756 HIV test a. Adequate 53.3 b. Inadequate 25 c. Not at all 21.7
7 ART Drug availability a. Adequate 21.7 b. Inadequate 23.3 c. Not at all 558 PEP services a. Adequate 15 b. Inadequate 26.7 c. Not at all 58.39 Infection control protocol of BPKIHS a. Adequate 36.7 b. Inadequate 28.3 c. Not at all 35
Table – IVAttitude among the nurses towards People Living with AIDS (P=positive & N=negative) (n=60) Uncertain Disagree Disagree Strongly Strongly Agree AgreeS (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) AttitudeN1 AIDS is caused by curse of God. (N) 3.3 5 1.7 11.7 783.2 Person affected should not be allowed to stay in community. (N) 5 5 3.3 21.7 653 All the young people / students should know about HIV/AIDS infection. (P) 60 28.3 1.7 3.3 6.7
4 It is alright for women and men to have premarital sexual relation. (N) 5 15 16.7 33.3 305 If one of my friends gets AIDS I shall continue my normal social relationship 43.3 48.3 17 1.7 5 with here or her. (P)6 Health education is necessary for woman and men to have safe sex. (P) 58.3 25 5 1.7 107 AIDS is real treat of human population. 6.7 26.7 18.3 16.7 31.7 (N)8 Knowing there is no cure for AIDS this is no point in caring for AIDS patients. (N) 6.7 11.7 10 36.7 359 It is not good for married men and woman to have extra marital sexual 45 20 3.3 15 16.7 relationship. (P)10 AIDS awareness is one of the important advices of parents for their children. (P) 55 33.3 3.3 1.7 6.7
11 AIDS patient need live, support and 66.7 30 0 0 3.3 affection. (P)12 Suggest AIDS suspected friends for 61.7 30 3.3 0 5 testing his or her blood. (P)13 Peer group discussion about HIV/AIDS is more effective for its prevention. (P) 53.3 41.7 1.7 0 3.314 Open discussion about HIV/AIDS prevention can be done among 47.6 45 1.7 0 6.7 siblings. (P)15 Major responsibility of adolescents is to participate in HIV/AIDS prevention 56.7 35 1.7 0 6.7 programme to being community awareness to control HIV/AIDS. (P)16 If one of my family members gets AIDS 63.3 31.7 0 0 5 I will be ready to care him / her. (P)17 A person of any age, race, sex or occupation can contract HIV/AIDS. (P) 40 41.7 1.7 8.3 8.318 We should not tell others if one has 10 16.7 6.7 43.3 23.3 HIV/AIDS. (N)
19 Individuals with HIV/AIDS infection must be treated with love and belonging. (P) 48.3 38.3 5 1.7 6.720 Individuals with HIV/AIDS infection must be assessed for any potential 35 48.3 8.3 1.7 6.7 infection (P)21 HIV/AIDS patient should be treated properly. (P) 41.7 41.7 5 5 6.722 I feel that, counseling plays an important role for an HIV/AIDS infected clients. (P) 55 31.7 0 53 8.323 I am willing to assist with the delivery of a baby born to a mother with HIV/AIDS. 33.3 48.3 6.7 5 6.7 (P)24 I am willing to assist an operation on a patient with HIV/AIDS. (P) 35 51.7 5 3.3 5
Conclusion:• On the basis of findings, we can conclude that there is not adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its pathogenesis.• Only few nurses were aware about the HIV/AIDS services available at BPKIHS like: VCT, PMTCT, ART, HIV testing, CD-4 count, Counseling and other services.• Regarding the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS they have not sufficient knowledge.
• There is negative attitude among few nurses regarding HIV/AIDS may be due to inadequate knowledge related to HIV/AIDS.• Hence, continuous in-service education on HIV/AIDS management and care for nurses working in BPKIHS is very urgency.
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